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The miracle plant (Kalanchoe pinnata): A phytochemical and pharmacological review

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Abstract

Kalanchoe is a succulent perennial plant that grows 3-5 feet tall. Commonly known as 'air plant,' it has tall hollow stems, fleshy dark green leaves that are distinctively scalloped and trimmed in red, and bell-like pendulous flowers. Kalanchoe is botanically classified with two main Latin names which refer to the same plant: Bryophyllum pinnatum and Kalanchoe pinnatum (as well as various synonyms of both). This review presents detailed survey of literature on phytochemical and medicinal properties of the plant. The chemicals reported from the plant belong to different classes such as alkaloid, diterpenoidal lactones, glycosides, steroids, phenolics, aliphatic compounds, etc. The notable pharmacological properties include anti-diabetic, anti-neoplastic, antioxidant, immunomodulation, anti-lipidaemic, anti-allergic and many more activities which are yet to be explored. KEYWORD: Kalanchoe pinnata, Phytoconstituent, Pharmacological activity. INTRODUCTION Kalanchoe is a medicinal plant largely used in folk medicine for the treatment of kidney stones, gastric ulcer, pulmonary infection, rheumatoid arthritis etc. Kalanchoe pinnata has become naturalized in temperate regions of Asia and Hawaii. In many of these, such as Hawaii, it is regarded as an invasive species. In French Polynesia, Kalanchoe pinnata has been declared a threat to biodiversity. It is also widely distributed in the Philippines and it is known as katakataka or kataka-taka which is also an adjective meaning astonishing or remarkable. In India it is cultivated in gardens and wild on the hills of North-Western India, Deccan and Bengal.
Quazi Majaz A. et al / IJRAP 2011, 2 (5) 1478-1482
International Journal of Research in Ayurveda & Pharmacy
ISSN 2229-3566
Review Article www.ijrap.net
THE MIRACLE PLANT (KALANCHOE PINNATA):
A PHYTOCHEMICAL AND PHARMACOLOGICAL REVIEW
Quazi Majaz A.1*, A.U. Tatiya2, Molvi Khurshid1, Sayyed Nazim1, Shaikh Siraj1
1Ali-Allana College of Pharmacy, Akkalkuwa, Dist- Nandurbar, MS, India
2R.C. Patel College of Pharmacy, Shirpur, Dist- Dhule, MS, India
Received on: 16/08/11 Revised on: 25/09/11 Accepted on: 16/10/11
*Corresponding author
E-mail: quazimajaz@gmail.com
ABSTRACT
Kalanchoe is a succulent perennial plant that grows 3-5 feet tall. Commonly known as 'air plant,' it has tall hollow stems, fleshy dark green leaves that are distinctively scalloped
and trimmed in red, and bell-like pendulous flowers. Kalanchoe i s botanically classified with t wo main Latin names which refer to the same plant: Br yophyllum pinnatum and
Kalanchoe pinnatum (as well as various synonyms of both). This review presents detailed survey of literature on phytochemical and medicinal properties of the plant. The
chemicals reported from the plant belong to different classes such as alkaloid, diterpenoidal la ctones, glycosides, steroids, phenolics, aliphatic compounds, etc. The notable
pharmacological properties include anti-diabetic, anti-neoplastic, antioxidant, immunomodulation, anti-lipidaemic, anti-allergic and many more activities which are yet to be
explored.
KEYWORD: Kalanchoe pinnata, Phytoconstituent, Pharmacological activity.
INTRODUCTION
Kalanchoe is a medicinal plant largely used in folk medicine for the
treatment of kidney stones, gastric ulcer, pulmonary infection,
rheumatoid arthritis etc. Kalanchoe pinnata has become
naturalized in temperate regions of Asia, Australia, New Zealand,
West Indies, Macaronesia, Mascarenes, Galapagos, Melanesia,
Polynesia, and Hawaii. In many of these, such as Hawaii, it is
regarded as an invasive species. In French Polynesia, Kalanchoe
pinnata has been declared a threat to biodiversity. It is also widely
distributed in the Philippines and it is known as katakataka or
kataka-taka which is also an adjective meaning astonishing or
remarkable. In India it is cultivated in gardens and wild on the hills
of North-Western India, Deccan and Bengal.
