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African Fractals: Modern Computing and Indigenous Design.

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... The creation of a Mangbetu design may reflect the artisans' desire to "make it beautiful and show the intelligence of the creator" (Schildkrout & Keim 1990, p. 100) by adhering to angles that are multiples of 45 degrees. The combination of the 45-degree angle construction technique with the scaling properties of the ivory carving may reveal its underlying structure, which has three interesting geometric features (Eglash 1999). ...
... Mangbetu ivory sculpture Source Eglash (1999) Then, figure 2 shows the geometric analysis of this sculpture in which the sequence of shrinking squares can be constructed by an iterative process that bisects one square to create the length of the side for the next square. However, Eglash (1999) stated that it is not possible "to know if these iterative squares construction were the concept underlying the sculpture's design, but it does match the features identified in this process" (p. ...
... Geometric analysis of a Mangbetu ivory sculpture Source: Eglash (1999) The mathematical idea implicit in this emic knowledge was passed to the members of the Mangbetu people across generations, who were responsible for the construction, and upkeep of this unique ivory cultural artifact. Consequently, figure 5 3 shows the geometric relations in the sculpture iterative square structure. ...
Article
Nesse artigo, discutimos a Educação Culturalmente Relevante, as Escolas Culturalmente Relevantes, a Pedagogia Culturalmente Relevante e os aspectos culturais da Matemática. A base teórica comum desses campos de conhecimento está inter-relacionada no tocante ao desenvolvimento da Etnomatemática. Nesse contexto, os educadores respeitam os alunos provenientes de diversas culturas, propiciando esforços contínuos e genuínos para entender as suas perspectivas sociais e culturais, a fim de acolher experiências inovadoras de aprendizado e ações pedagógicas, abordando alunos com atitudes e posturas flexíveis em relação aos entendimentos interculturais. Portanto, é imperativo utilizar políticas e práticas que valorizem os educadores, os professores e os alunos com o objetivo de possibilitar a sua interação efetiva em um ambiente culturalmente diverso.
... In this paper, an OLR (please refer to Figure 1A), which is inherently a uniform impedance resonator, has been modified using a fractal geometry inspired from African fractals mainly used for planning house settlement layouts and popularly known as Bamileke architecture. 18 The fractal shaped resonator (refer to Figure 1B) brings about multimode resonances that can be controlled by adjusting length of various segments that transpires as a result of the introduction of the Bamileke fractal geometry. One interesting aspect of the design modification is that one can obtain a dual, tri and quad band using the same resonator, however, this depends on the efficacy of extracting the modes with a suitable I/O feed line system. ...
... The microstrip OLR is realized on a substrate of relative dielectric constant 2.2 and height 0.787 mm. The OLR geometry is transformed in to Bamileke fractal architecture (BFA) 18 as illustrated in Figure 1B,C. One of the sides of the OLR is divided in to three parts. ...
... The middle segment is removed and replaced with a c-shaped section that results in the Bamileke fractal architecture. 18 Recursively this can be enhanced to higher iterations. However, the efficacy of the first iteration has been used to design multimode planar resonators. ...
Article
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This paper presents a new approach to design multiband bandpass filters (BPF) using multimode resonator topology inspired from Bamileke fractal architecture in the form of fractal shaped resonator. The proposed resonator architecture exhibits quint mode resonance behavior where resonance frequencies are determined using ABCD matrix. It offers flexibility in terms of choosing passband center frequencies precisely. Initially a second order dual band BPF is presented by suppressing higher order modes using asymmetric feed line. The same structure is used further to implement a triband and a quad band BPF where the input/output coupling circuit is modified to extract the higher order modes. Two stub loaded resonators are also embedded to improve the passband selectivity and to improve upper stopband characteristics. The design guidelines are demonstrated through the external quality factor (Qe) and coupling coefficient (k) synthesis approach. The developed filters are fabricated and measured to verify the predicted and simulated results. A close agreement is observed between them. The fabricated multiband BPFs has a very compact size, less insertion loss and good return loss profile.
... Even though not all African settlements are fractal, fractal settlements are in abundance throughout Africa (Eglash, 1999). A repeated pattern of fractals of different types and shapes exists, ranging from rectangular fractals, circular fractals, and branching fractals (Eglash, 1999: 20-38). ...
... In Euclidean geometry, symmetry means similarity in one scale, like bilateral symmetry (Eglash, 1999). However, fractal geometry is founded on scaling symmetry; thus the symmetry exists between different scales. ...
... At different levels of scales, selfsimilarity prevails. A variety of spatial definitions and a fine-grained settlement fabric are common in African settlements (Eglash, 1999). Small to medium to large fragments are linked by fractal open spaces. ...
Thesis
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In South Africa, there are many informal settlements experiencing worsening socio-economic living conditions, along with associated environmental and urban open space degradation. These socio-spatial problems have increasingly attracted attention and responses from the South African government and researchers. Urban designers and architects as design professionals can make use of their visual-spatial skills to play a leading role in developing sustainable and enabling urban open spaces in informal settlements. This study employed visual assessment as a tool for urban designers and architects to address socio-spatial problems in informal settlements. A visual research methodology was explored, using Khutsong Section informal settlement as a vehicle so as to formulate a generalised approach to the upgrading of informal settlements. The study area, Khutsong Section, is located in Ivory Park township within the City of Johannes- burg. The visual-spatial design process gained from the context of the study, visual analysis, and interpretation of precedents as well as the analysis and understanding of the study area. The context-informed and -driven urban open space design process resulted in an integrative and consolidated spatial solution for Khutsong Section. The understanding obtained of specific socio-economic activities imbedded in prevailing spatial elements and features in informal settlements has broader applicability in the urban design and architecture professions. Therefore, the application of the visual research method in this study contributes to positioning urban designers and architects to be visionaries and pioneers in the sustainable upgrading of informal settlements.
