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A Life Cycle Assessment of a Li-ion urban electric vehicle battery

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This study presents an approach on the life cycle assessment and environmental impact of lithium-ion batteries for electric vehicles, specially the iron phosphate technology based battery (LFP), through evaluating the different stages in the whole life of the battery starting with the manufacturing stage and then proceeding with the evaluation of its use in Spain until reaching the end-of-life stage, when the battery cannot continue offering a service in the electromobility sector (the actual capacity is under the 80% of the initial one). In this context, different end of life scenarios are considered in order to examine the feasibility of a second hand use for the already-worn battery that consists of reducing its environmental impact by extending the life of the battery in less stressful conditions to ensure the lower effect of the degradation. To this end, the various utilities in the life cycle of this battery are examined with the help of the SimaPro software simulation tool in order to quantitatively assess the potential benefits from an environmental point of view.
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EVS27 Internationa l Battery, Hybrid and Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle Symposium 1
EVS27
Barcelona, Spain, November 17-20, 2013
A Life Cycle Assessment of a Li-ion urban electric vehicle
battery
Konstantinos N. Genikomsakis1, Christos S. Ioakimidis2, Alberto Murillo3, Atanaska
Trifonova4, Dragan Simic4
1DeustoTech, Energy Unit, University of Deusto, Avda. de las Universidades, 24 - 48007 Bilbao, Spain
kostas.genikomsakis@deusto.es
2DeustoTech, Energy Unit, University of Deusto, Department of Industrial Technologies, Avda. de las Universidades,
24 - 48007 Bilbao, Spain, christos.ioakimidis@deusto.es
3University of Deusto, Department of Informatics and Industrial Organisation, Avda. de las Universidades, 24 - 48007
Bilbao, Spain, 1almuril@opendeusto.es
4Mobility Department, Electric Drive Technologies Unit, Austrian Institute of Technology (AIT), Giefinggasse 2, 1210,
Vienna, Austria, {atanaska.trifonova, dragan.simic}@ait.ac.at
Abstract
This study presents an approach on the life cycle assessment and environmental impact of lithium-ion
batteries for electric vehicles, specially the iron phosphate technology based battery (LFP), through
evaluating the different stages in the whole life of the battery st arting with the manufacturing stage and
then proceeding with the evaluation of its use in Spain until reaching the end-of-life stage, when the battery
cannot continue offering a service in the electromobility se ctor (the actual capacity is under the 80% of the
initial one). In this context, diffe rent end of life scenarios are considered in order to examine the feasibility
of a second hand use for the alread y-worn battery that consists of reducing its environmental impact by
extending the life of the battery in less stressful conditions to ensure the lower effect of the degradation. To
this end, the various utilities in the life cycle of this battery are examined with the help of the SimaPro
software simulation t ool in order to quantitatively assess the potenti al benefits from an envi ronmental point
of view.
Keywords: battery electric vehicle, energy storage, environment, Life Cycle Assessment, Spain
1 Introduction
The key factors that are typicall y taken into
account for electric vehicles (EVs) operating in
an urban regime include the battery performance
characteristics, the most obvious of which are its
life cycle and efficiency. Life cycle means how
long the duration of the car use is, and in this
case, the longer the better. In this way the
investment will be highl y amortized, in ot her
words, the initial investment of these vehicles is
directl y relate d to the total cost during its utility
life [1]. Their efficiency is also a key factor to
maximize, therefore the electricity consumed to
charge the batte ry is only the one needed for the
whole process, trying not to lose it during its
operational life, so the costs are reduced too [2].
Primary results reveal that an internal combustion
engine (ICE) vehi cle produces 62,866 kg CO2
equivalents, a battery ele ctric vehicle (BEV)
produces 33,357 kg CO2 equivalents, and a hybrid
one produces 40,773 kg CO2 equivalents (Fig.1a)
EVS27 Internationa l Battery, Hybrid and Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle Symposium 2
[3]. For all t hree vehicle t ypes, the use phase
contributes the most CO2 equivalents emissions,
but it is i mportant to stand out that in the case of
the BEV, the use refers only to the emissions
released by the production of the electricity that
the car is going to need during its lifetime, and
not the ones released by the car itself, which are
zero. The use phase is responsible for 96% of
ICE emissions, 91% of hybrid emissions, and
70% of BEV emissions. Battery manufacturing
accounts for 24% of the BEV’s lifecycle
emissions, but only 3% of hybrid’s lifecycle
emissions. Finally, it is concluded that a BEV
produces the lowest amount of emissions and is
therefore the best in terms of environmental
impacts overall.
It is important to know that when the battery
packs in lithium-ion-powered vehicles are no
longer useful for driving, they still have up to 80
percent of their storage capability left. So before
they ever get to a recycling center, these batteries
are reused and there are very good reasons for
this: First of all because there is still a lot of
energy storage in the m with plenty of pote ntial,
and se condly because the cost of the batteries
will be reduced a lot, as when they are no longer
available for cars, they can be resold for other
purposes [4]. There are several ways of re using
the Li-ion batteries which are no longer suitable
for our urban electric cars, and there are much
more whi ch are only under development, as we
are talking about a technology which has been
recently released. In this paper we focus on one
of these ways of reusing the batteries be fore
which is, in fact, a very important one: the
storage of renewable energy from the sun,
specifically of the electricity generated by solar
photovoltaic (PV) panels stored by our second
hand battery and then used when it is needed. This
leads us to a very interesting product life cycle as
seen in Fig.1b.
2 Parameters Settings for EVs in
the City of Bilbao
Bilbao is a city in the north of Spain with an
oceanic warm climate, which me ans that it has no
temperature peaks with an average temperature of
15-16 °C, and this in turn implies a very good
place for batteries and its operating temperature
requirements [5]. As EVs are to be used in the
urban part of the city of Bilbao, urban routes are
mainly slow and not long distances. This means
that we do not need strictly neither a fast charging
time nor a slow discharge time. Taking all those
variables into account that are presented more in
detail in Table 1, where a comparison of different
battery types is made, we have chosen the Li-ion
LT-LFP battery to be further examined, which
contains a Li4Ti5O12 anode and LiFePO4 cathode
and most importantly, it is the type that be st fulfils
all the necessary requirements mentione d above
for the urban EVs in the city of Bilbao [6].
3 LCA Methodology
As already pointed out, the main objecti ve of this
work is to present a life cycle assessment study
about the environmental burden of a Li-ion battery.
