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Yield, Protein and Starch Content of Twenty Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) Genotypes Exposed to High Temperature under Late Sowing Conditions

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  • Bangladesh Wheat and Maize Research Institute (BWMRI)

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A total of 20 spring wheat genotypes were evaluated under three growing conditions (optimum, late and very late) at the research farm of the Wheat Research Center, Bangladesh to assess the variation in grain yield, protein and starch content under heat stress. All genotypes were significantly affected by high temperature stress in late and very late sowing conditions, resulting in a decrease in days to heading and maturity, ultimately affecting yield, protein and starch content. Considering yield performance, genotype 'E-8' was best under optimum (6245 kg ha -1), late (5220 kg ha -1) and very late sowing (4657 kg ha -1) conditions while 'E-40' was the worst. With respect to yield reduction, genotype 'E-72' was heat-tolerant (13% yield reduction) while 'Prodip' (49% yield reduction) was heat-susceptible. On the other hand, it was found that the percentage protein increased as heat stress increased. Under heat stress, genotype 'E-65' and 'E-60' had the highest and lowest protein content (15.5% and 12%), respectively. With respect to starch content, 'Prodip' and 'E-37' had the highest while 'E-14' and 'E-72' had the lowest content (64.8% vs. 62.9%), respectively in all sowing conditions.
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J. Sci. Res. 4 (2), 477-489 (2012)
JOURNAL OF
SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH
www.banglajol.info/index.php/JSR
Yield, Protein and Starch Content of Twenty Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)
Genotypes Exposed to High Temperature under Late Sowing Conditions
M. A. Hakim1, A. Hossain1*
doi:
, Jaime A. Teixeira da Silva2, V. P. Zvolinsky 3, and M. M. Khan4
1Wheat Research Center, Bangladesh Agricultural Research Institute, Dinajpur-5200, Bangladesh
2 Faculty of Agriculture and Graduate School of Agriculture, Kagawa University, Ikenobe,
Miki-cho, 761-0795, Japan
3The Caspian Scientific Research Institute of Arid Agriculture, Russian Academy of Agricultural
Sciences, 416251 Astrakhan, Chernoyarsky district, Salt Zaymishche, Russia
4British American Tobacco, Rangpur, Bangladesh
Received 1 October 2011, accepted in final revised form 9 March 2012
Abstract
A total of 20 spring wheat genotypes were evaluated under three growing conditions
(optimum, late and very late) at the research farm of the Wheat Research Center,
Bangladesh to assess the variation in grain yield, protein and starch content under heat stress.
All genotypes were significantly affected by high temperature stress in late and very late
sowing conditions, resulting in a decrease in days to heading and maturity, ultimately
affecting yield, protein and starch content. Considering yield performance, genotype ‘E-8’
was best under optimum (6245 kg ha-1), late (5220 kg ha-1) and very late sowing (4657 kg
ha-1) conditions while ‘E-40was the worst. With respect to yield reduction, genotype ‘E-
72was heat-tolerant (13% yield reduction) while ‘Prodip’ (49% yield reduction) was heat-
susceptible. On the other hand, it was found that the percentage protein increased as heat
stress increased. Under heat stress, genotype ‘E-65and ‘E-60had the highest and lowest
protein content (15.5% and 12%), respectively. With respect to starch content, ‘Prodip and
‘E-37had the highest while ‘E-14and ‘E-72’ had the lowest content (64.8% vs. 62.9%),
respectively in all sowing conditions.
Keywords: Yield; Protein; Starch; Wheat.
© 2012 JSR Publications. ISSN: 2070-0237 (Print); 2070-0245 (Online). All rights reserved.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3329/jsr.v4i2.8679 J. Sci. Res. 4 (2), 477-489 (2012)
1. Introduction
Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is a widely adapted crop that is grown in temperate,
irrigated to dry and high-rain-fall areas and from warm and humid to dry and cold
environments. It is foremost among cereals and stands first globally in terms of production
*Corresponding author: tanjimar2003@yahoo.com
478
Yield, Protein and Starch Content
and acreage [1]. In Bangladesh it is the second major cereal crop after rice. However, the
average yield of wheat is lower than other wheat-growing countries around the world. The
potential yield of wheat varieties is 4.0 to 4.5 t ha-1 but in farmers’ fields it is 1.9 t ha-1 [2].