... Additionally, social settings be they spirituality or interpersonal and group relationships, and village housing, show recursion close to those of nature. It is in this context that Eglash (1999) describes the fractal principles as applied in Africa as African fractals. African fractals emanates from the artificial realm of culture and does not imitate nature while applying fractal principles. ...
... Just as Euclidean geometry may have influenced the structure in the built environments in the West, fractals had served as an important technology for the construction of buildings and settlement forms in parts of Africa. In the case of Africa, however, many villages were built over many generations with no one in charge of ensuring a particular order of the scructures and yet they show a consistent fractal pattern for the village as a whole (Eglash, 1999). The influence of Euclidean shapes and fractal geometry on settlements in USA and Africa, for instance, is explained by Eglash and Odumosu as an example of mathematics as practice, that is, "systematic material and symbolic understanding of quantity and logic" (Eglash and Odumosu, 2005: 101). ...
... Each portion of the pattern resembles a reduced scale of the pattern or an increased scale of the same (Lam, 2009). The distinction here is that there is statistical self-similarity and not exact self-similarity (Eglash, 1999). Put differently, self-similarity does not imply that the subsequent shape, the reduced or increased scale of the pattern, is exactly the same as the whole or the previous scale. ...
Article
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Nature is replete with repetitive patterns in diminishing scales. Similarly, cultures produce recursive patterns that characterize their specific social, cultural, economic and political organisation. These self-similar, variously scaled and mostly infinitive patterns are called fractals. The uniqueness of African fractals emanates from the culture of the African peoples. Particular elements of these fractals have contributed immensely in mathematical learning especially in modern computing. This paper contends that the inclusion of African fractal education in curricula at all levels in Africa have the potential to contribute to better understanding of African identity, and promote African centred education that forestalls the alienation of the African from their environment. The paper argues that the teaching of African fractals in Africa is a needed project to facilitate understanding of the intricacies between nature and humans. It should deepen understanding about the concept of embedded humanity expressed in ideas of Ubuntu; and help awaken African consciousness about possibilities beyond empiricism. Recommendations are made on ways to include African fractals in the syllabus in Africa using the Ghana’s pre-tertiary level (Senior High School) as an example.
... src= done through both simulating braids in a visual programming environment and physical braiding on a hair mannequin. This research built on prior work of the team (i.e., Eglash 1999;Bennett 2003;Eglash et al. 2006) at the intersections of ethnomathematics and graphic design. In addition to fostering a school-community relationship, the work had two additional anti-racist goals. ...
... Mathematically, cornrow braiding fits into a larger body of uniquely African designs and epistemologies that predated colonialism and are characterized by their scaling geometries. Eglash (1999) provides evidence that the recursive scaling we see in Indigenous African designs are in many cases intentional and precise. In the case of cornrow braiding, the naming of distinct styles is one such indication: "The Yoruba name for this style is ipako elede, which means the nape of the neck of a boar-because the boar's bristles show a similar nonlinear scaling" (Eglash 1999, p. 81). ...
... Such choices are ignoring the rich mathematical and computational connections to Black culture and heritage (Powell & Frankenstein eds. 1997;Zaslavsky 1999;Gerdes 1999;Eglash 1999), while highlighting those of White culture. This is much to the detriment of young Black children who may be wealthy in cultural capital that is mathematically and computationally sophisticated but lack the financial means to explore math and computing by hegemonic technological framings and access. ...
Article
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Background: As teachers work to broaden the participation of racially and ethnically underrepresented groups in computer science (CS), culturally responsive computing (CRC) becomes more pertinent to formal settings. Objective: Yet, equity-oriented literature offers limited guidance for developing deep forms of CRC in the classroom. In response, we support the claim that “it takes a village” to develop equity-oriented CS education but additively highlight the roles of cultural experts in the process. Methods: We use a case study methodology to explore one instance of this: a collaboration between a multi-racial team of researchers, a Black cosmetologist, and a White technology teacher. Findings: Three themes supported the CRC collaboration: multi-directional relationship building, iterative engagement with culture-computing, and collaborative implementation of a hybrid lesson. Implications: As opposed to orienting broadening participation around extractive metaphors like “pipelines,” our case study constructs the metaphor of an “open village” to orient CS education toward collaborations between schools and the communities they serve.
... Using the term "Asante shrine" to avoid the negative connotations of "fetish," Asante, Kquofi, and Larbi (2015) have described the meanings of various symbols. In addition, various members of our team have been working on STEM education from Indigenous knowledge in this region since 1994, along with artisans, elders, teachers and university faculty (Babbitt, Lachney, Bulley, & Eglash, 2015;Bennett, Eglash, Lachney, & Babbitt, 2016;Eglash, 1999;Lachney, Bennett, Appiah, & Eglash, 2016). We can begin by describing the symbolism of the stool depicted in Asante shrines (Figure 1). ...
... In the African traditions, they are sources of fecundity, self-mobilizing and self-modifying. That is why recursive geometric forms (fractals) are so common in African design, and why Europe was so late in its discovery of fractal forms (Eglash, 1999;Lachney et al., 2016;Taylor, 2005). Four hundred years of slavery, colonialism, and extraction economies have taken their toll, but forms of resilience and resurgence can also be found. ...