The ste ps followed for the purposes of this study
are:
1) Definition of the aim and scope of the study.
a)
b)
Figure1 : (a) CO2 waste produced in the different stages of Current Vehicle (ICE), Battery Electric Vehicles (BEV)
and Hybrid ElectricVehicles (HEV) and (b) the proposed LCA model for the LT-LFP battery
EVS27 Internationa l Battery, Hybrid and Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle Symposium 3
Ta ble1: Potential batteries for Urban Electric Vehicles (EV) and their comparison
Type
Open
circuit
voltage
Specific
energy
Operating
temperature
time
Self-discharge
@20ºC
Cycle
life
Ene rgy
efficiency
[V]
[Wh/kg]
[ºC]
[%/month]
[Deep
cycles]
[%]
Na-S
2.1
150-240
300-350
-
3000
-
ZEBRA
2.6
95-120
300-350
Ne gligi ble
4000
75-90
LCB
2.1
25-40
- 40-60
Ne gligi ble
3000
75-90
LT-LFP
1.7
50-70
- 25-40
2
4000
94-99
2) Development of a model for the product life
cycle with all the environmental inflows and
outflows. This data collecti on process is
usually referred to as the life cycle inventory
(LCI) stage.
3) Understanding the environmental relevance
of all the inflows and outflows; this is
referred to as the life cycle impact
assessment (LCIA) phase.
4) Interpretation of the study.
This is t he main technique used in LCA studies
to generate a model. In the first stage, the
inventory phase, the model is created simulating
the complex technical system that is used to
produce, transport, use and dispose of a product,
in this case the Li-ion battery. This results in a
flow sheet or process tree with all the relevant
processes.
For each process, all the relevant inflows and the
outflows are introduced and inte rconnected. The
final result consists of a very long list of all the
different inflows and outflows that is often
difficult to interpret.
In the life cycle impact assessment phase, a
completely different model is used to describe
the relevance of inflows and outflows, making
easier the understanding of how the processes are
interconnected.
For this, a model of an environmental mechani sm
is used and once the model is completed with the
inputs and outputs, each of these flows is
analysed in an environmental sense to make
possible a study about the different factors that
harms the environment. By using several
environmental mechanisms, the LCI result can be
tran slated into a number of impact categories,
which later will provide the information required
for developing the Life cycle impact assessment
that ends wit h the interpretation of the results.
4 LCA Study of the Battery
4.1 Aims and scope of the study
The aim of this work is not onl y to conduct a study
on the environmental burdens of the ne w Li-ion
battery technologies, but also to examine the
potential environmental benefits from reutilizing
an electric vehicle battery pack for a second life
application, by evaluating di fferent alternatives for
this second use in order to achieve the best
environmental profit possible.
The SimaPro software tool is selected for
conducting this LCA study. Specifically, the study
starts from the manufacturing process of the
lithium battery selected, which is in this case the
lithium iron phosphate battery, to evaluate the
burdens of this stage. Next, the use phase of the
battery is considered by analyzing the impact of
utilizing an electric car in a Spanish city, i.e.
Bilbao, and then alternative end-of-life scenarios
are examined to dete rmine the most beneficial
solution for this st age.
Considering that this is study to evaluate the
combine d use of the battery in electromobility and
in smart building applications, the functional unit
to chose n analyse the results is the time factor,
given t hat it is common on both applications.
4.2 Manufacturing process
The lithium battery is a complex device consisting
of several parts that are assembled together. The
most determinant part of a battery is the cell, but
equally important is the battery management
system which allows the proper operation of the
device in order to limit the risk of this technology.
For this study, the manufacturing process of the
cell is divided into its component parts, the most
important of which include the cathode, anode,
electrolyte and separator. The diagram in Fig.2
shows the main parts of the battery that are
analyzed in the context of this work, along with the
EVS27 Internationa l Battery, Hybrid and Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle Symposium 4
materials used in each of these parts. The most
important element is the cathode, whi ch
determines the operation of the device and it also
gives the name of the technology of the battery
and thus it is analyzed in detail below.
4.2.1 Cathode manufacture
The information for the mate rials and processes
required for the manufacturing process of this
lithium iron phosphate cathode are mainly based
in the work already done in this field [7].
The production of the cathode explains how to
get the electrode paste used for the coating of the
cathode and also how to obtain the substrate of
the cathode based on aluminium. Here the
cathode is divided e xplaining those parts
separated.
First the manufacturing processes and the
components of the electrode paste are presented,
the main components are a binder substance ( 5-
10% of the total paste), carbon black in order to
get a better conductivity (4-10% of the total
paste), lithi um iron phosphate which will be
presented later and also an electrochemically
acti ve materi al.
It is important to mention that all these
components present an oxidized state and are not
submitted to high energy processes during
manufacturing, for reducing them to the metallic
form. Then the materials chosen for the different
components are clarified.
For the selection of the binder material, different
options have been tested, s uch as the
polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF), the acrylonitrile-
methyl methacrylate (AMMA) and the
polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE). In the case of the
solvent used to obtain the slurry texture desired,
the N-Methylpyrrolidinone (NMP) is the materi al
selected. This substance will be evaporated in the
mixing process with the substrate.
The electrode substrate is a metal foil with a main
composition of aluminium mixed with othe r
metals. This metal foil is very thin (1520 μm) and
is utilized as the current collector and gives
physical support for being late r coated with the
paste explained above. Given that the authors in
[7] provide no data for the manufacturing process
of this part of the cathode, it is assumed that it is
similar to the “sheet rolling” process, which is
registered in the Ecoinvent database.
In the production of the lithium iron phosphate
(LiFePO4), there are different paths that can be
foll owe d, such as solid state reaction at high
temperature, hydrothermal synthesis,
mechanochemical activation process or co-
precipitation in an aqueous medium. The
hydrothermal option is chosen for t he purposes of
this work.
The process of the production of this compound
begins with the reaction of the iron sulfate salt
(FeSO4 x 7H2O) with lithium hydroxide (LiOH)
and phosphoric acid (H3PO4). It takes place in a
water medium inside a hermetic reactor at a
temperature ranging between 150-250 °C, and it is
maintained about 5 hours.
Figure2: Manufacturing diagram of the LFP battery
EVS27 Internationa l Battery, Hybrid and Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle Symposium 5
Figure3: Diagram for the production of lithium iron
phosphate
After this process, the LiFePO4 precipitates and
is picke d up by a suction filter and is later dried
for 5 hours at a constant temperature of 60 °C.
4.3 Use phase
The electric car and thus the battery is used in a
city in Bilbao, therefore the ene rgy sources are
determinant factors for the final result of the
study, in this use stage, what is being evaluated is
the environmental impact of the production of all
the electricity required for the use of the battery
inside a car during all its lifespan.
Depending on t he ele ctricity mix where the car is
going to be utilized, the results can suffer from
high variations, so it is important to clarify first
that the use phase of the vehicle is considered to
be in Spain, so for the calculation of the impacts
of the production of the electricity, the Spanish
energy mix is taken into account.
To this end, this section presents the energy mix
of the electricity grid in S pain and also explains
which factors can be determinant when
modelling the impacts generated by the
electricity production in this phase.
There are many factors that determine the
influe nce from the energy mix and they cannot
be precisely estimated. In spite of this fact, there
are some factor related with predictable
situations, such as the country where the battery
is being charged, the month (there are high
vari ations depending on the season of the ye ar)
or even the time in the day.
