Article

Maternal Antibodies to Pneumolysin but Not to Pneumococcal Surface Protein A Delay Early Pneumococcal Carriage in High-Risk Papua New Guinean Infants

Papua New Guinea Institute of Medical Research, Goroka, Papua New Guinea.
Clinical and vaccine Immunology: CVI (Impact Factor: 2.47). 09/2009; 16(11):1633-8. DOI: 10.1128/CVI.00247-09
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT

Immunization of pregnant women can be an efficient strategy to induce early protection in infants in developing countries. Pneumococcal protein-based vaccines may have the capacity to induce pneumococcal serotype-independent protection. To understand the potential of maternal pneumococcal protein-specific antibodies in infants in high-risk areas, we studied the placental transfer of naturally acquired antibodies to pneumolysin (Ply) and pneumococcal surface protein A family 1 and 2 (PspA1 and PspA2) in relation to onset of pneumococcal nasopharyngeal carriage in infants in Papua New Guinea (PNG). In this study, 76% of the infants carried Streptococcus pneumoniae in the upper respiratory tract within the first month of life, at a median age of 19 days. Maternal and cord blood antibody titers to Ply (rho = 0.824, P < 0.001), PspA1 (rho = 0.746, P < 0.001), and PspA2 (rho = 0.631, P < 0.001) were strongly correlated. Maternal pneumococcal carriage (hazard ratio [HR], 2.60; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.25 to 5.39) and younger maternal age (HR, 0.74; 95% CI, 0.54 to 1.00) were independent risk factors for early carriage, while higher cord Ply-specific antibody titers predicted a significantly delayed onset (HR, 0.71; 95% CI, 0.52 to 1.00) and cord PspA1-specific antibodies a significantly younger onset of carriage in PNG infants (HR, 1.57; 95% CI, 1.03 to 2.40). Maternal vaccination with a pneumococcal protein-based vaccine should be considered as a strategy to protect high-risk infants against pneumococcal disease by reducing carriage risks in both mothers and infants.

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    • "Early colonization and prolonged carriage are believed to contribute to the high incidence and early onset of pneumococcal diseases in developing countries [4]. Furthermore, maternal pneumococcal carriage and younger maternal age are independent risk factors for early onset of pneumococcal carriage in infants in high-risk areas [5]. "
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