Taxonomy
Kingdom : Plantae (Plants)
Subkingdom : Tracheobionta (Vascular plants)
Super division : Spermatophyta (Seed plants)
Division : Magnoliophyta (Flowering plant)
Class : Magnoliopsida (Dicotyledonous)
Subclass : Rosidae
Order : Saxifragales
Family : Crassulaceae Stonecrop family
Genus : Kalanchoe
Species : Kalanchoe pinnata (Lam.) Per3
Fig 1 Kalanchoe pinnata Plant Fig 2 Leaf of Kalanchoe pinnata
Synonyms
Bryophyllum calycinum, B. germinans, B. pinnatum, Cotyledon
calycina, C. calyculata, C. pinnata, C. rhizophilla, Crassuvia
floripendia, Crassula pinnata, Sedum madagascariense, Verea
pinnata4
Regional Names
Hindi: zakhm-hayat
Arabic: kushnulhayat
Bengal: koppata
Sanskrit: asthi-bhaksha
Telgu: simajamudu
Tamil: ranakalli
Kannad: ganduklinga
Malayalam: elamurunga
Persian & Urdu: Chubehayat1, 2
Description
It is a glabrous herb 0.3-1.2m. High;
Stems obtusely four angled the older light colored, younger parts
reddish speckled with white.
leaves variable decussate, the lower usually simple or occasionally
compound, 8-12 and 6-8cm in size, the upper usually 3-5or
sometimes 7- folio late, long pointed, the petioles united by a ridge
round the stem. Leaflets ovate or elliptic, crenate or serrate. The
leaves often produce, on their crenature at the extremities of the
lateral nerves, buds furnished with root, stems and leaves, which
drop off and at once become new plants1.
Flowers reddish purple, pendent in large spreading panicles with
opposite stout branches; pedicle slender. Calyx red and green at the
base, striated, pale green above, teeth triangular. The corolla swollen
and octagonal at the base, reddish purple, constricted in the middle.
Filaments green at the base, pinkish below the anther. Anther hastate
and black.
Fruits enclosed in the persistent papery calyx and corolla.
Seeds small smooth oblong ellipsoid, scarcely striate, smooth. The
leaves often produce, on their crenature at the extremities of the
lateral nerves, buds furnished with root, stems and leaves, which
drop off and at once become new plants.
Distribution
Kalanchoe is a medicinal plant largely used in folk medicine for
various treatments; it is distributed through out India and cultivated
in gardens and wild on the hills of North-Western India, Deccan and
Bengal5.
Quazi Majaz A. et al / IJRAP 2011, 2 (5) 1478-1482
International Journal of Research in Ayurveda & Pharmacy
Traditional Uses
WORLDWIDE ETHNOMEDICAL USES
Brazil
for abscesses, adenoids(infected), arthritis, athlete's foot, boils, bronchitis, bubos, burns, calluses,
conjunctivitis, corns, coughs, dermatitis, dermatosis, eara ches, eczema, edema, erysipelas, fever, glaucoma,
headache, infections, i nflammation, insect stings, intestinal problems, itch, kidney stones, lymphatic
disorders, mouth sores, nervousness, respiratory infections, rheumatism, scurvy, skin problems, toothache,
tuberculosis, tumor, ulcers, urinary insufficiency, wart, whooping cough, wounds, and as a sedative. 4
Ecuador
for bruises, broken bones 4
Guatemala
for aches, diarrhea, pain, skin problems 4
India
for abdominal discomfort, boils, bruises, cholera, cuts, diabetes, diarrhea, dysentery, flatulence, headaches,
kidney stones, indigestion, insect bites, scabies, sores, urinary insufficiency, wounds 6, 4
In Himalaya
Leaves are applied on wound, bruises, swelling and insect bite 7
Arunachal
pardesh
Leaf extract is taken in empty stomach is used in the treatment of urinary bladder stones and fewer in
childrens. 8
Orisa
For diarrhea 9
Maharashtra
The leaves juice is used against cough, dysentery 1
Karnataka
Leaf juice externally applied to scabies and leucoderma and leaf decoction applied over cuts to stop bleeding.
11,4
Mexico
for eye infections, headaches, inflammation, menstrual disorders, pimples, wounds 4
Nicaragua
for aches, burns, childbirth, colds, coughs, fever, headache, pain, respiratory infections4
Nigeria
for coughs, earaches, eczema, inflammation, pimples 4
Peru
for bacterial infections, boils, broken bones, bronchitis, cancer (lymphoma), conjunctivitis, coughs, earaches,
eye infections, epilepsy, erysipelas, fever, gas, hea dache, heartburn, inflammation, intestinal problems,
migraine, nausea, skin problems, sores, ulcers, urethritis4
Bangladesh
for coughs, mucus, fever, epilepsy, constipation, piles etc 14
South America
for asthma, chest colds, earaches, headaches, sores, strains, tumors 4
USA
for chicken pox, fevers, stomachache 4
West Indies
for menstrual disorders, ul cers, hypertension, urinary disorder 10
Vietnam
for antibacterial and anti -inflammatory 12
Elsewhere
for arthritis, asthma, bruises, burns, constipation, diabetes, earaches, headaches, malnutrition, migraines,
nephritis, paralysis, respiratory infections, rheumatism, sprains, swelling, ulcers, wound 4, and to induce
vomiting of blood , cut umbilical cord in new born baby, expel worms. 15
Unani and ayurveda
In ayurveda the leaves are bitter poisonous to insects. While in
unani the bark is bitter and poisonous; tonic, alexipharmic,
astringents to the bowels, analgesic, carminatives; useful in diarrhea
and vomiting, inflammations; in snake-bite and scorpion sting. 4
Pharmacognostical Studies
The macroscopic studied showed that leaves are opposite, simple or
compound, 12-18cm and 6-8cm in size, apex is obtuse, ovate or
elliptic in shape, crenate or serrate margin, asymmetric base,
reticulate venation, petiole is long, surface is glabrous, upper
epidermis dark green in color and lower epidermis lighter in color
and with a characteristic odors and bitter test .