These variations that the energy demand presents
can be seen in the apparition of peaks in the
consumption at determinate periods. According
to some studies, in summer the demand lowers at
night be cause all busine ss are closed, the air
conditioning systems are not working and the
lights are off, whereas a peak in the consumption
often appears during the afternoon hours, which
is mainly attributed to the high use of air
conditioning systems [8].
The demand is not constant, there are continuous
variati ons and thus the load is very time-depended.
This leads to the use of low cost gen-sets to satisfy
first the baseload demand (that can be easily
forecasted) and then more expensive energy
sources are engaged to cover the rest of t he
demand. In addition, not all the different
generation units can be used and detained upon
demand, because some of the technologies are not
flexible enough to respond fast the short-term
variati ons in the demand. For example, this is the
case of the nuclear power plants, which produce
energy with a more regular output and is more
difficult to adapt it to the fluctuations of the
demand. Indicatively, Fig.4 shows the distribution
of different technology power plants in Spain.
4.3.1 Use phase model
This section presents in detail the specific data
used for modelling the use phase of the battery.
Table 2 summarizes the required data and the m ain
assumption made for the different dete rminant
aspects that are considered in this model.
Figure4: Distribution of the power plants in Spain
(without geothermal, waste and wind) [9]
Ta ble2: Specifications and assumptions taken for the
modelling of the use phase
Battery
24 kWh
Efficiency
80%
Autonomy (km)
100
Driving schedule
55% urban,
45% highway
Consumption ( W-h/km)
170
Cycles
2500
Dail y distance covered (km)
40
Weight of the battery (kg)
258
Total weight of the car
including the battery (kg)
1317
Frequency of use
365 days per year
EVS27 Internationa l Battery, Hybrid and Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle Symposium 6
From the data presented in Table 2, there are
some values that need to be explained. First of
all, the consumption of 0,17 kWh/km includes
the losses of electricity due to the charging and
discharging efficiency as well as the internal
efficiency of the battery. To calculate the amount
of ele ctricity required for the use phase of the
car, it is further considered that he car travels 40
km on a daily basis for a total of 2500 days. In
this case the total consumption is 0.17 kWh/km *
40 km/day * 2500 days = 17000kWh.
This value of 17000kWh refers to the tot al
amount of energy requi red for the use phase of
the car during 7 years covering 100.000 km.
Howeve r, the losses of energy due to the weight
of the battery should also be included. The
additional electricity required for carrying this
extra weight of the battery is equal to (258 kg of
battery) * 30% * 0.17 kWh/km * 100.000
km/(1317 kg of total car weight) = 999 kWh.
4.4 Second Life Application
This sub-secti on presents an alternative scenario
for the end of life of the battery. Instead of
landfilling the battery when it is not considered
suitable for electromobility purposes (under the
80% of the initial capacity), an alternative second
use unde r lower stress conditions is considered in
order to guarantee the “health” of the battery
with lower degradation.
The degradation is the main factor which
determines the feasibility of having a second use
for a battery that is already worn, because if the
degradation is too high, it will not be useful due
to the progressive loss of capacity in the battery.
Since batteries were introduced, it is known that
the ones made with lithium based chemistries are
able to support a constant use of more than 1200
cycles and even thousands of cycles if the use is
at a low depth of discharge (DoD). It is a very
important point because it guarantees the user
that the degradation due to the constant use of the
battery is not going to be high, but it is not the
only important thing when evaluating the life and
conditions of a battery.
Apart from the long cycle life, the calendar life
of the battery is also very important. The
calendar life is the expected durability of the
battery, which is independent from the other
variables of the battery and is related with the
internal chemistry of the device. Once the
calendar life of the battery is reached, it means
that it will not work anymore and thus it will not
allow its use for second life applications. A long
calendar life is thus very important for some
applications, such as electromobility (it is expected
to be used at least 7 years in an electric vehicle),
and even more if it will be reutilized in second life
applications [10].
In addition to the calendar life and cycling, there
are other variables determining the capacity fade
of the lithium batteries, the most important ones
are the working temperature and the cell voltage.
The capacity loss is also related with the increase
in the impedance, which is traduced into a loss of
power and loss of lithi um due to the SEI, which is
the loss of lithium to the solid-electrolyte
interphase. This process tends to appear in the
negative electrode (graphite anode) during the
recharging of the battery. This coat initially
protects the electrode against solvent
decomposition when high negative voltages are
applied, but eventuall y it leads to a progressive
loss in the capacity of the battery due to the
thickening of the SEI layer [11].
The progressive loss of lithium in the ne gative
electrode, due to its deposition into a film over the
anode, can be determined by a parabolic function
describing the loss of capacity over time.
Otherwise, the degradation of the cathode leads to
a loss of capacity and impedance growth which
can be determined with a linear function. The loss
of lithium is described by a parabolic function,
with capacit y loss decre asing with time, while
positive ele ctrode degradation causes a line ar loss
of capacity and impedance growth.
4.4.1 Description of the second life
applic ation study
According to some studies on this field, the
average lifespan of the lithium battery pack is
considered to be between 500 and 3000 cycles.
Given that the technology considered for this study
is the Lithium iron phosphate battery (LMP), it is
estimated that a battery formed by cells based on
this technology is able to support at least 2000 -
2500 cycles when it is used for electromobility
purposes. It guarantees the daily use of the battery
for a cycle of charge and discharge during more or
less 7 years with a residual capacity after this use
(80% of the initial capacity of the battery), which
allows its use for another 1000-2000 cycles until
the capacity fades to the 60% of the initial
capacity, when the aging process of the battery i s
so advanced that the voltage drops does not allow
the use of the batte ry anymore [12].
For this study, the life expectancy chosen under an
optimistic posture for the cells of a battery is 2500,
meaning that once all these cycles have been
completed, the resultant capacity of the cells is
EVS27 Internationa l Battery, Hybrid and Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle Symposium 7
reduced to the 80% of the initial capacity (from
the initial 30Ah to 24Ah).
This barrier is considered to be the end of life of
a battery for electromobility purposes. Even
though the battery could conti nue offering a
service, once this limit is excee ded the
degradation increases exponentially until
reaching the 60% of the initial capacity, when the
battery stops working.
When a batte ry has reached the point of 80% of
its initial capacity, there are different alternatives
to consider for the end-of-life applications of this
device. The most common thing is landfilling the
batteries in a proper place in order to avoid the
environmental impact that these residues cause,
while another emergi ng alternative is the
recycling of these devices. Recycling of these
lithium-based batteries is very important in order
to lower their environmental impact, because a
wide adoption of EVs is expected in the not-so-
distant future and each one will be equipped with
one of those batteries. Despite of this, the
problem is that these ne w recycling techniques
are still under development and it is necessary to
improve the te chniques available now in the
market to make the recycling possible and
rentable.
There fore, the last alternative considered is the
reutilization of the lithium-ion batteries when
they have achieved the end of life for being used
in electric vehicles. For the purposes of this
work, the alternative chose n for the second life
use is to reuse the battery as a storage unit for
smart buildings considering that the source of the
energy is photovoltaic.