Article
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This paper describes a decolonial perspective on material agency in the context of STEM education and application. Using the framework of generative STEM, we engaged in case studies with African, African American, South American, and Native American educational communities. This research shows that understanding material agency based on Indigenous knowledge systems can open a rich source of research and education content. Using a suite of simulations, Culturally Situated Design Tools, we apply this body of research to the classroom. One important theoretical conclusion is the contrast to a “content agnostic” position. A generative framework instead offers a robust blend of user agency and instructional guidance. The outcomes indicate statistically significant and notable improvement for STEM skills and interests. We conclude with a contrast to the quantum epistemology approach to posthumanism. We show that the Indigenous material agency framework in generative STEM is a better fit to decolonial aspirations, and that it offers a more transformative vision for the potential role of STEM in transitioning from an extractive to a generative economy.
... The Gothic cathedrals of Europe (12-16th century) also exploit fractal repetition of shapes (arches, windows, and spires) while the repetition of triangles in Frank Lloyd Wright's Palmer House in Ann Arbour (1950)(1951) and the bubble patterns of the Beijing Olympics' Water Cube (2008) [79] add to their appeal. Moving beyond individual buildings, some African villages follow a fractal plan [80] and fractals appear in the skylines [71] and boundaries [81] of modern cities. rate repeating layers. ...
... The Gothic cathedrals of Europe (12-16th century) also exploit fractal repetition of shapes (arches, windows, and spires) while the repetition of triangles in Frank Lloyd Wright's Palmer House in Ann Arbour (1950)(1951) and the bubble patterns of the Beijing Olympics' Water Cube (2008) [79] add to their appeal. Moving beyond individual buildings, some African villages follow a fractal plan [80] and fractals appear in the skylines [71] and boundaries [81] of modern cities. Gustav Eiffel's tower (1889) (Figure 8) enjoys some of the practical implications of fractal architecture. ...
Article
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Fractal objects are prevalent in natural scenery. Their repetition of patterns at increasingly fine magnifications creates a rich complexity. Fractals displaying mid-range complexity are the most common and include trees, clouds, and mountains. The “fractal fluency” model states that human vision has adapted to process these mid-range fractals with ease. I will first discuss fractal fluency and demonstrate how it enhances the observer’s visual capabilities by focusing on experiments that have important practical consequences for improving the built environment. These enhanced capabilities generate an aesthetic experience and physiological stress reduction. I will discuss strategies for integrating fractals into building designs to induce positive impacts on the observer. Examples include fractal solar panels, fractal window shades, and fractal floor patterns. These applications of fractal fluency represent a fundamental and potentially impactful form of salutogenesis.
... This research included teaching interventions in Ghanaian junior high schools. The foundation of this work is based on Eglash's (1999) research that documents Ghanaian pre-colonial knowledge of logarithmic curves in symbolic representations of organic growth. Western mathematicians have long recognized logarithmic curves as a defining characteristic of organic growth. ...
... Thus, the aphorism becomes less cryptic: "no one except God holds the power of life". (Eglash, 1999). This syncretic mathematical/cultural/biological significance of logarithmic curves in Adinkra forms the basis for our educational interventions. ...
Article
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This paper details the development and evaluation of software that allows middle school students to explore the mathematical aspects of Ghanaian Adinkra symbols. We tested the effectiveness of this simulation in a Ghanaian junior high school by conducting a randomized quasi-experiment. We begin this paper by framing culturally responsive math education within the interventionist tradition of ethnomathematics. We draw this tradition together with an empirical exploration the mathematics embedded in Adinkra symbols. We follow this with a methodological explanation for how we translated the mathematical significance of Adinkra into the design of our software, "Culturally Situated Design Tools. Finally, we describe the quasi-experiment evaluation of the software using randomized assignment of students in control and intervention groups in Ghana. We found statistically significant improvement for students using the culture-based software in comparison to similar software with no cultural content.
... Fractal analysis can redefine the concept of visibility for a culturally important street such as JEAM High Street, as posited by Eglash (1999) in his book African Fractals: Modern Computing and Indigenous Design. According to Eglash (1999), when Europeans first came to Africa, they considered indigenous architecture as disorganized and thus primitive; it never occurred to Europeans that the Africans might have been using a form of mathematics that they had not even discovered yet, which would later be known as fractals. ...
... Fractal analysis can redefine the concept of visibility for a culturally important street such as JEAM High Street, as posited by Eglash (1999) in his book African Fractals: Modern Computing and Indigenous Design. According to Eglash (1999), when Europeans first came to Africa, they considered indigenous architecture as disorganized and thus primitive; it never occurred to Europeans that the Africans might have been using a form of mathematics that they had not even discovered yet, which would later be known as fractals. Accordingly, this paper uses fractals as analytical tools for architecture, urban planning, and landscape planning. ...
... Especially in Islamic and Celtic designs, there are variety of historical and cultural context that can be integrated into geometry area (Bordewyk, 2016). Eglash (1999) also conducted studies about mathematics in traditional beads and basket designs; the relationship between geometry and culture using geometric ornaments. Such studies gave a way to interpret math from formal and local perspective. ...
Article
The purpose of this study is to investigate how students’ in senior grade of the high school participate in and interpret the transformational geometry activities integrated with cultural context. 5 students in senior grade participated in this study, all of whom live in Aydın district of Turkey. The main design of the study is qualitative. Participant students of the study involved in 9 different rotational geometry and culture integrated activities, 7 of which were performed as student activity sheets, 2 of which were performed as cultural games. 2 of the activities were constructed as a result of pilot study applied to 28 senior students by their math teacher. To collect data about how students participated in and made interpretations about the activities; various data collection tools such as observation, field notes, interview, audio recording and student activity sheets were used. The collected data were analyzed by qualitative descriptive analysis techniques. The results were presented as tables, figures constructed by students and direct quotations. Lastly, at the end of this study students were said to recognize the hidden mathematics in the objects from daily life, games with cultural background and history, and both in Turkish culture and other cultures.