The microscopic studies of leaves of plant showed xylem, phloem,
mesophyll tissue, midrib, while the trichomes absent both side i.e.
adaxial side and abaxial side. It is broadly shallow on the adaxial
side and convex on the abaxial side. It has thin adaxial epidermal
layer of small, less prominent cells. The abaxial epidermis is also
nary thin and less distinct. The ground tissue of midrib is
parenchymatous and homogenous. The cells are circular or angular
and compact. The vascular strand is single, collateral, small and
hemispherical in shape. It consists of thick horizontal band of xylem
and fairly wide band of phloem. The vascular bundle is 100µm in
vertical plane and 170 µm in horizontal plane. The lamina is
uniformly flat with even surface. The mesophyll tissue is not
differentiated into palisade and spongy parenchyma. The stomata are
abundant, these are 18-20 stomata per mm², having anisocytic in
nature16.
Phytochemical Review
Ø The plant contain alkaloids , flavonoids, phenolic compound,
tannins, macro elements ;magnesium, calcium, potassium,
phosphorus, sodium , microelements; iron, zinc, vitamins ;
ascorbic acid, riboflavin, thiamine, niacin. 17
Ø Syringic acid, caffeic acid, 4-hydroxy-3-methoxy-cinnamic acid,
4-hydroxybenzoic acid, p-hydroxycinnamic acid, para-coumaric
acid, ferulic acid, protocatechuic acid, phosphoenolpyruvate,
protocatechuic acid isolated from aerial parts of plants. Leaves
contain astragalin, 3, 8-dimethoxy-4, 5, 7- trihydroxyflavone,
friedelin, epigallocatechin-3-o-syringate, luteolin, rutin,
kaempferol, quercetin, quercetin- 3L-rhamonsido-L-arabino
furanoside, quercetin-3-O-diarabinoside, and kaempferol-3-
glucoside. 18
Ø three unusual flavonoids isolated from plant responsible for
antileishmanial activity are Kaempherol 3-O-α-
Larabinopyranosyl(12) α-L-rhamnopyranoside, Quercetin 3-
O- α-Larabinopyranosyl(12) α-L-rhamnopyranoside, 4,5-
dihydroxy-3,8-dimethoxyflavone 7-O-β-D-glucopyradinoside
and quercetin from Kalanchoe pinnata 19
Ø From fresh leaves of Bryophyllum pinnatum three new
constituents, bryophyllol, bryophollone and bryophollenone have
been isolated .Three new compounds, bryophynol and two
phenanthrene derivatives have also been identified in the
mixture. 18α-Oleanane, ψ-taraxasterol, β-arnyrin acetate and a
new sterol, reported earlier as a hydrolysed product, have also
been obtained, along with a mixture of α- and β-amyrins and
their acetates. 20
Ø Two insecticidal bufadienolides were isolated from methanolic
extract of leaves of kalanchoe pinnata and identified as
bryophyllin A and bryophyllin C. 22
Ø Five bufadienolides were isolated from plant responsible for anti
tumor activity which are bryophollone, bryophyllin A,
Quazi Majaz A. et al / IJRAP 2011, 2 (5) 1478-1482
International Journal of Research in Ayurveda & Pharmacy
bryophyllin C, bersaldegenin-3-acetate, bersaldegenin1,3,5-
orthoacetate, daigremotianin 21
Ø 1-octane3-O-α-L-arabinopyranosyl-(16)-glucopyranoside, a
minor constituent isolated from leaves. 42
Ø The cardienolide and steroidal contents includes β-sitosterol,
bryophyllol, bryophynol, bryotoxin A , bryotoxin B,
campesterol, 24-ethyl-25-hydroxycholesterol, isofucosterol,
clionasterol, codisterol, peposterol, 22-dihydrobrassicasterol,
clerosterol, 24-epiclerosterol, 24-ethyl- desmosterol,
stigmasterol are isolated from aerial parts . 18
Ø Leaf contains amino acids i.e. thiamine, pyridoxine, ascorbic
acid, glycine, cysteine, casein hydrlylsate, nicotinamide, Food
content i.e. carbohydrate, protein, lipids, Minerals; sodium,
calcium, potassium, phosphorus, magnesium, ferrous, copper,
zinc, and sugars; raffinose, lactose, sucrose, glucose etc 23
Ø The plant content various enzymes i.e. Phosphoenolpyruate
carboxykinase (PCK), Phosphoenolpyruate carboxylase (PEPC),
Pyruate orthophosphate dikinase (PPDK), ribulose-1, 5-
biphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) etc enzymes
presents in leaf of plant Kalanchoe pinnata. 24
Ø Phosphoglycerate kinase, Carbonic anhydrase, Glycolate
oxidase, Fructosebiphosphate aldolase, DNA topoisomerase etc
protein were identified by Jasmeet K et al, in which most of
having role in metabolism. 25
Rutin kaemferol
Quercetin bryophyllin A
β- Sitosterol cholesterol
Stigmasterol
Pharmacological Review
Anticancer activity
Supertman and et al isolated Bufadienolides from Kalanchoe
pinnata and were examined for their inhibitory effects on Epstin
Barr virus early antigen activation in Raji cells induced by the tumor
promoter, all bufadeinolides shows good activity , while Bryophyllin
A shows highest activity22.