Depending on t he energy requirements of the
building, it is likely that more than one battery is
required; the mai n idea of the second life
application for these batteries is to store energy
obtained from renewables to supply energy to the
building as a complement to the energy obtained
from the grid.
As already pointed out, the aim of this study is to
evaluate the environmental impact of the primary
use of the battery and the potential benefits in
environmental terms from the second life
application, and thus the consi deration of the
economic profit from extending the useful life of
the battery is beyond the scope of this paper.
According to the assumptions made in the
context of this work, the degradation of the
battery would allow up to 2000 cycles of use in
the range between the 80 and 60 percent of its
initial capacity, and thus the model of the
following sub-section is used to evaluate the
savings from utilizing a number of 1500 battery
cycles (moderate posture) for the second life
application.
4.4.2 Second life model
This second life application for the battery, is
modelled as a second use phase for the device. In
the first use phase, several factors were taken into
account, including the internal efficiency of the
battery, the energy loss due to the weight of the
battery and also the charging and discharging
efficiency of the EV.
The second use stage consists of the development
of a stationary service by storing energy and
supplying this energy whenever it is required and
hence, the weight of the battery is not considered.
On the other hand, the efficiency of the battery
should be take n into account, assuming that the
first use and the degradation of the cells lower the
efficiency rate of the battery; the initial efficiency
considered was 80% and for this second use it is
reduced by 5% to have a final efficiency of 75%.
Other i mportant issues for the model of the battery
are the power and energy requirements that the
battery fulfils, the estimations for this second life
use are given by the statistics of the average
consumption per home in Spain in 2010 [13].
From these dat a, a daily consumption of 10kWh is
considered for a period of 1500 days, which is
equivalent to four years.
The model presented i s not formed only by the
information given above about the consumption of
the battery. This part of the model determines the
environmental harm that the smart building
application generates. Equally important, this work
presents the savings from reutilizing a battery in
contrast to the environmental impact that
manufacturing a new battery for the same purpose
has. Therefore, the manufacturing effort for
constructing a smaller battery based on the same
technology in order to meet the smart building
requirements is evaluated too.
As the smaller battery has the same technology as
the one utilized in the electric vehicle, the weight
of this battery is calculated based on the same
energy de nsity of the former battery. The value of
the energy density is 93 W/kg [14] and the
requirement is 10 kWh. However, a 15kWh bat tery
is finally modelled in order to guarantee that the
degradation will not prevent the batte ry from
supplying less than 10 kWh during 1500 cycles.
This selection also serves as a means of balancing
the act ual capacities of the new and used batteries
in the scenarios considere d. As a result of this, t he
weight of this devi ce is assumed to be 161.3 kg.
EVS27 Internationa l Battery, Hybrid and Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle Symposium 8
5 Scenarios and Results
Three alternative scenarios are examine d for the
purpose s of this study. The base scenario chosen
for the use of the lithium-ion battery consists of 4
steps, namely the manufacturing stage of the
battery, the use phase, t he disposal once the
battery has reached the end of life (considering
the case of treatment of incineration and then
landfilling of the leftover residues) and the
second use (of the batte ry replaced by a new one
with the same specifications for another 1500
cycles).
The othe r two scenarios consider the application
of the battery in smart buildings for storing the
energy generated by renewables, specifically
from the photovoltaic. The first one shares the
same structure with the base scenario until the
disposal of the battery, with the difference that a
new smaller battery of 15 kWh energy capacity is
manufactured to meet the requirements for
storing the energy from the renewables and thus
supply this energy for 1500 cycles to the smart
building.
The last scenario considers the following steps:
manufacturing process of the initial battery, use
phase in the context of electromobility for 2500
cycles (80% of the initial capacity), second life
application to the smart building unit for another
1500 cycles until the capacity fade does not
allow more uses (decrease of the capacity up to
60% of the initial capacity of the battery) and
finally the disposal with the same treatment as it
was done in the other two scenarios.
Figure5: Equivalent CO2 in percentage
Fi g. 5 shows the results obtained from the models
with the global warming indicator whi ch evaluates
the environmental impact for 20 years. This result
is given as a percentage in comparison to the
scenario with the higher value, whi ch is the base
scenario with 30100 kg CO2 equivalent.
Specifically, the result obtained for the se cond life
scenario (based on the utilization of a newer
battery) is 9,63% lower than the base scenario, and
the other second life scenario (based on the
reutilization of the battery) is 16,3% lower.
In addition, these three scenarios are not only
evaluated with the GWP indicator, but also with
the Eco-indicator 99 that evaluates the impacts per
different cate gories, as shown in Fig.6.
Figure6: Comparison of impact per category for the three scenarios
EVS27 Internationa l Battery, Hybrid and Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle Symposium 9
Figure7: Comparison between the three scenarios with Eco-indicator 99
Fig.6 shows the analyti cal damage assessment
results obtained from the Eco-indicator 99. The
yellow column represe nts t he base scenario,
indicating that this scenario has the hi ghest score
out of the three different scenarios in all the
categories evaluated. The green column re fers to
the second scenario presented, the results for this
scenario show that there is an environmental
benefit against the base scenario, as it is
expected. Alternatively, if the second scenario is
compared with the third one (re d column), which
considers the reutilization of the same battery,
the impact for the second scenario is higher in all
the cate gories evaluated. Moreover, the highest
diffe rences between these two scenarios appear
in the categories of Ozone layer, Minerals and
Land use.
Eco-indicator 99 also gives a single score by
integrating all the results from all the different
categories, as shown in Fig.7.
This final result, which evaluates all the
cate gories arranged in a single score, proves the
feasibility of utilizing the battery for a se cond life
application, in contrast t o the base scenario of
constructing a small battery for the same
purpose . The base scenario presents the higher
environmental impact, while the third scenario
(reutilizing the EV battery) h as a lower impact by
22.8%.
6 Conclusions
According to the results obtained in the study, it
can be asserted that the possibility of reutilizing
worn batteries from EVs in smart buildings is
beneficial for lowering the environmental impact
of this technology. The results indicate that there
is significant environmental benefit from the smart
building appli cation over the use of the battery in
an EV for the same time frame (with the
consequent replacement of the battery).
The functional unit employed is based on the
factor of time, as it is the common variable in all
the scenarios. T he time frame is 4000 days (1 cycle
per day), equivalent to 11 years; in this time
interval, the main environmental benefit is
obtained through the usage of the battery for
storing the ene rgy from PVs. Despite the fact that
the battery is allocated with some environmental
burdens from the construction of the PV panel s, it
is still beneficial because of the emissions avoided
(Spanish energy mix production), which are
determinant for the results.
Finally, the comparison between the last two
scenarios (both using photovoltaic energy)
demonstrates that the option of reutilizing the EV
battery instead of constructing a new s maller
battery (more adapted to the spe cifications
required) is also be nefi cial in environmental terms.
This benefit comes from avoiding the
manufacturing process of the ne w battery and,
even though a lower internal efficiency is
considered for the use d batte ry, the results are in
support of the second life application of lithium-
ion batteries used in electromobility purposes.
