Article

The Iowa gambling task in fMRI Images

Department of Psychology, Dana and David Dornsife Cognitive Neuroscience Imaging Center, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, 90089-2520, USA.
Human Brain Mapping (Impact Factor: 5.97). 11/2009; 31(3):410-23. DOI: 10.1002/hbm.20875
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT

The Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) is a sensitive test for the detection of decision-making impairments in several neurological and psychiatric populations. Very few studies have employed the IGT in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) investigations, in part, because the task is cognitively complex. Here we report a method for exploring brain activity using fMRI during performance of the IGT. Decision-making during the IGT was associated with activity in several brain regions in a group of healthy individuals. The activated regions were consistent with the neural circuitry hypothesized to underlie somatic marker activation and decision-making. Specifically, a neural circuitry involving the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (for working memory), the insula and posterior cingulate cortex (for representations of emotional states), the mesial orbitofrontal and ventromedial prefrontal cortex (for coupling the two previous processes), the ventral striatum and anterior cingulate/SMA (supplementary motor area) for implementing behavioral decisions was engaged. These results have implications for using the IGT to study abnormal mechanisms of decision making in a variety of clinical populations.

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    • "For the IGT group, we administered the same 200-trial shuffled version as previously reported inSeeley et al. (2014). This version maintained the same reward and punishment structure as the original (Bechara et al., 1996), with a more difficult 'shuffled' deck placement (C, A, B, D) (Li et al., 2010;Preston et al., 2007;Seeley et al., 2014). Instructions for the task were given as previously reported inSeeley et al. (2014).To allow for the collection of anticipatory SCRs the task was modified to have a 10-s delay between trials (Bechara et al., 1996;Crone et al., 2004;Wagar & Dixon, 2006) and timing signals were used to identify anticipatory SCRs. "
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    • "Additionally, we modulate the parameter responsible for outcome processing to create a second condition where we contrast whether this manipulation is sufficient to emulate a maladaptive bias behavior that has been observed in clinical populations. This modification is based upon the evidence that relates impairment performances in the IGT to a lack of impulsive behavior control and poor integration of negative past experiences (Bechara et al., 1994; Turnbull et al., 2005; Li et al., 2010). By doing so, we can observe, firstly, the basic computational mechanisms of learning within uncertain environment, and secondly, the accuracy of the model for simulating decision-making under uncertainty. "
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    • "fMRI studies also show that compared to non-food-related pictures, food-related pictures activate the striatum [92] in healthy individuals. Consistent with this finding, we observed right striatum activation when responses to high-calorie food pictures were compared to responses to low-calorie food pictures, although previous studies showed that the dorsal striatum is not strictly dedicated to habit behaviors, and that it can be involved in decision-making [28, 82, 93–95]. Animal studies also have shown that direct pharmacological activation of the striatum, amygdalo-hypothalamic circuit produced hyperphagia and increased preferentially the intake of foods high in fat and sugar, even in animals fed beyond apparent satiety [96]. "
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