Anticonvulsant activity
Bryophyllum pinnatum leaf extract (50,100,200mg/kg) given to the
rats in groups and various test were performed Head dip and evasion
test in mice, muscle tone (Chinney test, inclined screen test and
climbing test) and anticonvulsant test (strychnin and picrotoxin
induced convulsant in mice ). The all extracts showed positive
results while 200mg/kg shows highest activity. Cytotoxic study
revealed that the aqueous leaf extract of Bryophyllum pinnatum in
dosage up to 20g/kg31.
Anti-diabetic activities
Hydroalcoholic extract of plant (500mg/kg body wt.) shows
reduction in both postprandial and streptozosin induced diabetes
blood glucose levels, triglyceride levels, low density lipoprotein
level, and increase in high density lipoprotein level40.
Antifungal activity
Adenike A. O. Ogunshe et al worked on the Nigerian Traditional
plants to evaluate antifungal activity (Vaginal Candidiasis). They
evaluated the plants against the various strains of these species
(Candida albicans, C.glabrata, C. tropicalis, C.
pseudotropicalis).They conclude that none off the strains of C.
pseudotropicalis inhibited by ethanolic extract of Kalanchoe pinnata
.While it have good inhibitory effects against other species35.
Antileishmanial activity
Da Silva et al used BALB/c mice for the experiment and Leishmania
amazonesis (lma) used to induce the disease, the work demonstrate
that the aqueous extract of plant protects mice against progressive
infection with lma by oral route of administration.27
A case of a 30-yr old man who was naturally infected in the
Amazonian region of
Brazil with a virulent species of Leishmania, and was voluntary
treated with kalanchoe pinnata. The skin lesion was steadly growing
when he started ingesting three leaves of plant a day for 2 weeks.
Throughout this period of time the lesion stopped growing and the
draining lymph nodes returned to normal sizes. The patient did not
notice any side effect and the urea, creatinin, TGO and TGP serum
levels remained unaltered suggesting absence of liver, heart or
kidney toxicity. Upon kalanchoe withdrawal the lesion started
growing again and the patient was then submitted to the classical
pentavalent antimony therapy.28
Antimicrobial activity
Kalanchoe pinnata leaf extract (60% methanolic extract) was found
to inhibit the growth of five out of eight microorganism used, at a
concentration of 25mg/ml. klebsiella pneumoniae, pseudomonas
aeruginosa and candida albicans showed resistance. 32
Anti-nociceptive and anti-inflammatory activity
Bryophyllum pinnatum leaf aqueous extracts (BPE, 25-800mg/kg
i.p.)Produced significant antinociceptive effects against thermally
and chemically induced nociceptive pain stimuli in mice. The plant
leaf aqueous extract (BPE, 25-800mg/kg i.p. or p.o) significantly
inhibited fresh egg albumin induced acute inflammation of the rat
hind paw29.
Antiproliferative activity
Jun-ya Ueda et al. have done MTT assay on a highly metastatic
human HT-1080 fibrosarcoma cell line. The shows that methanolic,
methanolic: aqueous and aqueous extract have mild antiproliferative
activity36.
Quazi Majaz A. et al / IJRAP 2011, 2 (5) 1478-1482
International Journal of Research in Ayurveda & Pharmacy
Anti ulcer activity
The ethanolic extract shows activity against acute ulcers, while
aqueous extract did not prevent the formation of gastric mucosal
lesions induced by indomethacine41.
Diuretic and antiurolithic activity
Hydroalcoholic extract of leaves of Kalanchoe pinnata
(Crassulaceae) was administered to male wistar rats by oral and
intraperitoneal route at the doses of 100,300,500 and 800 mg/kg.
The effect of urine out put was determined by comparing the urine
volume collected by keeping individual animal in metabolic cages.