Acknowledgments
The authors would like to thank the third year
students of the Energy and Environmental
technology course, Sara Zuniga, Maria Ferrer and
Asis Mot a and the PhD student Iraia Ori be for
their valuable help to initialize such an effort on
this present project.
EVS27 Internationa l Battery, Hybrid and Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle Symposium 10
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Authors
Konstantinos N. Genikomsakis is a
Researcher at DeustoTech, (Energy
Unit), University of Deusto, Bilbao,
Spa in. He ho lds a D ip lom a (5-years
degree) in Electrical and Computer
Engineering, (AUTh, 2003), a MSc in
Systems Engineer ing and Management
(DUTh, 2005) and a PhD in
Production En gineering and
Management (DUTh, 2010), Greece.
His research fie
lds are on the area of
production line performance,
intelligent energy systems, smart
networks, modelling and optimization
methods applied on transportation, and
electromo bility.
Christos S. Ioakimidis is currently a
Senior Researcher/Professor and
Group Leader on Energy Modeling
and Systems Integration at
DeustoTech (Energy Unit), University
of Deusto (Dep. of Industrial
Technologies), Bilbao, Spain. He
holds a BSc degree in Mechanical
Engineering, (Greece, 1994), an MSc
degree in Mechanical & Aerospace
Engineering, (USA, 1996), a PhD in
Mechanical & Chemical Engineering,
(U.K., 2001), and an MBA, (Greece,
2007). He has been an Assistant
EVS27 Internationa l Battery, Hybrid and Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle Symposium 11
Professor at IST of the MITPortugal
program and is a Visiting Scholar at
MIT/CERTH/AIT. His research
interests are on transport/energy
modelling, smart grids, energy systems
integration (renewables, CCS, EVs),
innovation and green economy and
nanotechnology applied on
automotion/energy.
Alberto Murillo is a final year
undergraduate student at the
University of Deusto, Department of
Informatics and Industrial
Organisation, Bilbao, Spain. His
research interests are on
transport/energy modellin g, thermal
energy systems mode lling and
environmental impact studies.
Atanaska Trifonova is a Senior
Scientist and leads the AIT´s battery
materials research team since
November 2012. She holds a diploma
from Sofia University of Technology
in Chemistry and Metallurgy and a
PhD in 2001 on electrochemistry and
anticorrosive coating, from Graz
University of Technology (TU Graz)
in
cooperation with Mitsubishi
Chemical Corporation and the
Chemical Institute for inorganic
chemistry, in the areas of “optimizing
and characterization of Li-Ion
batteries”. In 2007 she reached the
status of an Associate Professor for
electrochemistry on the TU Graz.
Dragan Simic is a Senior Researcher at
AIT, Vienna, Austria since 2002. He
received the Dipl. Ing
. Degree in
Mechanical engineering from the
faculty of electrical, mechanical
engineering and naval architecture,
University of Split, Split, Croatia in
1999, his PhD from Vienna University
of Technology, Austria in 2007 and an
MBA in automotive industry from
TUV and the Slovak University of
Technology in 2013. H is research
activities are focused on the
longitud inal simu lation of the
conventional and hybrid vehicles
including the simulation of the
auxiliaries. He is also a member of the
Modelica Association.
... Specifically, the battery cathode active material and wrought aluminium produce a large amount of greenhouse gases (GHGs) (Dai et al., 2019), and vacuum drying and coating drying processes require a lot of energy (Yuan et al., 2017). However, because retired EV batteries still contain 70-80% of their residual capacity (Kamath et al., 2020), the secondary use of retired batteries, such as smart buildings, photovoltaic energy storage, and utility-level peak shaving, is environmentally friendly (Cusenza et al., 2019b;Genikomsakis et al., 2013). Moreover, recycling and remanufacturing valuable metal elements such as nickel (Ni), cobalt (Co), and lithium (Li) in LIBs will also produce environmental benefits (Bai et al., 2020;Dunn et al., 2012;Hao et al., 2017b;Lander et al., 2021;Xiong et al., 2020). ...
... SLB still offers benefits at the residential level compared to rooftop PV, which reduces horizontal costs by 15-25% and carbon emissions by 22-51%, making SLB attractive to residential consumers (Kamath et al., 2020). Taking LFP batteries as an example, the primary use phase of EV batteries and secondary applications in Spanish smart buildings are explored (Genikomsakis et al., 2013;Ioakimidis et al., 2019). The research shows that the secondary use of existing EV batteries, instead of manufacturing new batteries for the same purpose and time frame, has significant environmental benefits. ...
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The automotive industry is currently on the verge of electrical transition, and the environmental performance of electric vehicles (EVs) is of great concern. To assess the environmental performance of EVs scientifically and accurately, we reviewed the life cycle environmental impacts of EVs and compared them with those of internal combustion engine vehicles (ICEVs). Considering that the battery is the core component of EVs, we further summarise the environmental impacts of battery production, use, secondary utilisation, recycling, and remanufacturing. The results showed that the environmental impact of EVs in the production phase is higher than that of ICEVs due to battery manufacturing. EVs in the use phase obtained a better overall image than ICEVs, although this largely depended on the share of clean energy generation. In the recycling phase, repurposing and remanufacturing retired batteries are helpful in improving the environmental benefits of EVs. Over the entire life cycle, EVs have the potential to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions and fossil energy consumption; however, they have higher impacts than ICEVs in terms of metal and mineral consumption and human toxicity potential. In summary, optimising the power structure, upgrading battery technology, and improving the recycling efficiency are of great significance for the large-scale promotion of EVs, closed-loop production of batteries, and sustainable development of the resources, environment, and economy.
... The review finds that four out of 11 studies focus on the full life cycle, applying system expansion to determine the benefits of B2U ( Ahmadi et al., 2017 ;Cicconi et al., 2012 ;Genikomsakis et al., 2014 ;Casals et al., 2017 ). Out of the remaining six studies, four apply cut-off allocation ( Faria et al., 2014 ;Sathre et al., 2015 ;Kim et al., 2015 ;Fischhaber et al., 2016 ), whereas two studies apply allocation factors ( Cusenza et al., 2019 ;Bobba et al., 2018 ). ...
... In terms of the chosen reference scenario definition, three approaches can be identified: In summary, most published studies assume the displacement of newly produced batteries Cicconi et al., 2012 ;Genikomsakis et al., 2014 ;Kim et al., 2015 ;Fischhaber et al., 2016 ). Other studies either assume alternative technologies to fulfil BESS functions ( Ahmadi et al., 2017 ;Sathre et al., 2015 ), or choose a BaU reference scenario without any storage at all ( Cusenza et al., 2019 ;Faria et al., 2014 ). ...
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Growing Electric Vehicle (EV) markets and increasing focus on Circular Economy (CE) strategies have stimulated research in the modelling of EV battery repurposing as a special case of product re-use in Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). This paper reviews the methods suggested in literature. Based on the results, the study proposes three types of LCA approaches on EV battery repurposing, taking the perspective of an automotive manufacturer in a CE context. Furthermore, the paper suggests a classification of EV battery repurposing cases depending on the chosen reference scenario and derives directions for future research.