... In particular, this requires to complement the currently predominant individualistic view of AI systems, to one that acknowledges and incorporates the collective, societal, Biological evolution has long been revised from a 'ladder' view: a uni-linear progression from 'primitive' to 'advanced'. The same revision is also seen in anthropology: the idea that cultural evolution follows a ladder model, with small-scale decentralised societies at the bottom and hierarchical, state, societies at the top, where the top would be technologically more advanced, has been shown to be not only demeaning but also inaccurate [14]. These fields have long since moved to a more dynamic, branching type model that account to interrelations between cooperation and competition, individualism and collectivism, power and influence, cause and effect. ...
Preprint
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The impact of Artificial Intelligence does not depend only on fundamental research and technological developments, but for a large part on how these systems are introduced into society and used in everyday situations. Even though AI is traditionally associated with rational decision making, understanding and shaping the societal impact of AI in all its facets requires a relational perspective. A rational approach to AI, where computational algorithms drive decision making independent of human intervention, insights and emotions, has shown to result in bias and exclusion, laying bare societal vulnerabilities and insecurities. A relational approach, that focus on the relational nature of things, is needed to deal with the ethical, legal, societal, cultural, and environmental implications of AI. A relational approach to AI recognises that objective and rational reasoning cannot does not always result in the 'right' way to proceed because what is 'right' depends on the dynamics of the situation in which the decision is taken, and that rather than solving ethical problems the focus of design and use of AI must be on asking the ethical question. In this position paper, I start with a general discussion of current conceptualisations of AI followed by an overview of existing approaches to governance and responsible development and use of AI. Then, I reflect over what should be the bases of a social paradigm for AI and how this should be embedded in relational, feminist and non-Western philosophies, in particular the Ubuntu philosophy.
... Подчеркнем, что самоподобие фрактала может относиться не только к структурным и материальным свойствам, но и к семантическому, концептуальному содержанию [3]. Исследования самых разных систем культуры с позиций фрактальной теории ( [4][5][6][7][8] и др.) показали, что многие культурные феномены имеют фрактальный характер -в том числе пространственная структура города [9]. Более того, любому городу присуща фрактальность, то есть самоподобие системы в разных масштабах, не только в пространственно-материальном (физическом), но и символическом (концептуальном) смысле [10]. ...
Article
Deals with a city statue as a fractal pattern of culture and history. The fractality of city statues and monuments has a distinct conceptual stochastic-aleatoric character. The study reveals special aspects of fractal representation of culture through the example of the «One&Other» art-project (London, 2009) by A. Gormley. It analyses fractal chronotopos of the project and the role of the Other in cultural recursions
... The literature attributes the Arabic term ilm al-raml or ilm al-khutut to "geomancy" (Ascher, 2002;Al-Tokhi, 1991). Historically, geomancy constituted a family of divination systems, including many notable branches such as Ifa, Fa, Sixteen Cowries (Nigeria and West Africa in general) (Eglash, 1999), Sikidy (Madagascar and Comoro Island) (Ascher, 2002), Ramalasastra (India), I Ching (China) (Yan, 2014), Hakata (Southern Africa), and ilm al-raml or khutut al-raml (North Africa) (Al-Tokhi, 1991). ...
Article
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The study of divination and divination systems, particularly in non-technological societies, presents a set of unusual problems that challenge the core of rational and epistemic thought. Notwithstanding the bulk of research on cultural genres such as religion, magic, and myth, efforts fall short of distinguishing the constituent theoretical and ontological underpinnings of divinatory practices. Employing modular arithmetic principles, this study proposes a case for situating mathematical concepts within atypical cultural and historical contexts that essentialize mathematical thought as embodied expressions of human endeavors. This article presents an investigation into the mathematical structures underlying an ancient historical and cultural divination practice known as ilm al-raml (Arabic translation of sand science). Principled by sociohistorical and sociocultural lenses, the study employs an ethnomathematical methodology. Coined by D’Ambrosio (1985 , 1999 ) and Knijnik’s (2000) seminal ethnographic research, ethnomathematical methodology can be interpreted as delineating a way to track and analyze the processes of generation, transmission, diffusion, and formalization of mathematical knowledge in diverse cultural systems. By reflecting on the concepts of synchronicity and acausal events, I show that ilm al-raml presents an algorithmic divination system that is based on fundamental computational rules based on Boolean algebra laws with a probabilistic time ordering of events specifically designed to predict future outcomes.
... Following the intellectual path of Africans, players of oware can learn to recognize interesting and important numerical patterns and acquire insights into useful and sophisticated mathematical ideas. For example, Eglash (1999) reports that Ghanaian players refer to a particular self-replicating pattern as a "marching group" (p. 101). ...
Article
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The word sankofa , as used by the Akan-speaking people of Ghana, is a grammatical imperative, meaning that to advance, one must reflect on and reclaim traditional cultural ideas. Reflecting on mathematical ideas expressed in cultural products and practices is an important part of ethnomathematics (D'Ambrosio 1990; Gerdes 1999). As Powell and Frankenstein (1997) suggest, ethnomathematics emerges from discourse about the “interplay among mathematics, education, culture, and politics” (p. 5). In classrooms, ethnomathematics can be implemented by investigating the mathematics of cultural products and practices, such as games, with people from that culture or by exploring the mathematics of a different culture to help students enrich their construction of mathematical ideas (Powell and Frankenstein 1997, p. 249).
