Advanced Glycation End Product Receptor-1 Transgenic Mice Are Resistant to Inflammation, Oxidative Stress, and Post-Injury Intimal Hyperplasia

Division of Experimental Diabetes and Aging, Department of Medicine, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, New York 10029, USA.
American Journal Of Pathology (Impact Factor: 4.59). 09/2009; 175(4):1722-32. DOI: 10.2353/ajpath.2009.090138
Source: PubMed


The high levels of oxidative stress (OS) and inflammation associated with cardiovascular disease are linked to pro-oxidants such as advanced glycation end products (AGEs). AGEs interact with multiple receptors, including receptor 1 (AGER1), which promotes AGE removal and blocks OS and inflammation, and RAGE, which enhances inflammation. In this study, we evaluated metabolic and vascular changes in AGER1 transgenic mice (AGER1-tg) subjected to an atherogenic diet and arterial wire-injury. Both baseline and postatherogenic diet serum and tissue AGEs as well as plasma 8-isoprostane levels were lower in AGER1-tg mice than in wild-type mice. The levels of injected (125)I-AGE in tissues were decreased as well in AGER1-tg mice. After ingesting a high-fat diet, AGER1-tg mice had a normal glucose tolerance and only 7% were hyperglycemic, whereas 53% of wild-type mice had stable hyperglycemia. After wire-injury, intimal lesions in AGER1-tg mice were small, whereas wild-type mice had diffuse intimal hyperplasia, a high intima/media ratio, and inflammatory cell infiltrates. In addition, AGER1 staining, prominent in AGER1-tg mice, was attenuated in 30 to 40% of wild-type cells, although all cells were strongly positive for AGEs. Thus, AGER1 overexpression in mice reduces basal levels of AGEs and OS, enhances resistance to diet-induced hyperglycemia and OS, and protects against injury-induced arterial intimal hyperplasia and inflammation, providing protection against OS and inflammation induced by AGEs and high-fat diets in vivo.