... Nevertheless, the avoided impact is linked to the avoided battery chemistry. Some studies using system expansion choose a lead-acid battery as an avoided battery (Richa et al., 2017a(Richa et al., , 2017b, while others choose LIBs (Cicconi et al., 2012;Genikomsakis et al., 2014;Schulz-Mönninghoff et al., 2021). Because the market share of lead-acid batteries in stationary storage in domestic installations is negligible (Figgener et al., 2021), LIBs are a more plausible technology. ...
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The growth of the electric vehicle (EV) market increases the interest in used batteries, making the evaluation of second life battery degradation and their environmental impact important to understand. This study assesses a nickel manganese cobalt (NMC)–lithium titanate oxide (LTO) battery using the life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology, considering two scenarios for the second life of the battery: the reuse in an EV or its repurpose as stationary storage for energy generated from photovoltaic panels in a Belgian household. Different from the current studies available in the scientific literature, a multidisciplinary approach is adopted. The study includes primary data from ageing tests conducted in a laboratory. A test campaign is performed on new cells to develop a semiempirical NMC-LTO battery model. Other tests are performed on aged cells to evaluate the feasibility of their second life. These long-lasting cells prove to be suitable for reuse, up to 408000 km or 10 years of repurposing as stationary storage. The LCA demonstrates that the second life of the battery is beneficial under certain conditions. The impact of the reuse and repurpose scenarios on climate change are 0.27 kgCO2eq/kWh and 0.22 kgCO2eq/kWh, respectively. Reuse in a vehicle reduces the impact in eight categories, where the manufacturing stage represents more than 54% of the impact. In countries with an electricity mix below 113 gCO2eq/kWh, reuse decreases the impact on climate change. Due to the balance between efficiency loss compared to a new battery and avoided battery production, repurposing reduces the impact on climate change and acidification by 16% and 25%, respectively. The interest in repurposing is higher when the second life duration is higher. The share of batteries that withstand second life is also a critical parameter but highly depends on the battery chemistry and first use conditions.
... For the power's electronic components, a lifecycle of 6-8 years is still practical. The lifetime of Li-ion batteries is in the range of 2000-2500 cycles [30]. For a battery charged and discharged once a day, this amounts to approximately 7 years. ...
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As the global diesel generator market grows and generators gain wider use, various methods are being developed to increase their energy efficiency. One of these methods entails integrating a Li-ion battery with diesel generators (DGs). This method did not attract attention until recently because it was economically unappealing. A significant decrease in the price of Li-ion batteries in recent years has made hybrid diesel generator/Li-ion battery systems more viable. We present a model-based economic analysis of a hybrid DG/Li-ion battery system with the aim of increasing the energy efficiency of diesel power generators. Special blocks were developed for calculations and comparisons with a MATLAB Simulink model, including 457 kW DG operating modes with/without a Li-ion battery. We simulated the system in order to calculate the conditions required to achieve savings in fuel and the level of savings, in addition to the payback time of the Li-ion battery. Furthermore, we present the additional savings gained by postponing the investment in a new diesel generator thanks to the Li-ion battery. Based on our findings, the payback period of the Li-ion battery system varies between 2.5 and 4 years. According to our 12-year economic analysis, the cost savings resulting from postponing new investments can reach 40% of the profit gained from the savings during such a period.
... Generally, the charge-discharge cycles of a lithium-ion battery life is 500-3000 times (Genikomsakis et al., 2013). Considering that the cycle times of truck vehicles will be less, we assume that the total charge-discharge cycles of an EV are 2500 times under the acceptable depreciation loss of the battery capacity. ...
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... Furthermore, we include all three CBM options, i.e. remanufacturing, repurposing and recycling in the system boundaries (see Fig. 4). In addition, we use system expansion to include the avoided products caused by each CBM, which is an approach chosen in previous studies (Ahmadi et al., 2017;Cicconi et al., 2012;Genikomsakis et al., 2014;Richa et al., 2015). This includes the avoided production of a new LIB for remanufacturing and the avoided primary material production for recycling. ...
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In their efforts to implement a circular economy (CE) for lithium-ion batteries (LIB) in electric vehicles, automotive manufacturers need to take into account the perspective of energy consumers when assessing the environmental benefits of LIB repurposing in life cycle assessment (LCA). In response to this issue, this study presents a novel LCA framework, which allows manufacturers to assess different cases of LIB repurposing in an energy system and interpret the results in a CE context. The framework firstly uses energy flow modelling to enable the assessment of combining different battery storage applications in multi-use cases. Secondly, it includes a comparison of repurposing with alternative circular business models options for LIB. The framework is applied to an automotive manufacturer, seeking to assess a real-world project of LIB repurposing in different combinations of behind-the-meter applications at an industrial production site in Germany. As a key outcome, results reveal that from the perspective of the energy consumer, climate change benefits in multi-use cases are 10–22% lower than in single applications. Furthermore, from the perspective of the automotive manufacturer, repurposing is identified as the most beneficial option of circular business models available for LIB, taking into account additional recycling benefits resulting from the delay of end-of-life. Based on these findings, the study contributes to the application of LCA for decision-making in a CE and highlights pitfalls and potentials for a sustainable implementation of LIB repurposing in the future.
... Much of research on LIBs traditionally focused on manufacturing technologies (Chen et al., 2011;Georgi-Maschler et al., 2012;Li et al., 2013Li et al., , 2018Diekmann et al., 2017), technical processes for recycling to recover materials (D'Adamo and Rosa, 2019;Huang et al., 2018;Melin, 2019), environmental aspects (Dewulf et al., 2010;Dunn et al., 2015;Hendrickson et al., 2015;Lv et al., 2018) and the economic potential of recycling (Idjis and da Costa, 2017;Kochhar and Johnston, 2018;Li et al., 2018;Mayyas et al., 2019;Wang et al., 2014). Second life applications for LIBs have also been investigated focusing on technological possibilities (Assunção et al., 2016;Cusenza et al., 2019b;Martinez-Laserna et al., 2018;Sanghai et al., 2019;Schulte et al., 2015), economic advantages (Assunção et al., 2016;Debnath et al., 2014;Foster et al., 2014;Jiao and Evans, 2016a;Lebedeva et al., 2018;Neubauer and Pesaran, 2011;Rehme et al., 2016;Sanghai et al., 2019), and their environmental impacts (Ahmadi et al., 2017;Bobba et al., 2018;Cusenza et al., 2019a;Genikomsakis et al., 2013;Ioakimidis et al., 2019;Richa et al., 2017;Yang et al., 2020). ...