The reason for this gap in yield between farmersand research fields is the lack of
awareness among farmers about the use of proper agronomic management involving
variety, sowing time, seed rate, balanced dose of fertilizers and other factors associated
with crop production [3]. One of the major reasons explaining this failure to improve yield
is by planting wheat late [4]. Optimum sowing time of wheat cultivars is between mid-
November and the first week of December in Bangladesh because of the short duration of
the growing season (winter) [5]. However, in Bangladesh, about 85% of the total wheat
area follows a previously cultivated rice crop [6] and over 60% of the total wheat crop is
sown late [7]. As a result, wheat plants suffer from high temperature stress from anthesis
to maturity due to a short winter season and late sowing. Rawson et al. [8] conducted a
three-year field experiment in northern and southern regions of Bangladesh and stated that
wheat yield in southern region was lower than in the northern region due to a short life
span in the south, where winter is shorter (early increase in temperature) than in the north,
ultimately affecting grain yield.
High temperature stress results in faster senescence of foliage, poor assimilate
synthesis, reduced translocation of photosynthates to the developing grain and greater
respiratory losses [9]. The net effect of heat stress at this stage lowers kernel weight due to
a reduced grain-filling period, grain-filling rate or the combined effect of both [10].
Therefore, heat stress is a major factor limiting productivity and as such sowing time has a
major bearing on wheat yield. Thus, identification of suitable wheat varieties for sowing
late in warmer conditions would be an important step for achieving high yield potential.
Relatively heat-tolerant varieties can serve this purpose. Thus, the present investigation
was carried out to determine the performance of heat-tolerant and -sensitive genotypes
from twenty recommended wheat genotypes under heat stress by evaluating their yield,
protein and starch content.
2. Materials and Methods
The experiment was carried out during the 2010-11 wheat season in a research field of the
Wheat Research Center, Bangladesh Agricultural Research Institute, Dinajpur,
Bangladesh. The area falls under the Old Himalayan Piedmont Plain designated as Agro
Ecological Zone-1. The geographical position of the area is between 25° 38′ N, 88° 41′ E
and 38.20 m above sea level. The soil is sandy-loam, strongly acidic (pH = 4.5-5.5) and
organic matter content is about 1.0% [11].
The experiment was laid out in a split-plot design with three replications. The main
plots were assigned by sowing dates viz., optimum sowing date (15 November) (OSD),
late sowing date (25 December) (LSD) and very late sowing date (15 January) (VLSD).
The sub-plots were assigned to 20 genotypes: 3 existing varieties (‘Shatabdi’, ‘Prodip’
and BARI Gom-26) and 17 candidate varieties (‘E-6’, ‘E-8’, ‘E-10, ‘E-14, ‘E-19, ‘E-
M. A. Hakim et al. J. Sci. Res. 4 (2), 477-489 (2012)
36, ‘E-37, ‘E-40, ‘E-42, ‘E-60, ‘E-61, ‘E-65, ‘E-67, ‘E-68, ‘E-69, ‘E-71and ‘E-
72’). The size of a unit plot was 2.5 m long with 6 rows and with a 20 cm and 40 cm space
between rows and entries, respectively.
Seeds were treated with Provax-200WP, an effective Carboxin and Thiram-containing
seed-targeted fungicide. Seeds were sown at 120 kg ha-1 in lines 20 cm apart. Fertilizer
was applied at 100-27-40-20-1 kg ha-1 of N-P-K-S-B, respectively. Half of the total
nitrogen and other fertilizers were applied during final soil preparation, and the other half
was applied immediately after first irrigation. Plants were irrigated at crown root initiation
(20 days after sowing (DAS)}, booting (55 DAS) and grain-filling stages (75 DAS).
Intercultural operations were performed when required and the crop was harvested plot-
wise at full maturity while sample plants were harvested separately. The harvested crop of
each plot was bundled separately, tagged and threshed on a threshing floor after fully
drying the bundles in bright sunshine and weighing them. Data on days to heading (DH),
days to maturity (DM), number of spikes m-2 (NS), number of grains spike-1 (NGS), 1000-
grain weight (g) (1000-GW), grain yield (kg ha-1) (GY), as well as protein and starch
percentage were recorded. 1000-GW and GY were adjusted at 12% moisture. Protein and
starch contents were determined following AOAC methods [12]: Protein by the Kjeldahl
method and starch by the Weende method [12].
Data were statistically analyzed by analysis of variance using MSTAT-C. Treatment
means were compared for significance by using the LSD test at α = 5%. Daily weather
data was recorded during the growing season and weekly averages were calculated and
are presented in Fig. 1.
