Increase in globin mRNA content in human erythroid cells treated with angelicin analogs
Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Ferrara, Via Fossato di Mortara, 74, 44100, Ferrara, Italy. International journal of hematology
(Impact Factor: 1.92).
09/2009; 90(3):318-27. DOI: 10.1007/s12185-009-0422-2
The aim of the present study was to identify molecular analogs of angelicin (ANG) able to increase erythroid differentiation of K562 cells and expression of gamma-globin genes in human erythroid precursor cells, with low effects on apoptosis. ANG-like molecules are well-known photosensitizers largely used for their antiproliferative activity in the treatment of different skin diseases (i.e., psoriasis, vitiligo, eczema, and mycosis fungoides). To verify the activity of these derivatives, we employed three experimental cell systems: (1) the human leukemic K562 cell line, (2) K562 cell clones stably transfected with a pCCL construct carrying green-EGFP under the gamma-globin gene promoter, and (3) the two-phase liquid culture of human erythroid progenitors isolated from normal donors and beta-thalassemia patients. The results of our study suggest that trimethyl ANG is a powerful inducer of erythroid differentiation, compared with known inducers, such as ANG, cytosine arabinoside, mithramycin, and cisplatin. These data could have practical relevance, because pharmacologically mediated regulation of human gamma-globin gene expression, with the consequent induction of fetal hemoglobin, is considered a potential therapeutic approach in hematological disorders including beta-thalassemia and sickle cell anemia.
Available from: Eleonora Brognara
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ABSTRACT: The K562 cell line has been proposed as a useful experimental system to identify anti-tumor compounds acting by inducing terminal erythroid differentiation. K562 cells exhibit a low proportion of hemoglobin-synthesizing cells under standard cell growth conditions, but are able to undergo terminal erythroid differentiation when treated with a variety of anti-tumor compounds. In this paper we report a screening study on a set of different modified C(5) uracil derivatives for the evaluation of their antiproliferative effect in connection with erythroid differentiation pathways, and for defining a new class of drug candidates for the treatment of chronic myelogenous leukemia. Activity of the derivatives tested can be classified in two effect: an antiproliferative effect linked to a high level of erythroid differentiation activity and an antiproliferative effect without activation of gamma globin genes The highest antiproliferative effect and erythroid induction was shown by compound 9, a thymine derivative bearing a n-octyl chain on nitrogen N(1), whereas thymine did not show any effect, suggesting the importance of the linear alkyl chain in position N(1). To our knowledge this compound should be considered among the most efficient inducers of erythroid differentiation of K562 cells. This work is the starting point for the quest of more effective and specific drugs for the induction of terminal erythroid differentiation, for leading new insights in the treatment of neoplastic diseases with molecules acting by inducing differentiation rather than by simply exerting cytotoxic effects.
Available from: Eugenia (Jenny) Prus
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ABSTRACT: Thalassemia and sickle-cell anemia (SCA) present a major public health problem in countries where the number of carriers and affected individuals is high. As a result of the abnormalities in hemoglobin production, cells of thalassemia and SCA patients exhibit oxidative stress, which ultimately is responsible for the chronic anemia observed. Therefore, identification of compounds exhibiting both antioxidant and hemoglobin-inducing activities is highly needed. Our results demonstrate resveratrol to be such a compound. This was shown both in the human K562 cell line, as well as in erythroid precursors derived from normal donors and β-thalassemia patients. Resveratrol was shown to exhibit antioxidant activity and to stimulate the expression of the γ-globin genes and the accumulation of fetal hemoglobin (HbF). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report pointing to such a double effect of resveratrol. Since this natural product is already marketed as an antioxidant, future investigations should concentrate on demonstrating its potential to augment HbF production in experimental animal models (e.g., thalassemia and SCA mice) as well as in patients. We believe that the potential of clinical use of resveratrol as an antioxidant and HbF stimulator may offer a simple and inexpensive treatment to patients.
Available from: Monica Borgatti
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ABSTRACT: Gene therapy might fall short in achieving a complete reversion of the β-thalassemic phenotype due to current limitations in vector design and myeloablative regimen. Following gene transfer, all or a large proportion of erythroid cells might express suboptimal levels of β-globin, impairing the therapeutic potential of the treatment. Our aim was to evaluate whether, in absence of complete reversion of the β-globin phenotype upon gene transfer, it is possible to use fetal hemoglobin induction to eliminate the residual α-globin aggregates and achieve normal levels of hemoglobin. Transgenic K562 cell lines and erythroid precursor cells from β(0)39-thalassemia patients were employed. Gene therapy was performed with the lentiviral vector T9W. Induction of fetal hemoglobin was obtained using mithramycin. Levels of mRNA and hemoglobins were determined by qRT-PCR and HPLC. First, we analyzed the effect of mithramycin on K562 transgenic cell lines harboring different copies of a lentiviral vector carrying the human β-globin gene, showing that γ-globin mRNA expression and HbF production can be induced in the presence of high levels of β-globin gene expression and HbA accumulation. We then treated erythroid progenitor cells from β-thalassemic patients with T9W, which expresses the human β-globin gene and mithramycin separately or in combination. When transduction with our lentiviral vector is insufficient to completely eliminate the unpaired α-globin chains, combination of β-globin gene transfer therapy together with fetal hemoglobin induction might be very efficacious to remove the excess of α-globin proteins in thalassemic erythroid progenitor cells.
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