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With the burgeoning transition towards electrified vehicle fleets, lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) have come into focus for different stakeholders due to high costs, supply risks, production-related resource and energy demands and environmental concerns. Circular business models (CBMs) and Circular Economy (CE) strategies to slow and close resource loops are discussed as potential solutions. With a focus on circular business model elements and influencing factors, this research reviews literature on CE strategies for LIBs and benchmarks their current adoption amongst European vehicle manufacturers. These were identified by analysing companies’ websites and interviewing representatives from six companies. In addition, observation of a single manufacturer revealed further context-specific and internal factors. Finally, it reviews the external policy drivers and barriers for CE strategies for LIBs and discusses how policy can be further developed. The results demonstrate that many manufacturers are pursuing CE strategies, mostly focussed on repair, refurbishing, and repurposing. Variation in the operationalisation appears to be linked to the degree of manufacturer involvement, indicating that CBMs are context-specific and dependant on internal factors. All CBMs were found to require close collaboration between different stakeholders to build trust and reduce uncertainties. The necessity to design for disassembly and to build expertise to thoroughly diagnose the state of health of LIBs to enable life extending CBMs was highlighted. While the late 2020 proposal for new EU legislation for batteries contains ambitious new requirements that will incentivise CE strategies, there is still a need to consider further policy development to ensure adherence to the waste hierarchy. This article is open access through the DOI link
... Iron Phosphate (LFP) batteries. [91], [153], and [290] present how lithium-ion batteries contribute to the environmental impact of electric vehicles. ...
Thesis
Eine Ökobilanz (englisch: Life Cycle Assessment) beschäftigt sich mit Faktoren, die Einfluss auf die Umwelt haben, wie zum Beispiel das Treibhausgaspotential. Sie betrachtet den kompletten Lebenszyklus eines Produktes oder einer Dienstleistung. Dies heißt im ersten Fall die Analyse der Rohstoffgewinnung, über die Produktion und Nutzung, bis hin zur Verwertung oder zum Recycling. Die ISO-Normen 14040 und 14044 empfehlen eine genaue Vorgehensweise: Definition von Ziel und Untersuchungsrahmen, Sachbilanz, Wirkungsabschätzung und Auswertung. Bislang wird dieses Instrument zumeist nur als Bilanzierungsmethode eingesetzt, um den ökologischen Fußabdruck eines vorhandenen Produktes zu bestimmen. In unserer Weiterentwicklung dieses Ansatzes verwenden wir die Techniken der mathematischen Optimierung, um gezielt Einfluss auf die Lebenszyklusgestaltung zu nehmen. So lassen sich die Umwelteigenschaften sowohl während der Entwicklung als auch bei bereits existierenden Produkten verbessern und gleichzeitig soziale und finanzielle Komponenten in die Betrachtung miteinbeziehen. Für Vitesco Technologies ist die so entstehende optimierte, integrierte und nachhaltige Lebenszyklusbetrachtung (englisch: Integrated Life Cycle Sustainability Assessment) ein wichtiger Baustein in der Nachhaltigkeit, der weit über eine Ökobilanz im eigentlichen Sinne hinausgeht. Wir erstellten ein flexibel konfigurierbares, gemischt-ganzzahliges Optimierungsmodell, welches dem Produktverantwortlichen Handlungsempfehlungen bietet, um zum Beispiel die Orte der Rohstoffgewinnung, die Produktionsstandorte und die Materialzusammensetzung auszuwählen. Die oftmals konträren Aspekte der Ökologie und Ökonomie wurden mit Hilfe der multikriteriellen Optimierung umgesetzt. Zu deren Lösung entwickelten wir eine Software mit benutzerfreundlicher Bedienoberfläche und zeigen in einer ausführlichen Fallstudie am Beispiel einer Lithium-Ionen- Batterie ihren Nutzen auf. Diese zählt zu den Hauptbestandteilen eines Elektrofahrzeuges und ist deshalb von großer Bedeutung in dem aktuellen Fokusthema der Elektromobilität. Unsere Methode lässt sich auf sämtliche weitere Komponenten eines Automobils anwenden, bis hin zur Lebenszyklusoptimierung des kompletten Fahrzeugs.
Article
This paper critically reviewed an overall of 76 available life cycle studies that have assessed the environmental impact of lithium-ion batteries and have also provided detailed contribution analyses and transparent inventories. A total of 55 studies were identified that investigated the four notable product life cycle phases: (1) materials and parts production, (2) cell manufacturing, (3) battery pack assembly, and (4). end-of-life decommissioning. Based on the results from the reviewed studies, the average values for global warming potential and cumulative energy demand from lithium-ion battery production were found to be 187.26 kgCO2e/kWh or 19.78 kgCO2e/kg, and 42.49 kWh/kg, respectively. This provides evidence to expose the fact that from a life cycle perspective electric vehicles are not emissions-free and contribute to climate change. An examination into the disparity in global warming potential and cumulative energy demand estimates revealed that the results were influenced by battery chemistry, active materials, production volume, regional manufacturing, and various assumptions adopted by the life cycle studies. Most studies claimed that the magnitude of end-of-life contributions to total environmental impact is relatively small and consequently omitted the end-of-life phase from their investigation. Further investigations into battery second-life applications presented the argument that repurposing lithium-ion batteries into mobility or utility applications extend their service lives and yield environmental, social, and economical benefits. Also, recycling reduces landfill waste and materials shortage. Therefore, this article recommends more research efforts and implementation of industrial practices on lithium-ion batteries decommissioning through repurposing and recycling.
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Cycle life is critically important in applications of rechargeable batteries, but lifetime prediction is mostly based on empirical trends, rather than mathematical models. In practical lithium-ion batteries, capacity fade occurs over thousands of cycles, limited by slow electrochemical processes, such as the formation of a solid-electrolyte interphase (SEI) in the negative electrode, which compete with reversible lithium intercalation. Focusing on SEI growth as the canonical degradation mechanism, we show that a simple single-particle model can accurately explain experimentally observed capacity fade in commercial cells with graphite anodes, and predict future fade based on limited accelerated aging data for short times and elevated temperatures. The theory is extended to porous electrodes, predicting that SEI growth is essentially homogeneous throughout the electrode, even at high rates. The lifetime distribution for a sample of batteries is found to be consistent with Gaussian statistics, as predicted by the single-particle model. We also extend the theory to rapidly degrading anodes, such as nanostructured silicon, which exhibit large expansion on ion intercalation. In such cases, large area changes during cycling promote SEI loss and faster SEI growth. Our simple models are able to accurately fit a variety of published experimental data for graphite and silicon anodes.
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The main aim of the study was to explore how LCA can be used to optimize the design of lithium-ion batteries for plug-in hybrid electric vehicles. Two lithium-ion batteries, both based on lithium iron phosphate, but using different solvents during cell manufacturing, were studied by means of life cycle assessment, LCA. The general conclusions are limited to results showing robustness against variation in critical data. The study showed that it is environmentally preferable to use water as a solvent instead of N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone, NMP, in the slurry for casting the cathode and anode of lithium-ion batteries. Recent years’ improvements in battery technology, especially related to cycle life, have decreased production phase environmental impacts almost to the level of use phase impacts. In the use phase, environmental impacts related to internal battery efficiency are two to six times larger than the impact from losses due to battery weight in plug-in hybrid electric vehicles, assuming 90% internal battery efficiency. Thus, internal battery efficiency is a very important parameter; at least as important as battery weight. Areas, in which data is missing or inadequate and the environmental impact is or may be significant, include: production of binders, production of lithium salts, cell manufacturing and assembly, the relationship between weight of vehicle and vehicle energy consumption, information about internal battery efficiency and recycling of lithium-ion batteries based on lithium iron phosphate.
