Enhanced Generation of Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells from a Subpopulation of Human Fibroblasts

Johns Hopkins University, United States of America
PLoS ONE (Impact Factor: 3.23). 09/2009; 4(9):e7118. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0007118
Source: PubMed


The derivation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) provides new possibilities for basic research and novel cell-based therapies. Limitations, however, include our current lack of understanding regarding the underlying mechanisms and the inefficiency of reprogramming.
Here, we report identification and isolation of a subpopulation of human dermal fibroblasts that express the pluripotency marker stage specific embryonic antigen 3 (SSEA3). Fibroblasts that expressed SSEA3 demonstrated an enhanced iPSC generation efficiency, while no iPSC derivation was obtained from the fibroblasts that did not express SSEA3. Transcriptional analysis revealed NANOG expression was significantly increased in the SSEA3 expressing fibroblasts, suggesting a possible mechanistic explanation for the differential reprogramming.
To our knowledge, this study is the first to identify a pluripotency marker in a heterogeneous population of human dermal fibroblasts, to isolate a subpopulation of cells that have a significantly increased propensity to reprogram to pluripotency and to identify a possible mechanism to explain this differential reprogramming. This discovery provides a method to significantly increase the efficiency of reprogramming, enhancing the feasibility of the potential applications based on this technology, and a tool for basic research studies to understand the underlying reprogramming mechanisms.

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Available from: Renee A Reijo Pera, Dec 05, 2014
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    • "Retroviral and lentiviral production was conducted as described previously3052. Procedures for production of iPSCs were as described previously5253. Briefly, one day pre-transduction, cells were plated at 7.5 × 105 cells/well of a six well plate. "
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    ABSTRACT: Turner syndrome is caused by complete or partial loss of the second sex chromosome and is characterized by spontaneous fetal loss in >90% of conceptions. Survivors possess an array of somatic and germline clinical characteristics. Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) offer an opportunity for insight into genetic requirements of the X chromosome linked to Turner syndrome. We derived iPSCs from Turner syndrome and control individuals and examined germ cell development as a function of X chromosome composition. We demonstrate that two X chromosomes are not necessary for reprogramming or maintenance of pluripotency and that there are minimal differences in gene expression, at the single cell level, linked to X chromosome aneuploidies. Formation of germ cells, as assessed in vivo through a murine xenotransplantation model, indicated that undifferentiated iPSCs, independent of X chromosome composition, are capable of forming germ-cell-like cells (GCLCs) in vivo. In combination with clinical data regarding infertility in women with X chromosome aneuploidies, results suggest that two intact X chromosomes are not required for human germ cell formation, qualitatively or quantitatively, but rather are likely to be required for maintenance of human germ cells to adulthood.
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    • "GM13325 fibroblast cells were obtained from a 9-day old patient with DiGeorge Syndrome (purchased from Coriell, Camden, NJ). Human adult fibroblasts (HUF1 and HUF58) were derived from a healthy male (age 28) and a patient (60 years), respectively through a skin punch biopsy as previously described [13]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Data suggest that clinical applications of human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) will be realized. Nonetheless, clinical applications will require hiPSCs that are free of exogenous DNA and that can be manufactured through Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP). Optimally, derivation of hiPSCs should be rapid and efficient in order to minimize manipulations, reduce potential for accumulation of mutations and minimize financial costs. Previous studies reported the use of modified synthetic mRNAs to reprogram fibroblasts to a pluripotent state. Here, we provide an optimized, fully chemically defined and feeder-free protocol for the derivation of hiPSCs using synthetic mRNAs. The protocol results in derivation of fully reprogrammed hiPSC lines from adult dermal fibroblasts in less than two weeks. The hiPSC lines were successfully tested for their identity, purity, stability and safety at a GMP facility and cryopreserved. To our knowledge, as a proof of principle, these are the first integration-free iPSCs lines that were reproducibly generated through synthetic mRNA reprogramming that could be putatively used for clinical purposes.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2014 · PLoS ONE
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    • "The human adult dermal fibroblasts (AHDFs), known as HUF1 and HUF5, were obtained from a normal healthy male and female, respectively, as previously described [25]. HFF-1 (neonatal human foreskin fibroblasts) cells were purchased from ATCC (Manassas, VA; catalog #SCRC-1041). "
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    ABSTRACT: Previous studies have shown that induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) can be derived from fibroblasts by ectopic expression of four transcription factors, OCT4, SOX2, KLF4 and c-MYC using various methods. More recent studies have focused on identifying alternative approaches and factors that can be used to increase reprogramming efficiency of fibroblasts to pluripotency. Here, we use nucleofection, morpholino technologies and novel epigenetic factors, which were chosen based on their expression profile in human embryos, fibroblasts and undifferentiated/differentiated human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) and conventionally generated iPSCs, to reprogram human fibroblasts into iPSCs. By over expressing DNMT3B, AURKB, PRMT5 and/or silencing SETD7 in human fibroblasts with and without NANOG, hTERT and/or SV40 overexpression, we observed the formation of colonies resembling iPSCs that were positive for certain pluripotency markers, but exhibited minimal proliferation. More importantly, we also demonstrate that these partially-reprogrammed colonies express high levels of early to mid germ cell-specific genes regardless of the transfection approach, which suggests conversion to a germ cell-like identity is associated with early reprogramming. These findings may provide an additional means to evaluate human germ cell differentiation in vitro, particularly in the context of pluripotent stem cell-derived germ cell development, and contribute to our understanding of the epigenetic requirements of the reprogramming process.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2013 · PLoS ONE
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