Antiurolithiatic effect was determined by comparing urinary
electrolyte levels, biochemical parameters and kidney histology with
control and standard drug treated animals. Plant extract was found to
exert significant diuretic and antiurolithitic activity. 39
Hepatoprotective activity
The leaf juice (concentrated) and the ethanolic fraction of the juice
(EX) was taken for the activity. Both in vitro and in vivo model
were taken for assessment of activity.
Hepatotoxicity was induced by chloroform is due to its metabolite
ccl3 a free radical that binds to lipoprotein and leads to per
oxidation of lipids of endoplasmic reticulum. The result of this
experiment are the decrease of bilirubin level by the plant
concentrate up to 105.50% and decrease of SGPT level by
concentrate and EX up to 92.47 and 87.43% respectively. These data
along with histopathological studies clearly show the
Hepatoprotective activity of kalanchoe pinnata33.
Immunomodulatory effect
male BALB/c mice and Lou-M rats were used for the experiments
and Eosinophil counts, OVA specific igE, T cell proliferation,
Cytokine production, Histamine release assay etc parameters were
considered, the results shows that plant extract and its Quercetin
flavonoids effectively protects mice against anaphylactic shock34.
Nephroprotective activity
Harlalka et al report that the aqueous extract of leaves of Kalanchoe
pinnata possesses potent nephroprotective against gentamicin
induced nephrotoxicity in rats and in vitro anti oxidant activity37.
Neurosedative and muscle relaxant activity
The saline leaf extract of plant was investigated on
neuropharmacological activity to ascertain claims of local use. When
tested in mice, it produced a dose-dependent prolongation of onset
and duration of pentobarbital- induced hypnosis, reduction of
exploratory activities in the head-dip and evasion tests. Moreover a
dose dependent muscle in coordination was observed in the inclined
screen, traction and climbing tests. It delayed onset to convulsion in
both strychnine and picrotoxin induced seizures in addition to
minimal protection against picrotoxin seizures30.
Uterine relaxant
Bryophyllum pinnatum shows relaxant effect in vitro on the
contractility of human myometrium and reinforcing against fenoterol
induced uterine contractility (Spontaneous contraction, Oxytocin
stimulated contraction). 38
Wound healing activity
The effect of kalanchoe pinnata leaf extract viz. petroleum ether
(PE), alcoholic extract (AE), and water extract (WE) on healing,
excision, incision and dead space wound in albino rat has been
investigated. All the three extract showed significant increase in the
breaking strength of incision wound. Cotton pellet dry weight and
hydroxy prolin content of granulation tissue, when compared to
control groups, and they showed significant increase in wound
contraction and formation of scars on 17th post wounding day. The
result reveal that WE hastened the healing process in open wounds,
but all the extract administered systematically promoted the healing
of incision wounds. 26
MARKETED PREPARATION
1 Amantol cream
Upper respiratory disorders, sinusitis, bronchitis, allergic reactions,
conditions related to blockages in nasal passage. Ingredients:
Mentha viridist extract (mint.), Iresine difusa (escanel) extract,
Lippia alba extract (yantria), Zingiber officinalis extract (ginger),
Kalanchoe pinnata extract (Pakipanga), Mansia alliacea extract (ajo
de monte), mentol, alcanfor, water, cream base. External usage
only43
2 Parnabija svarasa -anti obesity 44
CONCLUSION
The plant kalanchoe pinnata is a succulent plant which has been
introduced to many temperate and tropical regions of the world as an
ornamental. In several of these regions, the species is widely
naturalised and regarded as invasive. It forms dense stands in dry
and disturbed areas. Kalanchoe is rich in alkaloids, triterpenes,
glycosides, flavonoids, steroids and lipids. The leaves contain a
group of chemicals called bufadienolides which are very active and
have sparked the interest of scientists. They are very similar in
structure and activity as two other cardiac glycosides, digoxin and
digitoxin (drugs used for the clinical treatment of congestive heart
failure and related conditions). Kalanchoe's bufadienolides have
demonstrated in clinical research to possess antibacterial, anti-
tumor, cancer preventative, and insecticidal actions. Generally leaf,
leaf juice and whole plant is used the root part is not yet explored
hence the further studied should be done to evaluate its chemical and
pharmacological activity. As we find that clinical trial on the plant
yet not done hence the plant can be explored for clinical study.
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... It is also suggested that the species of the genus are native to several areas in Asia, such as in Southeast Asia and China, southern and eastern and inflammation (Nayak et al., 2010). These were also used as a remedy for different respiratory illnesses (Biswas et al., 2011;Gulati et al., 2016), digestive illnesses (De Araujo et al., 2021), allergy (Cruz et al., 2012;Beigoli et al., 2021), and nausea (Majaz et al., 2011;Kawade et al., 2014). Further, different species of the Kalanchoe have been found to have antimicrobial (Akinpelu, 2000;Majaz et al., 2011), wound healing (Mahamood & Patil, 2002;Suprapto et al., 2011), and anti-ageing capabilities (Destandau et al., 2014). ...
