Energy density at a buffet-style lunch differs for adolescents born at high and low risk of obesity

University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, 19104, United States.
Eating behaviors 12/2009; 10(4):209-14. DOI: 10.1016/j.eatbeh.2009.07.003
Source: PubMed


The energy density (ED; kcal/g) of foods, when manipulated in the laboratory, affects short-term energy intake. The aim of this study was to examine if, when given a choice, dietary ED (foods only) and energy intake (expressed as a percentage of subjects' estimated daily energy requirement; EER) at a self-selected, single meal differ for teens born with a different familial predisposition to obesity and as a function of their sex. Subjects (13 males, 17 females) were 12years of age and born at high risk (HR; n=15) or low risk (LR; n=15) for obesity based on maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI; kg/m(2)). The buffet meal, served for lunch and consumed ad libitum, consisted of a variety of foods and beverages with a range in ED. HR subjects consumed a more energy-dense meal (foods only) than LR subjects (1.84 vs. 1.42kcal/g; P=0.02) and males consumed a more energy-dense meal than females (1.83 vs. 1.43kcal/g; P=0.03). Total energy intake, when expressed as a percentage of subjects' daily EER, did not differ between HR and LR subjects (42% vs. 33%; P=0.16). Males, compared to females, consumed ~59% more energy from foods and beverages during the meal (46 vs. 29%; P=0.008). During a single multi-item lunch meal, teens with a familial predisposition to obesity and males, independent of their obesity risk status, self-selected a more energy-dense meal. Familial risk for obesity, through either genetic or environmental pathways, may facilitate a more energy-dense diet.

Full-text preview

Available from:
    • "Such a strategy could promote food choices for more proximate, lower calorie foods, even when a variety or ''buffet'' of foods are offered ad lib. Interestingly, evidence suggests that total energy consumption is highest among those at risk for obesity when food is served ad lib (Kral et al., 2009). However, manipulations of proximity were effective independent of BMI in the present study. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to test if proximity of a food or preference for a food influences food intake in a competitive food environment in which one low calorie/low fat (apple slices) and one higher calorie/higher fat (buttered popcorn) food was available in the same environment. The proximity of popcorn and apple slices was manipulated and 56 participants were randomly assigned to groups. In Group Apples Near, apple slices were placed near (within arms reach) a participant and popcorn was placed far (2 m away). In Group Popcorn Near, buttered popcorn was placed near and apple slices were placed far. As a control for the absence of a proximity manipulation, Group Both Near had both test foods placed near. Although participants rated the popcorn as more liked than apples, the food that was placed closer to the participant was consumed most in the two experimental groups, regardless of preference (R(2) = 0.38). Total energy intake was reduced most when popcorn was placed far from a participant compared to when it was placed near (R(2) = 0.24). The effects reported here were not moderated by BMI and did not vary by sex. In all, the results support the hypothesis that making a low calorie food more proximate will reduce total energy intake and increase intake of a low calorie food, even when a higher calorie and more preferred food is also available, but less proximate.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2014 · Appetite
  • Source
    • "In addition, the majority of research works based on buffet-type meal designs use cold buffets. When food is served hot, there is no mention of the equipment used to maintain the food temperature constant throughout the experiment (Kral et al., 2009). This could present a bias in the choice order of these items during the meal. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Satiety is a complex object which requires to be studied both from a metabolic and a behavioral point of view. In this paper, we review and discuss the methodological issues associated with the experimental measure of satiety. We propose an integrated approach where satiety measurements are dissociated in two different places, to allow for an in-depth exploration of both metabolic and behavioral aspects. Additional behavioral measurements are developed at the food choice level and at the level of the microstructure of the meal. We illustrate the implementation of this behavioral design with data obtained in a pilot study with 14 subjects.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2012 · Food Quality and Preference
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In this paper, experimental results of the control of the ammonia concentration during the growth phase of a PHB producing process in a fedbatch reactor are presented. The control design is based on the mass balance dynamical equations and does require any knowledge of the process kinetics. It results in an adaptive linearizing controller where the specific growth rate is estimated online. Moreover the value of the controlled variable, the ammonian concentration is given by a software sensor via an asymptotic observer based on the online measurement of the optical density
    No preview · Conference Paper · Oct 1993
Show more