... Bu alanda yapılan çalışmalar arasında, fraktal analiz yöntemini kullanan ve Amasya konutlarını inceleyen Bechhoefer ve Bovil (Bovill ve Bechhoefer 1994), Corbusier'in mimari değişim sürecini inceleyen Ostwald (Ostwald, Vaughan ve diğ. 2008), Afrika mimarisi ve fraktal dokusunu inceleyen Eglash (Eglash, 1999) sayılabilir. Fraktal kurguyu bir tasarım yöntemi olarak ele alan çalışmalar arasında ise; Durand'ın tasarımlarını konu alan Krawczyk ve İbrahim (İbrahim ve Krawczyk 2000), Polonya konutlarını inceleyen Zarnowiecka (Zarnowiecka, 1998) ve Kayaköy konutlarını ve dokusunu ele alarak üretken bir yaklaşım geliştiren Ediz sayılabilir. ...
... In elaborating our own theoretical framework, however, we can demonstrate these previous attempts to be incomplete in fully realising the benefits of their own analogies. Abbott (2001) and Shenhav (2015), for example, both cite the fractal characteristics of self-similarity and recursion -i.e. the continued repetition of a set visual pattern (Eglash 1999) -as an analogy for the pervasiveness of narrative. In a sense this answers the question of 'how narratives work': narratives always contain a replication of alreadyestablished narratives. ...
Thesis
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This thesis presents a study of citizens’ engagement with the UK Parliament, at a critical time for this institution and for representative democracy in general. Long-term trends in political participation (in a UK and global context) have contributed to a widely-perceived crisis of representative democracy, characterised by popular dissatisfaction, disinterest, and disengagement. This thesis examines perceptions toward the UK Parliament and parliamentary engagement through institutional and citizen perspectives. In doing so we provide a definition of parliamentary engagement as an ongoing, meaningful dialogue between institution and individual(s). Utilising an innovative theoretical framework, we investigate specific parliamentary engagement initiatives, narratives and discourses, and discuss what these indicate about the nature (or existence) of Parliament’s ‘culture’ of engagement. The way(s) in which Parliament is defined, conceptualised and represented – by citizens, and within Parliament – is a means by which this institution’s practical and symbolic role can be better understood. These definitions, conceptualisations and representations are examined as narratives, a framework that also allows us to examine several engagement initiatives (which make conscious reference to narrative and storytelling) in terms of objectives, intended audience(s), and influence. In addition, Parliament’s wider engagement efforts (and those of outside organisations) will be investigated first-hand, analysing the initial and retrospective perceptions of the citizens who experience them. These aims also inform our discussions with parliamentary staff and officials, helping to construct an ‘institutional perspective’ on engagement. In doing so, we find Parliament to be an enduringly ‘abstract’ institution (according to citizens and staff); a narrative that problematises relatability and identification (as well as broader, deeper engagement). This narrative is reinforced by several factors, including the ad- hoc nature of parliamentary engagement – understood variously across departments, teams and individuals – and an institutional dichotomy of ‘stories’ and ‘information’ when addressing public input, as well as a continued absence of corporate identity.
... On pre/post measures, Pinkard (2001) found that students had voca-bulary gains after using these applications. Working within the field of ethnomathematics, Eglash (1999) has explored the ways that some African epistemologies and material cultures have inten-tional design themes behind them that are remarkably similar to fractal geometry. In the context of a high school computing classroom, Eglash et al. (2011) used a quasi-experimental design toexamine the influence of an African Fractals design tool on the learning of mostly African American and Latinx youth. ...
Article
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Culturally responsive computing (CRC) frames the localized knowledges and practices of Black, Brown, and Indigenous communities as assets for working toward racial justice in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM). A key part of CRC is the role that local communities play in designing and/or implementing curricula and technologies. Yet, there is a dearth of research on collaborating with local knowledge experts and what they think about CRC. In response, this paper details a two-year long research project on the design and implementation of one CRC program called pH Empowered. pH Empowered uses computing to bridge Black hairstyling, chemistry, and entrepreneurship. Through a mixed-methods study of one pH Empowered professional development workshop, we show how cosmetologists, urban farmers, and librarians had diverse perspectives about how to be culturally responsive with STEM and the racial justice goal of broadening participation in STEM education.
... Bu alanda yapılan çalışmalar arasında, fraktal analiz yöntemini kullanan ve Amasya konutlarını inceleyen Bechhoefer ve Bovil (Bovill ve Bechhoefer 1994), Corbusier'in mimari değişim sürecini inceleyen Ostwald (Ostwald, Vaughan ve diğ. 2008), Afrika mimarisi ve fraktal dokusunu inceleyen Eglash (Eglash, 1999) sayılabilir. Fraktal kurguyu bir tasarım yöntemi olarak ele alan çalışmalar arasında ise; Durand'ın tasarımlarını konu alan Krawczyk ve İbrahim (İbrahim ve Krawczyk 2000), Polonya konutlarını inceleyen Zarnowiecka (Zarnowiecka, 1998) ve Kayaköy konutlarını ve dokusunu ele alarak üretken bir yaklaşım geliştiren Ediz sayılabilir. ...