... These were also used as a remedy for different respiratory illnesses (Biswas et al., 2011;Gulati et al., 2016), digestive illnesses (De Araujo et al., 2021), allergy (Cruz et al., 2012;Beigoli et al., 2021), and nausea (Majaz et al., 2011;Kawade et al., 2014). Further, different species of the Kalanchoe have been found to have antimicrobial (Akinpelu, 2000;Majaz et al., 2011), wound healing (Mahamood & Patil, 2002;Suprapto et al., 2011), and anti-ageing capabilities (Destandau et al., 2014). ...
... Moreover, the seeds of the species are distinguished as smooth and oblong-shaped (Majaz et al., 2011;Kawade et al., 2014;Shruti et al., 2018). ...
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The Kalanchoe genus is composed of more than 100 species that usually thrive in tropical environments, which have been used in folkloric medicine to treat various illnesses, including dermatological conditions. With this, the present study assesses the pharmacognostical and pharmacological properties of different species of the Kalanchoe genus as elements for a potential treatment for dermatological-related conditions, from findings of existing literature and studies. It was analyzed that the Kalanchoe pinnata plant, or one of the most common species of Kalanchoe, have been observed to have distinct morphological and microscopic characteristics. Further, it was discovered that different species of Kalanchoe have anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antibacterial, and wound healing properties, which enable the plant to be used for dermatological products that are available to the market. With this, it is recommended that further studies be conducted in other understudied species of Kalanchoe regarding their pharmacological properties, as well as the use of other structures of the Kalanchoe plant for treatment of various dermatological conditions.
... The crude extracts contained tannins which produced anthelmentic activity. The chloroform, methanolic and aqueous extract of the plant root cause paralysis and deaths of worms and showed significant anthelmentic activity [107][108]. The antileishmanial effect of the plant extracts and its flavonoids components was evaluated in vivo in murine model of cutaneous leishmaniasis. ...
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The previous researches showed that many plants exerted antiparasitic, antiprotozoal, molluscicidal and insecticidal. This review has highlight the antiparasitic, antiprotozoal, molluscicidal and insecticidal effects of Achillea santolina, Ailanthus altissima, Allium cepa, Allium sativum, Ammi majus, Anagyris foetida, Antirrhinum majus, Apium graveolens, Arachis hypogaea, Artemisia campestris, Arundo donax, Asclepias curassavica, Ballota nigra, Bauhinia variegata, Betula alba, Bidens tripartita, Brassica nigra, Bryophyllum calycinum, Caccinia crassifolia, Caesalpinia crista, Calendula officinalis, Calotropis procera, Canna indica, Capparis spinosa, Carum carvi, Cassia occidentalis, Celosia cristata and Chenopodium album.
... This could be related to high flavonoid content of the plant extract which are well known to possess potential health benefits such as antioxidant, antimicrobial activities to mention but a few of them. This result implies that the stem-bark extract of K. pinnata plant possesses antioxidant activity as reported in previous works of [23,24,25]. Table 3. ...
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Kalanchoe pinnata also known as Bryophyllum pinnatum and commonly referred to as Life or Miracle plant is used in traditional medicine in some parts of Nigeria. The stem-bark of the plant was extracted with 70% ethanol and the crude extract evaluated for its phytochemical constituents as well as pharmacological activities. The phytochemical profile showed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, glycosides, phenolics, steroids/terpenes and tannins while the quantitative analysis gave the phenolics content to be 5.538 ± 0.005 mg gallic acid equivalent, flavonoid content as 0.242 ± 0.001 mg quercetin equivalent and tannin content as 0.019 ± 0.001 mg tannic acid equivalent per gram of extract. The scavenging activity on DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl) radical showed that the plant exhibited higher antioxidant activity with IC50 value of 40.56 and 37.28 µg/ml for ascorbic acid and the extract respectively. The antimicrobial activity results showed that the extract inhibited the growth of micro-organisms such as Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumonia and Aspergillus niger; while the extract was inactive against Salmonella typhi and Candida albicans. These results give scientific evidence for the use of the plant in folk medicine.
... Besides the fact that the main pathway for the introduction of Kalanchoe taxa is ornamental trade, the propagation success of Kalanchoe is also likely associated with its popularity as medicinal plants [20,55]. In Latin America, Kalanchoe taxa are used in folk medicine as anti-inflammatory, wound healing, insecticide, antibacterial, antioxidant, as well as for their alleged anti-cancer properties [20,56,57]. Of the taxa reported in Ecuador, at least two of them can be easily acquired from nurseries, garden centers, or online (for example, in popular e-commerce websites such as Mercado Libre) for their medicinal use. ...