3. Results and Discussion
3.1. Weather conditions during the wheat-growing period
When wheat was sown on OSD, vegetative growing temperature was maximum 25 °C
and minimum 15°C, but at the grain-filling stage, maximum was ≤ 25°C and minimum
was 10°C (January-February) (Fig. 1). On the other hand, sowing on VLSD had a
maximum vegetative growing temperature of ≤ 25°C and minimum of 10°C and at the
grain-filling stage maximum was 30°C and minimum was 15°C (Mach-April) (Fig. 1).
Moderately high temperatures (25-32°C) and short periods of very high temperatures (
33-40°C) during the grain-filling stage severely affect the yield and yield-related
components of wheat and barley [13-15]. Kumer et al. [16] indicated that a late crop sown
extremely late (last week of December) suffered severely from heat stress during grain
formation in March leading to abnormal development and poor production, due to a
shortened life span. Hossain et al. [17, 18] conducted field experiments (with 8 existing
wheat varieties of Bangladesh) in the same agro-climatic condition of the present study
and observed that late sown (27 December) wheat of this region faced low temperature
stress (<10°C) at germination to vegetative stages and high temperature stress at the
reproductive stage (February), which delayed seed germination and reduced seedling
480
Yield, Protein and Starch Content
establishment, plant population m-2, tillers/effective tillers plant-1, NGS (due to sterility),
1000-GW, resulting in lower GY.
Fig. 1. Weather information during the wheat-growing period (Source: Meteorological
Station, Wheat Research Centre, Nashipur, Dinajpur, Bangladesh).
3.2. Days to heading
Tewolde et al. [19] stated that under high temperature stress, earlier heading is
advantageous to retain more green leaves at anthesis, leading to a smaller reduction in
GY. Spink et al. [20] also observed that delayed sowing shortens the duration of each
development phase due to a rise in temperature. Growth chamber and greenhouse studies
suggest that high temperature is most deleterious when flowers are first visible and that
sensitivity continues for 10-15 days. Among the reproductive phases of fertilization, 1-3
Fig. 2. Effect of sowing dates, genotypes and their interaction on heading of 20 spring wheat
genotypes. Y error bars for SD(s) was calculated from three replicates for each treatment. LSD at
the 5% level for interaction = 2.37, sowing dates = 1.37 and CV (%) = 1.7.
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
01 to 07 Nov.
08 to 14 Nov.
15 to 21 Nov.
22 to 28 Nov.
29 Nov. to 05 Dec.
06 to 12 Dec.
13 to 19 Dec.
20 to 26 Dec.
27 Dec. to 02 Jan.
03 to 9 Jan.
10 to 16 Jan.
17 to 23 Jan.
24 to 30 Jan.
31 Jan. to 06 Feb.
07 to 13 Feb.
14 to 20 Feb.
22 to 27 Feb.
28 Feb. to 06 Mar.
07 to 13 Mar.
14 to 20 Mar.
21 to 27 Mar.
28 Mar. to 03 April
04 to 10 Apr.
11 to 17 Apr.
18 to 24 Apr.
25 to 30 Apr.
Date
Temperature (ºC)
Minimum temperature ºC Mean temperature ºC Maximum temperature ºC
50
55
60
65
70
75
80
85
Shatabdi
Prodip
BARI Gom 26
E-6
E-8
E-10
E-14
E-19
E-36
E-37
E-40
E-42
E-60
E-61
E-65
E-67
E-68
E-69
E-71
E-72
Genotypes
Days to heading
Optimum sowing Late sowing Very late sowing Mean
M. A. Hakim et al. J. Sci. Res. 4 (2), 477-489 (2012)
days after anthesis is one of the most sensitive stages to high temperature in various plants
[21]. In this study, under LSD and VLSD, the highest reduction in DH was 14% and 19% in
‘Shatabdi’, followed by 19% and 18% in ‘E-6’ and ‘E-42’ in VLSD (Fig. 2). In both LSD
and VLSD, ‘E-40’ and ‘E-67’ required the longest days (71, 67 and 70, 66 days) followed
by ‘Shatabdi’ (69 and 65 days), ‘BARI Gom-26’ (68 and 65 days) and ‘E-10’ (68 and 65
days) to reach heading (Fig. 2). Ubaidullah et al. [22] generally observed that late sowing
imposed negative effects on all traits with up to 23 days difference between early and late
sowing for heading. DH of wheat genotypes in LSD were lower due to high temperature
stress which forced a decrease in the life span and resulted in lower GY [17, 18].