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“Bilgi Çağında İnovasyon” Kitabına Giriş .......................................................................... 1 Yrd. Doç. Dr. Ayşen Akyüz İşletmelerde Bilişim Teknolojilerinin Benimsenmesini Etkileyen Faktörler ......... 5 Yrd. Doç. Dr. Ayşe Saime Döner Bilgi Ekonomisi Ve Dışsallıklar ............................................................................................ 21 Doç. Dr. Serkan Dilek Sektörel İnovasyon Sistemi Ve Makine İmalat Sanayinde Teknoloji Yörüngeleri: Türk Makine İmalat Sanayi Üzerine Değerlendirmeler ............................................... 41 Yrd. Doç. Dr. Cem Okan Tuncel Bilgi Toplumu, Bilgi Ekonomisi, İnovasyon Ve Türkiye ............................................. 73 Burcu Baydar & Semih Sakız Otomotiv Endüstrisinde İnovasyonun Önemi ........................................................... 95 Yrd. Doç. Dr. Ayfer Ustabaş Turizm Sektöründe İnovasyon (Yenilik) Ve Güncel Uygulamalar ........................ 111 Yrd. Doç. Dr. Demet Tüzünkan Sosyal İnovasyonun Demokratik İletişim Ortamının İnşasına Etkisi .................... 133 Yrd. Doç. Dr. Ali Murat KIRIK & Öğr. Gör. Serra ORKAN Günümüz Tasarım Yaklaşımlarına İnovasyon Kavramı Üzerinden Bir Bakış .. 151 Doç. Dr. Özgür M. Ediz Dijital Çağda Gazetecilik Ve İnovasyon: İşbirliğinin Önemi..................................... 173 Yrd. Doç. Dr. Berrin Kalsın Türk Korku Sineması’nda İnovatif Yaklaşımlar ........................................................... 187 Arş. Gör. Ömer AYDINLIOĞLU & Arş. Gör. Birgül ALICI Sayısal Teknolojilerle Mimari Doku Analizi: Kayaköy (Levissi) ............................. 217 Arş. Gör. Ender ŞEN & Doç. Dr. Özgür M. EDİZ
... Taylor measured the stress response of the participants by measuring the electrical resistance of the skin of the participants. He concluded, based on his measurements made on participants, that the stress response of the participants was reduced by certain fractals with a fractal dimension between 3 and 3.5 (Eglash, 1999;Taylor, 2006). Olga Mitina, a Russian scientist, executed a study with 140 participants in two groups only differing in the time durations of the fractals that were presented. ...
... The multiplicity of the application fields had a central role in the diffusion of fractal geometry (Mandelbrot, 1982;Nonnenmacker et al., 1994;Eglash, 1999;Barnsley et al., 2002;Sala, 2004;Sala, 2006;Sala, 2008;Vyzantiadou et al., 2007). ...
Chapter
In the modelling of the natural shapes (clouds, ferns, trees, shells, rivers, mountains), the limits imposed by Euclidean geometry can be exceeded by the fractals. Fractal geometry is relatively young (the first studies are the works by the French mathematicians Pierre Fatou (1878-1929) and Gaston Julia (1893-1978) at the beginning of the 20th century), but only with the mathematical power of computers has it become possible to realize connections between fractal geometry and the other disciplines. It is applied in various fields now, from the biology to the architecture. Important applications also appear in computer science, because the fractal geometry permits to compress the images; to reproduce, in the virtual reality environments, the complex patterns and the irregular forms present in nature using simple iterative algorithms execute by computers. Recent studies apply this geometry for controlling the traffic in the computer networks (LANs, MANs, WANs, and the Internet) and in the realization of virtual worlds based on World Wide Web. The aim of this chapter is to present fractal geometry, its properties (e.g., the self similarity), and their applications in computer science (starting from the computer graphics, to the virtual reality).
... Rather, it started with the work of Ron Eglash, who had observed the fractal patterns present in African architecture. He studied this connection while on a Fulbright scholarship in West Africa, and his research resulted in his book African Fractals (Eglash, 1999). Likewise, he noticed that fractal patterns also appeared in the African American practice of cornrow hair braiding, along with geometric transformations such as translation, dilation, and rotation. ...
Article
The concept of enoughness holds importance for both African American and Indigenous communities. In Indigenous contexts, ideas of enoughness can be about moving from extractive to sustainable economies where balance, interdependence, cooperation, and decentralization are prioritized in the production and sharing of resources. In African American contexts enoughness is about challenging deficit views of Black children as maladjusted and incomplete with an insistence that people, especially educators, see their existing brilliance and celebrate the fact that they are already enough. We explore how these concepts shaped efforts to make science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) education more equitable, justice-oriented, and generative, thus rethinking the shape of STEM itself as a platform for generative justice. We detail how this was accomplished through designing and researching educational technologies called Culturally Situated Design Tools.
... In Europe and settler colonial locations, the streets are planned in Cartesian patterns of grids to make it easy for the police or the fire brigade to block off trouble and deal with it forcefully. In Africa, where people had been hunted as prey and kidnapped or subjected to genocide for centuries, we choose to design our streets in a chaotic pattern known as African Fractals to make it difficult for any enemies to catch us (Eglash, 1999;and Bangura, 2012). Initially, Europeans tried to dismiss nonlineal geometry as irrational, but they have since discovered that the principles of interconnectedness, fractional dimensions, self-similarity, recursion, infinity, and chaos could be used to design cyberspace in such a way that it is difficult for dictators to control Internet communities. ...
Book
“In this era of Covid-19, enlightened policing is of special urgency. The authors of Community Policing in Nigeria provide us invaluable guidelines to attain this.” —Gloria Emeagwali, Central Connecticut State University “Community Policing in Nigeria is well timed, especially when Nigeria is descending into a state of security failure. Not only do the authors trace the history of policing in Nigeria, they offer comprehensive strategies for community policing that would help Nigeria maintain peace and order, as well as prevent and apprehend the various kinds of criminal elements that menace the streets of the country. Most important, the book demonstrates that acceptable policing practices were bracketed and ubiquitously practiced in regions of Nigeria before the European invasion and the subsequent introduction of a state militarized police system. This book is a must-read for policy-makers and Nigeria’s educational sectors.” —Ihekwoaba Declan Onwudiwe, Texas Southern University
... Source: Ron Eglash. the locals as kulea (to nurture ;Eglash 1999). This sense that ancestors nurture the current generation is another way to enforce intergenerational responsibility (reflected in religious obligations to ancestors, economic obligations to elders, etc.). ...
