Chen N, Hu Y, Li WH et al.The role of keratinocyte growth factor in melanogenesis: a possible mechanism for the initiation of solar lentigines. Exp Dermatol 19:865-872
The Johnson and Johnson Skin Research Center, Consumer Product Worldwide, A Unit of Johnson and Johnson Consumer Companies, Inc, Skillman, NJ 08502, USA. Experimental Dermatology
(Impact Factor: 3.76).
09/2009; 19(10):865-72. DOI: 10.1111/j.1600-0625.2009.00957.x
Please cite this paper as: The role of keratinocyte growth factor in melanogenesis: a possible mechanism for the initiation of solar lentigines. Experimental Dermatology 2010; 19: 865–872.
Abstract: Solar lentigines (SLs) are hyperpigmentary lesions presented on sun-exposed areas of the skin and associated with ageing. The molecular mechanism of SL initiation is not completely understood. Ultraviolet B (UVB) stimulates keratinocytes to produce interlukin-1 alpha (IL-1α), which then induces keratinocyte growth factor (KGF) secretion; therefore, we examined their possible roles in the induction of SLs. We found that KGF increases pigment production in both pigmented epidermal equivalents and human skin explants. In addition, UVB exposure increases KGF expression, and KGF treatment induces tyrosinase (TYR) expression in primary melanocytes. The KGF-induced pigmentary changes were confirmed using pigmented Yucatan swine, and human skins grafted onto immuno-deficient mice. In both model systems, the topical treatment with KGF, alone or in combination with IL-1α, resulted in the in vivo formation of hyperpigmentary lesions with increased pigment deposition and elongated rete ridges, which resemble the histological features of human SLs. Preliminary immunohistochemical analysis of human skins showed a moderate increase in KGF, and a strong induction in KGF receptor (KGFR) in SL lesions. In summary, KGF increases pigment production and deposition in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, we show for the first time the in vivo generation of hyperpigmentary lesions with histological resemblance to human SLs and indicate the involvement of KGF/KGFR in the molecular pathology of human SLs.
Available from: PubMed Central
- "Apart from contributing to cosmetic appearance, melanin functions as an effective biological barrier for absorbing free radicals from the cytoplasm3,4 and shielding from ultraviolet (UV) light.5,6 However, overproduction and accumulation of melanin can cause hyperpigmentation problems and skin disorders such as freckles, melasma, and lentigines.7–10 Aside from constitutive melanin synthesis, solar UV radiation is the main etiological factor in melanogenesis.11,12 "
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ABSTRACT: Melanin is the one of most important pigments for skin color in mammals. Excessive biosynthesis of melanin induces various pigment disorders. Much effort has been made to develop regulators to minimize skin pigmentation abnormalities. However, only a few of them are used, primarily because of safety concerns and low efficiency. In this study, we aimed to construct a novel nanosphere-gel for sequential delivery of salidroside and paeonol, to investigate the synergistic effects of these drugs in anti-melanogenesis, and to decrease their potential for toxicity in high dosage. Nanospheres were prepared and characterized for their particle size, polydispersity index, zeta potential, and morphological properties. The optimized nanospheres were incorporated in carbomer hydrogel with both paeonol and salidroside entrapped to form a dual drug-releasing nanosphere-gel. With this nanosphere-gel, rapid release of salidroside from the hydrogel followed by sustained release of paeonol from the nanosphere was achieved. Using a classical model of the melanogenesis response to ultraviolet exposure, it was shown that the anti-melanogenesis effects of the dual drug-releasing system, in which the doses of the individual drugs were decreased by half, was obviously enhanced when compared with the effects of the single drug preparations. Mechanistically, the burst release of salidroside from the hydrogel may enable prompt suppression of melanocyte proliferation on exposure to ultraviolet B radiation, while the paeonol released in a sustained manner can provide continuous inhibition of tyrosinase activity in melanocytes. Combined delivery of salidroside and paeonol was demonstrated to be a promising strategy for enhancing the therapeutic efficacy of these agents in anti-melanogenesis and reducing their toxicity, so may have great potential in nanomedicine.
Available from: Tomohisa Hirobe
- "KGF is secreted from cultured stromal fibroblasts derived from skin and gastrointestinal tract and is expressed in vivo in dermal, but not epidermal cells . This paracline growth factor, however, is also effective for stimulating the melanogenesis   and melanosome transfer from human melanocytes to keratinocytes . However, the role of KGF in the proliferation and differentiation of melanocytes is not known. "
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ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Although keratinocyte-derived factors are known to promote the proliferation and differentiation of human epidermal melanocytes, it is not fully understood whether fibroblast-derived factors work in a similar way. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to clarify whether fibroblast-derived factors are involved in regulating the proliferation and differentiation of human melanocytes with or without keratinocytes using serum-free culture system. METHODS: Human epidermal melanoblasts and melanocytes were cultured in a serum-free growth medium supplemented with fibroblast-derived factors such as keratinocyte growth factor (KGF) with or without keratinocytes, and the effects of KGF on the proliferation and differentiation of melanocytes were studied. RESULTS: KGF stimulated the proliferation of melanoblasts in the presence of dibutyryl cAMP (DBcAMP), basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), transferrin (Tf), and endothelin-1 (ET-1). Although KGF stimulated the differentiation, melanogenesis, and dendritogenesis in the presence of DBcAMP, Tf, and ET-1 without keratinocytes, KGF required the presence of keratinocytes for the stimulation of melanocyte proliferation. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that fibroblast-derived KGF stimulates the proliferation of human melanoblasts in synergy with cAMP, bFGF, Tf, and ET-1, the differentiation of melanocytes in synergy with cAMP, Tf, and ET-1, and the proliferation of melanocytes in synergy with cAMP, Tf, ET-1, and undefined keratinocyte-derived factors.
Available from: Andrzej Slominski
- "Using topical KGF treatment we created in vivo hyperpigmentary lesions, with histological features similar to human SLs. We suggested that KGF is involved in the initiation of hyperpigmentary lesions . Therefore we analyzed KGF and KGFR levels in human SLs. "
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ABSTRACT: Solar lentigines (SLs) are macular hyperpigmented lesions associated with sun exposure and age. Histopathologically, SLs are defined by a hyperpigmented basal layer and elongated rete ridges. The molecular mechanisms involved in the formation and the development of SLs are not completely understood. Our earlier data show that keratinocyte growth factor (KGF) induces hyperpigmentary lesions with histological resemblance to SLs.
To investigate the association of KGF/KGF receptor (KGFR) and other pigmentary genes with the progression of SL development. To better understand the possible role of KGF in the pathology of SLs.
Archived human skin biopsies (24 SLs and 14 healthy skins) were studied using immunohistochemistry for KGF/KGFR, proliferation marker Ki67, stem cell marker keratin-15 (K15), tyrosinase (TYR), stem cell factor (SCF), and protease-activated receptor-2 (PAR-2).
An increase in TYR-positive cells and expression was found throughout SL progression, as compared to normal skin. The levels of KGF, KGFR, SCF, Ki67 and PAR-2 varied during SL progression. Ki67, K15 and KGF/KGFR were significantly upregulated at early-mid SL stages. The latest-stage SLs expressed the lowest levels of KGF, KGFR, SCF, Ki67 and PAR-2.
The upregulation of KGF/KGFR might induce the formation of rete ridges and hyperpigmentation. The reduced levels of all examined proteins (except TYR and K15) suggest a possible inactive status (dormancy or quiescence) of advanced lesions.
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