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The genus Kalanchoe, mostly indigenous from Madagascar and Tropical Africa, is widely traded for ornamental value. In this study, we provided an updated list of wild and cultivated Kalanchoe taxa in Ecuador; we analyzed the temporal–spatial pattern of their records, and we categorized the invasion status for each taxon and its environment preferences. The records of any taxa belonging to this genus were compiled from an extensive search using various information sources. Our results confirmed the presence of 16 taxa of Kalanchoe in the country. Seven species and a hybrid were detected in the wild. Kalanchoe densiflora, K. laxiflora, K. pinnata, K. tubiflora, and K. ×houghtonii were categorized as invasive. We detected invasive records of some of these plants in protected areas. Almost all taxa had at least one record as cultivated, suggesting that the invasion pathway is ornamental trade. Kalanchoe pinnata individuals in the wild were recorded in the four biogeographic regions of Ecuador, which could be associated with the wide range of precipitations and temperatures in which the species may dwell. Our study highlights the importance of reducing the ornamental value and limiting the use of Kalanchoe taxa with invasive potential in horticulture and promoting, instead, the use of indigenous species.
... It is largely used in folk medicine for the treatment of hypertension and kidney stone (Lans, 2006), pulmonary infections and rheumatoid arthritis. In traditional medicine, the leaf of the plant has been used as antifungal (Majaz et al., 2011), potent antihistamine and anti-allergic activity. This study aims at the evaluation of palm oil as benign extraction medium for bioactive constituents of Ocimum gratissum and Bryophyllum pinnatum in comparison to Hydrodistillation. ...
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Medicinal and aromatic plants have huge potential for the discovery of novel bioactive molecules. Th e use of medicinal plants especially in primary health care has become popular leading to increasing search for p lants with therapeutic potential. This work is aimed at evaluating palm oil as green extraction medium for bioact ive constituents of O. gratissimum and B. pinnatum leaves. The essential oil (EO) of the leaves of Ocimum grati ssimum (OG) and Bryophyllum pinnatum (BP) were obtained through hydrodistillation and palm oil extraction. The extracts were analysed by gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Thymol (19.27%), o-cymene (9.05%), caryophyllene (6.55%), caryophyllene oxide (6.54%), terpinen-4-ol (6.14%) and β-eudesmene (6.01%) were the major compounds in O. gratissimum. The result of GC-MS analysis of the essential oil of B. pinnatum showed fifty seven different compounds with nonanal (17.3%) and geranylacetone (13.1%), and spathulenol (3. 6%) as the major compounds. The palm oil extract of the leaf of O. gratissimum on GC-MS analysis showed tha t it selectively extracted thymol, whereas the palm oil extract of leaf of B. pinnatums selectively extracted spathu lenol, and hexadecylinedane. These compounds may be responsible for the use palm oil extract of leaf of B. pinn atum for the treatment of severe ear ache. [Samuel Ehiabhi Okhale, Victor Ogwekpe Egbeneje, Chinyere Imoisi.GC-MS Evaluation of Palm Oil as Benign Extraction Medium for Bioactive Constituents of Ocimum gratissimum L and Bryophyllum pinnatum (Lam.).J Am Sci 2021;17(12):44-51]. ISSN 15451003 (print); ISSN 23757264 (online).
... Kanika, (2011) and Nwali et al. (2014), reported some phytochemical constituents of B. pinnatum to include; vitamin E, selenium, vitamin C, taurine and the carotenoids (beta-carotene, lutein and lycopene) which have the potentials to decrease the gentamicin-induced reduction in the glomerular filtration rate and the severity of the tubular damage (Anganeyulu and Chopra, 2004;Ekor et al., 2006). The aqueous extract of Kalanchoe pinnata leaves was earlier reported to possess potent nephroprotective activity in gentamicininduced nephrotoxicity in rats (Harlaka and Patil 2007;Majaz et al., 2011). The results obtained from this study show that the ethanolic leaf extract of B. pinnatum has protective function against gentamicin-induced hepatic and nephrotic damage in wistar albino rats. ...