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The tsetse fly is a pan-African insect that bites an infective forest animal and ingests blood filled with invisible parasites, which it carries and transmits into cattle and people as it bites them, leading to n'gana (animal trypanosomiasis) and sleeping sickness. This book examines how the presence of the tsetse fly turned the forests of Zimbabwe and southern Africa into an open laboratory where African knowledge formed the basis of colonial tsetse control policies. The book traces the pestiferous work that an indefatigable, mobile insect does through its movements, and the work done by humans to control it. The book restores the central role not just of African labor but of African intellect in the production of knowledge about the tsetse fly. It describes how European colonizers built on and beyond this knowledge toward destructive and toxic methods, including cutting down entire forests, forced “prophylactic” resettlement, massive destruction of wild animals, and extensive spraying of organochlorine pesticides. Throughout, the book uses African terms to describe the African experience, taking vernacular concepts as starting points in writing a narrative of ruzivo (knowledge) rather than viewing Africa through foreign keywords.
... This village has the shape of a half moon, repeated in various scales and patterns, reflecting the religious, natural and social influences and characteristics in its structure. (EGLASH, 1999) The characteristic of self-similarity in the composition of floor plants and solids is also notable in different buildings in Renaissance Europe, identified mainly in ornaments and decorations. Sala (2003) describes that some of these constructions have obvious similarities to fractal patterns. ...
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his article seeks to create and evaluate a parametric process that allows identifying the D dimension in fractal compositions through a Box-counting tool. The use of this method in a parametric process allows sequential tests that can confirm whether a composition is a fractal structure. The theoretical survey and the development of a parametric process in a visual algorithm were carried out for the development of this research. The tests with the tool took place in linear fractal compositions already known and developed in another research. As a result, it was possible to compare the D dimension of different compositions, made with fractal geometric patterns. In the conclusion, it was possible to observe that the process through a parametric tool was successful in making it possible to evaluate compositions and arrangements in an agile way. A direct relationship was identified between the iterations used and the proportional increase dimension D.
... Justamente, el prefijo etno remite a los rasgos de los grupos humanos, tales como símbolos, códigos, valores creencias, mitos o idiomas (D'Ambrosio, 1989: 7. Rosa y Gavarrete, 2017. Gracias a su enfoque cultural, la etnomatemática ha estudiado las matemáticas nativas norteamericanas (Closs, 1986), el Quipu inca (Ascher y Ascher, 1981), los fractales africanos (Eglash, 1999) o la matemática aymara (Mamani, 2009). ...
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"El vínculo entre antropología y ciencias sociales y naturales es conocido, no obstante, ¿qué sabemos de su relación con las ciencias formales? El presente ensayo explora algunos capítulos del vínculo entre antropología, lógica y matemática. Primero, se discuten el pensamiento mágico de Frazer, las clasificaciones primitivas de Durkheim y Mauss, la mentalidad prelógica de Lévy-Bruhl, la lógica de la brujería zande, la etnografía de Hutchins sobre la inferencia trobriand, la etnológica de Hamill y la lógica primitiva trivalente de Cooper. Segundo, se analizan la numeración en la mentalidad prelógica de Lévy-Bruhl, la etnomatemática de D’Ambrosio, los lenguajes anuméricos de Everett y el impacto en la filosofía de la matemática. Asimismo, se brinda una hipótesis evolucionista que comprenda las etnológicas y etnomatemáticas. La finalidad es demostrar que la antropología es capaz de estudiar objetos formales gracias a su interacción con las ciencias formales." "The link between anthropology and social and natural sciences is well known, however, what do we know about its relationship with the formal sciences? This essay explores some chapters of the nexus between anthropology, logic, and mathematics. First, Frazer’s magical thinking, Durkheim’s primitive classifications, Lévy-Bruhl’s prelogical mentality, the logic of zande witchcraft, Hutchins’ ethnography on trobriand inference, Hamill’s ethno-logic and Cooper’s three-valued primitive logic are discussed. Second, Lévy-Bruhl’s prelogic numeration, D’Ambrosio’s ethnomathematics, Everett’s anumerical languages and the impact on philosophy of mathematics are analyzed. Likewise, a cultural evolutionary hypothesis that explains the ethnologics and ethnomathematics is given. The purpose is to demonstrate that, thanks to its interaction with formal sciences, anthropology is capable of studying formal objects."
... The symmetric geometries of ancient Egyptian structures have been noted (Rossi, 2004). Fractal scaling symmetries are obvious in sub-Saharan African architecture (Eglash, 1999). Centuries of Islamic Architecture offer us a pictorial textbook of applied plane symmetries. ...
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The mathematical concept of symmetry, in its fullest sense, figured large in architectural history up to the early twentieth century. However, for the better part of a century, architecture and related disciplines have marginalized the consideration of symmetry in favour of a “functionalist” conception of design. More recently, dramatic developments in mathematics, physics, biology, neuroscience, environmental psychology, and other fields have given new dynamism to the ancient topic of symmetry. These findings carry implications for architecture and other environmental design professions that have, until now, been poorly understood, where they have been considered at all. This paper examines the new findings and what they reveal about current design orthodoxy as well as shedding new light on historic precedents. It concludes that there is an urgent need for a reassessment, toward a new agenda of research and practice.
... Recent research in fractals has revealed that construction of Iron Age settlements was not completely without regular planning. 78 The term "fractal" was first introduced in 1924 by FrenchAmerican mathematician, Benoit Mandelbrot. The word comes from the Latin fractus, which means broken and irregular and was used to describe irregular objects. ...