3.3. Days to maturity
High temperature in the post anthesis period shortens the duration of grain filling [23].
Each degree increase of temperature during the grain-filling period results in about a
three-day decrease in the duration of grain filling, regardless of cultivar [24]. Under OSD,
similar findings in other studies and the present study were found. Genotypes ‘E-14, ‘E-
19and ‘E-69took similar and longest duration (112 days) for maturation and were
followed by ‘Shatabdi’, ‘E-10, ‘E-14and ‘E-67(111 days), respectively (Fig. 3).
Genotypes ‘E-61and ‘E-72(106 days) took the least time to mature, followed by ‘E-6’,
‘E-37, E-60, ‘E-65, ‘E-68and ‘E-71(107 days). In LSD and VLSD, the highest
reduction in DM was recorded for ‘E-69(9.91 and 15.2%), followed by ‘E-14and ‘E-
19(8.11 and 15.20%). The minimum reduction in DM was found in ‘E-72(4.5 and
10.2%) (Fig. 3). These results are similar to those reported by [25], who mentioned that
high temperature hastens the development, shortens the duration and reduces the life span
of cultivars sown late from sowing to harvest. Uddin et al. [26] conducted a field
experiment in southern Bangladesh with 10 mustard genotypes sown on different dates
and observed that all genotypes sown late matured 8 days earlier than under optimum
conditions, resulting in lower GY.
Fig. 3. Effect of sowing dates, genotypes and their interaction on maturity of 20 spring wheat
genotypes. Y error bars for SD(s) was calculated from three replicates for each treatment. LSD at
the 5% level for interaction = 2.88, sowing dates = 1.66 and CV (%) = 1.4.
80
90
100
110
120
Shatabdi
Prodip
BARI Gom 26
E-6
E-8
E-10
E-14
E-19
E-36
E-37
E-40
E-42
E-60
E-61
E-65
E-67
E-68
E-69
E-71
E-72
Genotypes
Days to maturity
Optimum sowing Late sowing Very late s owing Mean
482
Yield, Protein and Starch Content
3.4. Number of spikes m-2
The economic yield of most cereals is determined by the number of productive NS. NS
depends on the genotype and on the conditions to which the crop is exposed during
growth. The general hypothesis is that plants in their initial stages of development may
adapt more easily to their environment. Number of spikelets spike-1 is already determined
at this stage, varying from 20 to 30 [27, 28]. Rahman et al. [29] reported a positive
correlation between the length of the vegetative phase and number of spikelets spike-1; by
increasing the vegetative stage of the apex, more number of spikelets spike-1 are induced.
However, the actual number of spikelets is determined by the length of the reproductive
phase. Short days (8 h) from double ridges to terminal spikelet initiation stimulate a large
NS [30, 31]. Spink et al. [32] observed that the NS unit area-1 of wheat increased
significantly due to favourable environmental conditions at tiller initiation stage
(vegetative stage), which ultimately lead to increase NS unit area-1. In the present
experiment, NS was significantly influenced by seeding date. The highest NS was attained
by ‘E-10(406) in OSD but in LSD and VLSD it was recorded in ‘E-37(375 and 317,
respectively) (Fig. 4). The most likely reason for the significant differences in NS among
cultivars is the genetic background of the varieties and the conditions to which the crop is
exposed during growth. Late planting suffered mostly due to a drastic reduction in ear
number [5, 33]. Hossain et al. [34] observed that NS of wheat genotypes were reduced in
LSD and VLSD due to low temperature stress at the tillering stage (vegetative stage).
Fig. 4. Effect of sowing dates, genotypes and their interaction on spike m-2 of 20 spring wheat
genotypes. Y error bars for SD(s) was calculated from three replicates for each treatment. LSD at
the 5% level for interaction = 30.30, sowing dates = 17.50 and CV (%) = 5.1.