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The Greenhouse gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy use in Transportation (GREET) model incorporated fuel economy and electricity use of alternative fuel/vehicle systems simulated by the Powertrain System Analysis Toolkit (PSAT) to conduct a well-to-wheels (WTW) analysis of energy use and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs). Based on PSAT simulations of the blended charge depleting (CD) operation, grid electricity accounted for a share of the vehicle's total energy use ranging from 6% for PHEV 10 to 24% for PHEV 40 based on CD vehicle mile traveled (VMT) shares of 23% and 63%, respectively. Besides fuel economy of PHEVs and type of on-board fuel, the type of electricity generation mix impacted the WTW results of PHEVs, especially GHG emissions.For an all-electric range (AER) between 10 to 40 miles, PHEVs employing petroleum fuels (gasoline and diesel), a blend of 85% ethanol and 15% gasoline (E85), and hydrogen were shown to offer 40-60%, 70-90%, and over 90% reduction in petroleum energy use, and 30-60%, 40-80%, and 10-100% reduction in GHG emissions, respectively, relative to an internal combustion engine vehicle (ICEV) using gasoline. In addition, PHEVs offered reductions in petroleum energy use as compared to regular hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). More petroleum energy savings were realized as the AER increased, except when the marginal grid mix was dominated by oil-fired power generation. Similarly, more GHG emissions reductions were realized at higher AER, except when the marginal grid mix was dominated by oil or coal. Electricity from renewable sources realized the largest reductions in petroleum energy use and GHG emissions for all PHEVs as AER increased. GHG emissions benefits may not be realized for PHEVs employing biomass-based fuels, e.g., biomass-E85 and -hydrogen, over regular HEVs if the marginal mix is dominated by fossil sources.
Conference Paper
The recently increase of the EV/PHEV market is in part due to the technological progress of battery systems. The energy storage and charging are the critical aspects of an electric vehicle; Li-Ion batteries allow an increase in storage performance and efficiencies despite the needs of a high number of cells. The single Li-Ion cell is constituted by metals, graphite, various salts and electrolytes which result difficult to dispose of or recycle. Therefore the expected environmental sustainability of any EV is limited by the final impact of battery production and disposal. The proposed research studies the Second Life applications suitable for the Li-Ion battery cells used for electric powertrains in order to promote a Sustainable Transportation and avoid the environmental impact that disposal of these batteries would have. A Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) analysis has been adopted to estimate the gain in terms of environmental impact provided by reusing disposed Li-Ion cells for a Second Life application. An automotive battery pack with LiFePO4 cells has been chosen as a test case, then the life-cycle due to vehicle loads has been predicted by accelerated tests and the residual cell capacity has been experimentally evaluated. A possible Second Life scenario has been studied for the automotive Li-Ion batteries: reusing the disposed cell in a smart grid system after vehicle use to provide the grid energy stabilization and storage. This strategy has been evaluated with an LCA tool taking into account materials (anode, cathode, separator, et.), as well as flows and processes (production, assembly, disassembly) both for production and reuse phases. The research results show a positive effect of the Second Life solution on the environmental impact of the Li-Ion cells; moreover, the collected data will be useful for the Second Life strategies and scheduling during the early design phase.
Article
Developments in lithium rechargeable batteries since the last International Power Sources Symposium in Manchester in 2001 are described. The major developments are that, as expected, lithium cobalt oxide cathode material is being replaced by lithium cobalt/nickel oxide and polymer electrolyte batteries are now coming into production. Likely future developments are new cathode and electrolyte materials to reduce cost and to improve safety.Some research has been reported on sodium-ion batteries.
Article
This study presents the life cycle assessment (LCA) of three batteries for plug-in hybrid and full performance battery electric vehicles. A transparent life cycle inventory (LCI) was compiled in a component-wise manner for nickel metal hydride (NiMH), nickel cobalt manganese lithium-ion (NCM), and iron phosphate lithium-ion (LFP) batteries. The battery systems were investigated with a functional unit based on energy storage, and environmental impacts were analyzed using midpoint indicators. On a per-storage basis, the NiMH technology was found to have the highest environmental impact, followed by NCM and then LFP, for all categories considered except ozone depletion potential. We found higher life cycle global warming emissions than have been previously reported. Detailed contribution and structural path analyses allowed for the identification of the different processes and value-chains most directly responsible for these emissions. This article contributes a public and detailed inventory, which can be easily be adapted to any powertrain, along with readily usable environmental performance assessments.
Article
This study presents the life cycle assessment (LCA) of three batteries for plug-in hybrid and full performance battery electric vehicles. A transparent life cycle inventory (LCI) was compiled in a component-wise manner for nickel metal hydride (NiMH), nickel cobalt manganese lithium-ion (NCM), and iron phosphate lithium-ion (LFP) batteries. The battery systems were investigated with a functional unit based on energy storage, and environmental impacts were analyzed using midpoint indicators. On a per-storage basis, the NiMH technology was found to have the highest environmental impact, followed by NCM and then LFP, for all categories considered except ozone depletion potential. We found higher life cycle global warming emissions than have been previously reported. Detailed contribution and structural path analyses allowed for the identification of the different processes and value-chains most directly responsible for these emissions. This article contributes a public and detailed inventory, which can be easily be adapted to any powertrain, along with readily usable environmental performance assessments.
Article
A comprehensive review on electrochemical energy storage (EES) technologies or batteries is presented. Principles of operation and the status and challenges in materials, chemistries, and technologies of these batteries is also provided. A redox flow battery (RFB), is a type of rechargeable battery that stores electrical energy, typically in two soluble redox couples contained in external electrolyte tanks sized in accordance with application requirements. Sodium-beta alumina membrane batteries reversibly charge and discharge electricity via sodium ion transport across a solid electrolyte that is doped with Li or Mg. Li-ion batteries store electrical energy in electrodes made of Li-intercalation compounds and graphite is the material of choice for most lithium-ion candidate chemistries. Lead-carbon batteries with a split negative electrode is known as an ultrabattery, which was invented by CSIRO in Australia.
Life cycle assessment of five batteries for electric vehicles under different charging regimes, Swedish Transport and Communications Research Board
  • M Rantik
M. Rantik, Life cycle assessment of five batteries for electric vehicles under different charging regimes, Swedish Transport and Communications Research Board, 1999
Well-to-Wheels Energy Use and Greenhouse Gas Emissions Analysis of Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles
  • A Elgowainy
  • M Burnham
  • J Wang
  • A Rousseau