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Available from: Massimo Torreggiani
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    • "Nowadays, accumulating evidence showed that hyperglycemia could mediate the alteration of extra and intracellular metabolism, such as the function of AGEs. The high level of OS associated with cardiovascular disease was linked to prooxidants such as AGEs [27]. AGEs have been regarded as one of the most toxic substances and resulted in OS response in diabetic vascular dysfunction [28–30]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Oxidative stress (OS) has been regarded as one of the major pathogeneses of diabetic nephropathy (DN) through damaging kidney which is associated with renal cells dysfunction. The aim of this study was to investigate whether Moutan Cortex (MC) could protect kidney function against oxidative stress in vitro or in vivo. The compounds in MC extract were analyzed by HPLC-ESI-MS. High-glucose-fat diet and STZ (30 mg kg−1) were used to induce DN rats model, while 200 μ g mL−1 AGEs were for HBZY-1 mesangial cell damage. The treatment with MC could significantly increase the activity of SOD, glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PX), and catalase (CAT). However, lipid peroxidation malondialdehyde (MDA) was reduced markedly in vitro or in vivo. Furthermore, MC decreased markedly the levels of blood glucose, serum creatinine, and urine protein in DN rats. Immunohistochemical assay showed that MC downregulated significantly transforming growth factor beta 2 (TGF- β 2) protein expression in renal tissue. Our data provided evidence to support this fact that MC attenuated OS in AGEs-induced mesangial cell dysfunction and also in high-glucose-fat diet and STZ-induced DN rats.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2014 · Oxidative medicine and cellular longevity
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    • "A potential link tying together high carbohydrate diet and a maladaptive pro-inflammatory state is the increased formation of circulating and tissue-associated AGEs. The presence of increased AGEs is tied to both a pro-oxidative and pro-inflammatory state where oxidative stress mediates the persistent inflammatory response [40], [41]. In patients with poorly controlled diabetes and increased glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), peripheral blood leukocytes express increased innate and type 1 cytokines indicative of a pro-inflammatory phenotype [42], [43]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Hyperglycemia, the diagnostic feature of diabetes also occurs in non-diabetics associated with chronic inflammation and systemic insulin resistance. Since the increased risk of active TB in diabetics has been linked to the severity and duration of hyperglycemia, we investigated what effect diet-induced hyperglycemia had on the severity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infection in non-diabetic guinea pigs. Post-prandial hyperglycemia was induced in guinea pigs on normal chow by feeding a 40% sucrose solution daily or water as a carrier control. Sucrose feeding was initiated on the day of aerosol exposure to the H37Rv strain of Mtb and continued for 30 or 60 days of infection. Despite more severe hyperglycemia in sucrose-fed animals on day 30, there was no significant difference in lung bacterial or lesion burden until day 60. However the higher spleen and lymph node bacterial and lesion burden at day 30 indicated earlier and more severe extrapulmonary TB in sucrose-fed animals. In both sucrose- and water-fed animals, serum free fatty acids, important mediators of insulin resistance, were increased by day 30 and remained elevated until day 60 of infection. Hyperglycemia mediated by Mtb infection resulted in accumulation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) in lung granulomas, which was exacerbated by sucrose feeding. However, tissue and serum AGEs were elevated in both sucrose and water-fed guinea pigs by day 60. These data indicate that Mtb infection alone induces insulin resistance and chronic hyperglycemia, which is exacerbated by sucrose feeding. Moreover, Mtb infection alone resulted in the accumulation tissue and serum AGEs, which are also central to the pathogenesis of diabetes and diabetic complications. The exacerbation of insulin resistance and hyperglycemia by Mtb infection alone may explain why TB is more severe in diabetics with poorly controlled hyperglycemia compared to non-diabetics and patients with properly controlled blood glucose levels.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2012 · PLoS ONE
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    • "Furthermore, AGEs can bind to various receptors, such as the receptor for AGE (RAGE) or AGE receptors 1-3 (AGER1-3), leading to complex effects on cellular function via complicated transduction pathways [8-10]. The major AGE receptor (RAGE) enhances inflammation, while AGER1 promotes the removal of AGEs and blocks inflammation [11]. The vascular endothelium is the front-line organ for vascular injury and a common target of various risk factors, with dysfunction of the microvascular endothelial barrier playing a critical role in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance and diabetes [12]. "
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    ABSTRACT: The role of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) in the development of diabetes, especially diabetic complications, has been emphasized in many reports. Accumulation of AGEs in the vasculature triggers a series of morphological and functional changes in endothelial cells (ECs) and induces an increase of endothelial permeability. This study was to investigate the involvement of RhoA/ROCK-dependent moesin phosphorylation in endothelial abnormalities induced by AGEs. Using human dermal microvascular endothelial cells (HMVECs), the effects of human serum albumin modified-AGEs (AGE-HSA) on the endothelium were assessed by measuring monolayer permeability and staining of F-actin in HMVECs. Activations of RhoA and ROCK were determined by a luminescence-based assay and immunoblotting. Transfection of recombinant adenovirus that was dominant negative for RhoA (RhoA N19) was done to down-regulate RhoA expression, while adenovirus with constitutively activated RhoA (RhoA L63) was transfected to cause overexpression of RhoA in HMVECs. H-1152 was employed to specifically block activation of ROCK. Co-immunoprecipitation was used to further confirm the interaction of ROCK and its downstream target moesin. To identify AGE/ROCK-induced phosphorylation site in moesin, two mutants pcDNA3/HA-moesinT(558A) and pcDNA3/HA-moesinT(558D) were applied in endothelial cells. The results showed that AGE-HSA increased the permeability of HMVEC monolayer and triggered the formation of F-actin-positive stress fibers. AGE-HSA enhanced RhoA activity as well as phosphorylation of ROCK in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Down-regulation of RhoA expression with RhoA N19 transfection abolished these AGE-induced changes, while transfection of RhoA L63 reproduced the AGE-evoked changes. H-1152 attenuated the AGE-induced alteration in monolayer permeability and cytoskeleton. The results also confirmed the AGE-induced direct interaction of ROCK and moesin. Thr558 was further identified as the phosphorylating site of moesin in AGE-evoked endothelial responses. These results confirm the involvement of RhoA/ROCK pathway and subsequent moesin Thr558 phosphorylation in AGE-mediated endothelial dysfunction.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2012 · Cardiovascular Diabetology
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