3.5. Number of grains spike-1
Grain number may be increased by: a) reducing the size of competing organs such as the
peduncle and number of sterile tillers during spike growth; b) increasing the number of
200
230
260
290
320
350
380
410
Shatabdi
Prodip
BARI Gom 26
E-6
E-8
E-10
E-14
E-19
E-36
E-37
E-40
E-42
E-60
E-61
E-65
E-67
E-68
E-69
E-71
E-72
Genotypes
Spikes (m-2)
Optimum sowing Late sowing Very late sowing Mean
M. A. Hakim et al. J. Sci. Res. 4 (2), 477-489 (2012)
spikelets spike-1; c) extending the duration of the interval between floral initiation and
terminal spikelets by extending the duration of spike growth; or d) increasing floret
survival by avoiding carbon, water and nutrient (particularly N) limitations [35].
Radiation use efficiency during the rapid spike growth period can also be increased by
erect canopies with short leaves if grain demand for photosynthates is high [36]. However,
temperatures above 30°C during floret formation cause complete sterility [37, 38]. In our
study, it was observed that highest NGS in all genotypes was recorded in OSD with a few
exceptions and that lowest NGS was observed in VLSD due to heat stress (Fig. 5). The
highest NGS in all seeding dates was recorded by ‘E-14, which also had the highest mean
NGS (57). All genotypes except for ‘E-72had a higher NGS value than ‘Shatabdi’ (Fig.
5). Low NGS values for wheat genotypes in LSD due to high number of sterile spikelets
spike-1 were the result of high temperature stress in wheat when sown at late [34].
Fig. 5. Effect of sowing dates, genotypes and their interaction on grains spike-1 of 20 spring wheat
genotypes. Y error bars for SD(s) was calculated from three replicates for each treatment. LSD at
the 5% level for interaction = 5.41, sowing dates = 3.12 and CV (%) = 6.0.
3.6. 1000-grain weight
Delayed sowing shortens the duration of each development phase, which ultimately
reduces the grain-filling period and lowers GW [31]. A wheat crop sown late had
statistically smaller grains than the crop sown earlier [39]. In another study, there was a
subsequent decrease in 1000-GW in wheat with delayed sowing [40] while a higher GW
was associated with a longer grain-filling period [41]. In the present study, the highest
1000-GW was achieved in ‘E-72at all seeding dates while all genotypes produced
significantly higher 1000-GW in OSD than VLSD (Fig. 6). Similar results were also
found by others [42, 43]. 1000-GW of wheat genotypes decreased when exposed to late
heat stress due to high temperature stress [17, 18].
30
35
40
45
50
55
60
65
70
Shatabdi
Prodip
BARI Gom 26
E-6
E-8
E-10
E-14
E-19
E-36
E-37
E-40
E-42
E-60
E-61
E-65
E-67
E-68
E-69
E-71
E-72
Genotypes
Grains spike
-1
Optimum sowing Late sowing Very late sowing Mean
484
Yield, Protein and Starch Content
Fig. 6. Effect of sowing dates, genotypes and their interaction on 1000-grain (g) weight of 20 spring
wheat genotypes. Y error bars for SD(s) was calculated from three replicates for each treatment.
LSD at the 5% level for interaction = 4.34, sowing dates = 2.51 and CV (%) = 5.8.
3.7. Grain yield
Heat stress, singly or in combination with drought, is the biggest constraint during
anthesis and grain-filling stages in many cereal crops of temperate regions. Heat stress
reduced the grain-filling period with a reduction in kernel growth leading to losses in
kernel density and weight by up to 7% in spring wheat [44]. Excess radiation and high
temperatures are the most limiting factors affecting plant growth and finally crop yield in
tropical environments [45]. Growth, yield and yield-related components of tomato
varieties were affected by water stress while a heat-sensitive variety was more affected
than a heat-tolerant variety [46]. GY of barley decreased when sowing was delayed from
10-25 December to 10 January [47]. In our study, remarkable higher yield was attained in
‘E-10(6740 kg ha-1) under OSD whereas considerable stable yield was obtained in ‘E-8’
under OSD (6245 kg ha-1), LSD (5220 kg ha-1) and VLSD (4657 kg ha-1) (Fig. 7). The
highest mean grain yield was also recorded in ‘E-8’ (5374 kg ha-1) followed by ‘E-10
(5129 kg ha-1) and ‘E-71(5047 kg ha-1). However, in LSD and VLSD, the performance
of ‘E-40 was worst, yielding 3235 and 2775 kg ha-1. Considering yield reduction,
‘Prodip’ was heat sensitive (49.48% reduction in GY) followed by ‘E-40(46.89%
reduction), ‘E-10(45.96% reduction) and ‘E-42(44.39% reduction) in VLSD. On the
other hand, ‘E-72was heat tolerant (13.26% reduction), followed by ‘E-36(18.09%
reduction) and ‘E-8’ (25.43% reduction) (Fig. 7). Reduction in GY was 2.6-5.8% in heat-
tolerant wheat genotypes and 7.2% in heat-sensitive genotypes for each 1°C rise in
average mean air temperature under optimum conditions from anthesis to maturity [48].