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The protective potentials of ethanol leaf extract of Bryophyllum pinnatum against gentamicin induced biochemical injury in Wistar albino rats were evaluated using serum biochemical parameters. Twenty-five male albino rats were divided randomly into five groups A to E. Groups C and D received 150 and 300 mg/kg B. pinnatum, respectively. Groups A and B were fed with chow (normal and positive controls) while Group E received 100 mg/kg of Vitamin C. Biochemical injury was induced in rats in groups BE with gentamicin (i.p) at the dose of 80 mg/kg body weight on the 16 th day of study. The rats were then fasted for 48 h and sacrificed by cervical dislocation. Serum was collected for biochemical analysis using standard methods and analytical biochemical kits. There was a significant increase in the serum levels of AST, ALT and ALP of the rats administered with gentamicin (Group B-positive control) compared to the Group A-normal control. However, treatment of rats with 150 and 300 mg/kg body weight of ethanol leaf extract of B. pinnatum significantly decrease these biochemical parameters compared to Group B (p < 0.05). Also, there was a significant increase in the serum levels of conjugated bilirubin and total bilirubin in Group B compared to the normal control. Rat pretreated with 150 and 300 mg/kg body weight of extract showed significant decrease in the conjugated and total bilirubin compared to the non-treated rats in Group B (p <0.05). Serum level of urea and creatinine significantly increased in Group B compared to normal control. Rats in groups C and D pretreated with 150 and 300 mg/kg body weight of extract showed significant decrease in the levels of urea and creatinine compared to Group B (p <0.05). There was significant decrease in the serum levels of albumin and total protein of the rats administered with gentamicin compared to the normal control. Rats pretreated with 150 and 300 mg/kg body weight of extract showed significant increase compared rats in non-treated Group B (p <0.05). The results obtained from this study shows that the ethanolic leaf extract of B. pinnatum has protective functions against gentamicin-induced hepatic and nephrotic damage in Wistar albino rats
... Likewise, the same composition was reported in the O. stamineus. [12,16] Furthermore, another report by Quazi Majaz et al. [21] showed a diuretic and some chemolytic action of Kalanchoe pinnatum plant on Wistar rats in both oral and intravenous routes which were also attributed to phenolic compounds and flavonoids. Medicinal plants with antioxidative properties such as Cynodon dactylon extract reduced the stone incidents, at least in part through increasing the total antioxidant capacity. ...
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Background: Orthosiphon stamineus was reported to have diuretic effects in experimental rats, and this leads to inhibition of kidney stones through the abundant levels of minerals and flavonoids in it. This study aimed to determine the in vitro effects of O. stamineus water extract as a potential chemolytic agent in urolithiasis. Materials and methods: In this prospective experiment, a total of 15 stone samples collected from patients who underwent stone extraction were used in each concentration (4 mg/ml, 2 mg/ml, and 1 mg/ml) of the O. stamineus extract and control solution. The effects of pH change in the chemolysis of the stones were assessed using the O. stamineus extract 4 mg/ml under pH 7 and 8. Results: The percentage weight reduction of calcium oxalate stone was highest in the 4 mg/ml concentration. O. stamineus extract 4 mg/ml showed a better effect in terms of chemolytic action on calcium oxalate stone than the potassium citrate solution (70% vs. 41%). Regarding the calcium oxalate stone, the percentage weight reduction has shown about 70% in the pH 5, 48% in pH 7, and <10% in pH 8. The percentage weight reduction of uric acid stone was determined as 47%, 11%, and 14% for pH 5, 7, and 8, respectively. The percentage weight reduction of combination stone was 40%, 60%, and 80% in the pH 5, pH 7, and pH 8, respectively. Data analysis showed that the percentage weight reduction of combination stone was significantly different between acidic, neutral, and alkaline conditions (P = 0.027). Conclusions: In this in vitro study, we are able to show that O. stamineus water extract do have some dissolving capability of urinary stones.
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The seeds of Calophyllum inophyllum L. is used to treat scabies and other skin diseases and to alleviate the inflammation in case of dental caries. The aim of this study is to demonstrate the analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of the seeds of C. inophyllum. These activities were assessed in vivo models in mice using the ethanol extract (EECi) and the dichloromethane (DFCi), ethyl acetate (EFCi) and the aqueous (AFCi) fractions of the seeds of C. inophyllum obtained by the liquid-liquid partition method from EECi. The writhing test provoked by acetic acid injection was used for the analgesic activity study and the oedema provoked by the carrageenan injection in sub plantar was utilized for the anti-inflammatory activity. Acute and repeated 30-days doses oral toxicities along with the teratogenic effects of the ethanol extract were also evaluated in mice. EECi inhibited the inflammation caused by the carrageenan-induction in dose dependant manner after the 30th, 60th, 120th, 180th and 240th min (p < 0.001). AFCi and EECi at the dose of 100 mg/kg showed similar anti-inflammatory activity (p > 0.05). EECi inhibited the pain at all tested doses. It exerted a similar analgesic activity at the dose of 100 mg/kg to that of the indomethacin (10 mg/kg). DFCi and AFCi (100 mg/kg) showed comparable analgesic activity to that of EECi at 200 mg/kg. The anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities of the seeds of C. inophyllum could be attributed to the flavonoids, leucoantocyanins, anthocyanins, phenolic compounds and tannins detected in this plant. Moreover, EECi did not exerted toxicity at the active doses (100 and 200 mg/kg). Further studies should be undertaken including the isolation of the active compounds to complete this work and enhance the use of this plant in treatment of pain and inflammatory related diseases.
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