25
30
35
40
45
50
55
60
65
Shatabdi
Prodip
BARI Gom 26
E-6
E-8
E-10
E-14
E-19
E-36
E-37
E-40
E-42
E-60
E-61
E-65
E-67
E-68
E-69
E-71
E-72
Genotypes
1000-grain weight (g)
Optimum sowing Late sowing Very late sowing Mean
M. A. Hakim et al. J. Sci. Res. 4 (2), 477-489 (2012)
Fig. 7. Effect of sowing dates, genotypes and their interaction on grain yield (kg ha-1) of 20 spring
wheat genotypes. Y error bars for SD(s) was calculated from three replicates for each treatment.
LSD at the 5% level for interaction = 611, sowing dates = 352 and CV (%) = 7.5.
3.8. Protein and starch content
Stress during the grain-filling stage may have an even greater effect on wheat, as it may
cause reduced grain-filling [49], accelerated cell death, and an earlier attainment of
harvest maturity [50], which may result in substantial changes in the protein composition
of the grains and in the size distribution of starch granules. Grain protein content and
gluten quality are the two most important parameters determining wheat quality [51].
Sowing date affects grain protein content mainly through its determination of the thermal
conditions prevailing during the grain-filling period, since late sown material generally
flowers late [52], thereby causing the grain-filling period to coincide with a high ambient
temperature. The protein content in flour increases significantly in bread wheat as a result
of heat stress [53-56].
In this present study, the percentage of protein and starch were significantly influenced
by sowing time and genotypes. The protein content of genotypes increased by about 7.87
to 30.43% in VLSD (Fig. 8). Genotype ‘E-6’ in VLSD showed the highest increase
(30.43%) and ‘Shatabdi’ the lowest (7.87%) in protein content. Qi et al. [57] also found
that barley grain protein content was significantly affected by sowing date, increasing
when the sowing date was delayed. The highest percentage of protein was found in ‘E-67
at OSD (Fig. 8). In LSD and VLSD the highest protein content was found in ‘E-65 in all
three sowing conditions.
2000
2500
3000
3500
4000
4500
5000
5500
6000
6500
7000
7500
Shatabdi
Prodip
BARI Gom 26
E-6
E-8
E-10
E-14
E-19
E-36
E-37
E-40
E-42
E-60
E-61
E-65
E-67
E-68
E-69
E-71
E-72
Genotypes
Grain y ield (kg ha
-1
)
Optimum sowing Late sowing Very late sowing Mean
486
Yield, Protein and Starch Content
Fig. 8. Effect of sowing dates, genotypes and their interaction on protein (%) of 20 spring wheat
genotypes. Y error bars for SD(s) was calculated from three replicates for each treatment. LSD at
the 5% level for interaction = 1.58, sowing dates = 0.91 and CV (%) = 7.7.
Starch content in all genotypes was higher in OSD compared to LSD and VLSD but
‘Shatabdi’, ‘Prodip’ and ‘E-36 had the lowest values in OSD compared to stress
conditions (Fig. 9). On the other hand, ‘BARI Gom-26’ did not show any significant
difference between OSD and stress conditions. The starch content of all genotypes was
reduced by about 0.16 to 6.76% in VLSD. Genotype ‘E-6’ in VLSD showed the highest
reduction (6.76%) while ‘E-67showed the lowest (0.16%) (Fig. 9). Various authors [58-
60] reported that high temperature after flowering reduced the starch content and
significantly influenced starch granule size distribution in wheat kernels.
Fig. 9. Effect of sowing dates, genotypes and their interaction on starch (%) of 20 spring wheat
genotypes. Y error bars for SD(s) was calculated from three replicates for each treatment. LSD at
the 5% level for interaction = 1.61, sowing dates = 0.93 and CV (%) = 1.6.
11.0
11.7
11.6
11.6
9.6
10.1
11.6
10.3
11.6
10.6
10.2
10.8
9.7
11.9
11.4
12.8
10.9
11.6
10.3
10.9
13.7
13.6
13.6
13.6
13.8
12.1
12.6
14.2
13.3
12.8
14.1
13.7
13.4
14.1
14.3
12.8
13.0
13.6
9.9
13.2
12.0
13.0
13.0
14.5
12.7
13.6
13.8
13.8
13.1
14.2
13.5
13.7
14.1
14.7
14.3
15.5
13.3
15.3
15.1
14.5
12.0
12.9
11.8
13.5
12.4
13.3
13.7
13.4
11.7
13.1
12.8
12.4
12.8
12.5
12.8
12.3
12.3
13.0
12.9
12.7
Shatabdi
Prodip
BARI Gom 26
E-6
E-8
E-10
E-14
E-19
E-36
E-37
E-40
E-42
E-60
E-61
E-65
E-67
E-68
E-69
E-71
E-72
Genotypes
% Protein
Optimum sowing Late sowing Very late s owing Mean
64.4
66.7
65.6
64.6
63.7
65.1
65.6
66.4
66.2
66.2
65.7
63.5
65.2
63.6
64.2
66.3
66.6
63.9
62.9
63.7
63.4
63.7
62.4
64.1
63.9
63.7
64.7
64.4
62.8
62.2
63.9
64.2
61.6
63.5
64.8
63.3
62.9
65.7
64.7
63.7
64.0
60.7
62.9
62.1
63.4
63.6
61.2
62.9
64.7
62.2
63.9
64.7
63.8
61.6
63.4
63.7
62.1
64.8
63.8
63.7
64.0
62.9
64.4
63.4
63.8
63.3
64.4
65.2
63.7
64.1
64.8
63.9
63.5
62.9
64.1
64.4
63.9
64.8
63.8
63.7
Shatabdi
Prodip
BARI Gom 26
E-6
E-8
E-10
E-14
E-19
E-36
E-37
E-40
E-42
E-60
E-61
E-65
E-67
E-68
E-69
E-71
E-72
Genotypes
% Starch
Optimum sowing Late sowing Very late sowing Mean
M. A. Hakim et al. J. Sci. Res. 4 (2), 477-489 (2012)
4. Conclusion
All wheat genotypes sown at LSD or VLSD were significantly affected by high
temperature stress, resulting in a reduction in days to heading and maturity, ultimately
affecting yield and yield-related components, protein and starch percent. Compared to all
genotypes, ‘E-72was highly tolerant to heat stress (13% reduction in yield) while
‘Prodip’ was highly susceptible to more extreme heat stress (49% reduction in yield).
Considering the quality (protein and starch %) of all genotypes, it was noticed that in heat
stress conditions (LSD, VLSD) % protein content increased in all genotypes. Among
these, ‘E-65(15.5%) had the highest while ‘E-60(12%) showed the lowest protein (%)
content in VLSD, while for starch, ‘E-60’ (65.2%) had the highest while ‘E-72’ (62.9%)
had the lowest content in all sowing conditions.
Acknowledgements
We are highly grateful to the staff of the Wheat Research Center, Bangladesh for
maintaining the experimental plants. Financial support from the Director General of the
Bangladesh Agricultural Research Institute is also gratefully acknowledged.
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Barley (Hordeum vulgare. L) is adapted to drought and salinity as the most critical constrained factors in Iran's crop production. Hence, the grain barley's importance is exhibited via 1.75 million hectares of harvested areas and 3.2 million tons of production in the country with arid and semi-arid climate conditions. However, the current production status meets only about 50% of Iran's barley's grain demands and is globally recognized as one of the largest barley importers in recent years. This study aimed to estimate the potential and yield gap and the potential barley grain production increase under the irrigated and rainfed conditions as the first step in schematizing the promotion of barley production. The impact of determinant climate factors on barley yields was also investigated at dominant barley productions regions over Iran. The present study approach is implemented based on the Global Yield Gap Atlas (GYGA). Accordingly, 12 and 17 designated climatic zones (DCZ), are distinguished as the dominant areas of the irrigated and rainfed barley production in the country, respectively. Afterwards, 48 and 38 reference weather stations (RWSs) within the DCZs were distributed to irrigated and rainfed barley harvested areas, respectively. The SSM-iCrop2 crop model was employed to simulate potential yield in irrigated (Yp) and rainfed (Yw) conditions by utilization of required data in each RWS through 15 barley growing seasons (2000–2014). The yield gap (the difference between simulated potential yield (Yp or Yw) and actual yield (Ya)) were calculated based on the bottom-up approach of GYGA in RWSs, DCZs and national-scale, respectively. Based on the results, the estimated potential yield varies between 5283 and 8286 kg/ha (with an average of 7090 kg/ha) in irrigated condition, and in the case of rainfed barley ranged between 1072 and 4002 kg/ha (with an average of 2723 kg/ha). In contrast, the actual yield in the DCZs was reported in the range of 1406 and 3723 kg/ha (with an average of 3009 kg/ha) for irrigated barley and ranged around 390–1510 kg/ha in rainfed conditions (with an average of 1009 kg/ha). According to the results, the DCZs that are confronted with higher temperatures and shorter growth length periods due to less total received daily solar radiation have low yields in irrigated conditions. In rainfed barley harvested areas, a significant correlation between rainfall distribution, high temperature and Yw has existed during the reproductive phase within 17 DCZs. Ultimately, the results indicated that the calculated yield gap varies between 3237 and 4697 kg/ha (50–76%) with an average of 4081 kg/ha (58%), and also between 615 and 3125 kg/ha (53–82%) with an average of 1714 kg/ha (63%) in the DCZs of irrigated and rainfed barley harvested areas, respectively. Consequently, it has been concluded that by achieving attainable yield (80% of potential yield) via improving production management, irrigated barley yield production can be increased to 5672 kg/ha and 4.17 million tons, respectively, provided that water resources are available. It can also be exploitable to increase rainfed barley's current yield and production from 1009 to 2178 kg/ha and 1.05–2.26 million tons, respectively. Finally, it makes sense to be inspired by increasing total national barley production from 3.26 to 6.43 million tons per year and bring the country closer to obtain full self-sufficiency in supplying the required barley grain.
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This study investigates the effects of water stress on moisture content distribution at different soil layers (pot) and on morphological characters of tomato plants. Three treatments of moisture level were imposed, viz, 100%, 70% and 40% of the field capacity. Moisture content distribution was higher at the surface and decreased with increasing stress at all growth stages. Yield and related morphological characters responded better at 70% of the field capacity compared with other treatments. Keywords: Tomato; Water stress; Moisture content; Tomato yield; Yield component. © 2011 JSR Publications. ISSN: 2070-0237 (Print); 2070-0245 (Online). All rights reserved. doi:10.3329/jsr.v3i3.7000 J. Sci. Res. 3 (3), 677-682 (2011)
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Short periods of high temperature (> 35ºC) are common during the post-anthesis period in Australian wheat crops and have recently been shown to significantly reduce grain yield and quality. In view of this, 75 cultivars of wheat were screened for tolerance to 3 days of high temperature (max. 40ºC). Detailed results for grain yield and quality are presented for five wheat cultivars in order to illustrate the wide range of responses to short periods of high temperature. Individual kernel mass decreased by up to 23%, depending on variety, and the gliadin : glutenin ratio altered in the range -9 to +18% in response to high temperature treatment, also depending on variety. Noodle swelling power was significantly affected by heat in two cultivars, but there was no significant change due to heat in the apparent amylose content in any variety. The marked response of several yield and quality components to a heat treatment lasting only ca 5% of the grain-filling period suggests that starch and protein synthesis do not immediately andlor fully recover from short, severe heat stress. In addition, we conclude that wheat shows considerable genetic variability in tolerance to short periods of high temperature for both grain yield and quality.
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Controlled-environment conditions were used to examine the effects of cultivar and of temperature and illuminance after anthesis on grain setting and on the duration and rate of grain growth. After an initial lag period, which did not differ greatly between cultivars, grain dry weight increased linearly under most conditions until final grain weight was approached. Growth rate per grain depended on floret position within the ear, varied between cultivars (those with larger grains at maturity having a faster rate), and increased with rise in temperature. With cultivars in which grain number per ear was markedly affected by illuminance, light had relatively little effect on growth rate per grain. With those in which grain number was less affected by illuminance, growth rate per grain was highly responsive to it, especially in the more distal florets. In both cases there was a close relation between leaf photosynthetic rate as influenced by illuminance, the rate of grain growth per ear, and final grain yield per ear. The duration of linear grain growth, on the other hand, was scarcely influenced by illuminance, but was greatly reduced as temperature rose, with pronounced effects on grain yield per ear. Cultivars differed to some extent in their duration of linear growth, but these differences accounted for less of the difference in final weight per grain than did those in rate of grain growth. Under most conditions the cessation of grain growth did not appear to be due to lack of assimilates.
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