... Homage to the ancestors and religious totems informed rites of passage, the planting of crops, marriage, health and diet. The wellbeing of the community was inextricably linked to the spirit world and religion permeate through the everyday lives of African societies, acting as the glue of social cohesion and determining the communities collective identity (Ron Eglash, 1998). At the center of most African religions was the goddess, a female. ...
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Thanks to the African Union's commitment to gender equality, 49 of the 53 African countries have signed the AU's Protocol on the Rights of Women in Africa. The policy has resulted in electoral gender quotas in the parliaments of a dozen African countries. This development has had positive substantive and symbolic effects including the adoption of laws that address women's interests in the areas of gender-based violence, land rights, and family law (Bauer, 2018). However, studies suggest that a significant gender gap persists in African countries when it comes to political participation, with women being two thirds less likely to vote than men and much less likely to participate in collective action such as protests. Western feminist scholars have attributed this gap to socioeconomic differences between men and women, but more importantly, to pervasive, harmful, traditional and cultural mind sets of Africans. African feminists have responded to these claims with studies into the status of women in pre-colonial societies to determine whether the African woman was then oppressed in her community or whether this phenomenon occurred during colonialism. This paper establishes the gender gap in political participation in Africa through reviewing literature compiled on results from five waves of Afrobarometer surveys. It then takes an Africana Womanist approach to introduce the concepts of matrifocality that existed in African communities prior to colonialism to challenge the stereotype that a lack of political participation amongst women is due to harmful traditional mind sets. Drawing on prominent research done by African feminists in West, East and Central Africa, I investigate how colonialism eroded the political power of women in their communities and I explore a heuristic ontology for the African woman based upon her position in society before the introduction of Western capitalism and monotheistic religion.
... The multiplicity of meaning revealed by principles three and six ( Figure 9) can be seen in everyday environmental and urban encoding and decoding processes. Most evidently seen in education and practice that co-exists unambiguously; personified by the craftsmanship and human scale (Eglash, 1999) ...
Conference Paper
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This study looks at ways in which education and practice can find common ground in a concept of visual sustainability. It looks at ways of sifting out the meaning from endless flows of information, to scaffold a theoretical framework from the rhizome-like obstacle of ambiguity and uncertainty. This can be achieved by adjusting our focal length to better see our visual world, and so help better describe the conditions for growth that are so important for sustainable urban development and architectural practice. This study is divided into three parts. Firstly, a declaration of meaning; secondly, how we transact with meaning in everyday assemblages; and lastly, the concept of a spectrum of meaning. It builds on existing discourse around education and practice, with a view to understanding what makes the urban 'tick' (Dovey & KTH Media Production, 2017). So that we can discover what makes us 'tick' in the urban.
Article
Based on recently gathered ethnographical data from Maputo, Mozambique, this article examines the vertical growth of the city. In particular, it focuses on the production of social and physical divides that emerge when the city’s rooftops are being used for habitational purposes. During the last two decades, rooftop spaces in Maputo’s inner-city have increasingly been appropriated for habitational use by owners of the buildings’ apartments. In order to secure a viable subsistence level, owners rent out their apartments and move to small storage rooms on the rooftops. Very few of these rooftops have electricity and water installed and so residents connect to the buildings’ existing but increasingly fragile systems of power cables, water pipes and drain pipes. In many of the city’s apartment buildings, this spatial organization—where apartment owners living on the rooftops are informally attached to the apartment renters through a fragile and leaking system of pipes, tubes and cables—has caused numerous and ongoing conflicts, which constantly threaten to disrupt the volatile social stability of the building. In this article, I introduce the notion of ‘rooftop autophagy’ to capture the dynamics of a critical urban phenomenon, which grows by feeding on itself and, by so doing, generates major urban divides at the heart of the city.
Article
Предлагается выделить два основных направления изучения фрактальности психологических феноменов: изучение особенностей восприятия фрактальных объектов; анализ фрактальных особенностей психологического функционирования, в том числе сложных социальных взаимодействий. Рассматриваются эмпирические исследования восприятия фракталов естественного и искусственного происхождения. Основные результаты таких исследований: обнаружение взаимосвязей оценок эстетической привлекательности и сложности с фрактальной размерностью, универсальности эстетических предпочтений, психофизиологических коррелятов восприятия фрактальных объектов. В ряде исследований описываются индивидуальные различия при восприятии фракталов и взаимосвязи с некоторыми психологическими и социально-демографическими характеристиками. Отмечается, что окружающие человека природа и искусственная среда, а также структурно-функциональная организация человека на разных уровнях обладают фрактальными свойствами. Обосновывается общий вывод: в процессе эволюции возникновение фрактальных особенностей психологических феноменов выступало важнейшим механизмом адаптации к среде
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This paper was delivered at the following invited presentations: Bennett, Audrey. “The Difference it Makes Who is Speaking: An Auto-ethnography of Minor Literatures in Graphic Design at Yale School of Art.” Design History Fridays Group, California Institute of the Arts (CalArts), July 12, 2019. Invited talk Bennett, Audrey. “The Difference it Makes Who is Speaking: An Auto-ethnography of Minor Literatures in Graphic Design at Yale School of Art.” After the Bauhaus, Before the Internet: A History of Graphic Design Pedagogy, Department of Art History, Yale School of Art, May 11, 2019. Invited talk
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Serendipitious' has been defined as occurring or discovered by chance in a happy or beneficial way. "A ser-endipitous encounter" thus generally means one or a series of unexpected but pleasant encounters. A city, which is ser-endipitious, is a physical form, which has configuration and features which allows such encounters to happen. This paper highlights vernacular-based principles which are needed to counter the modernisation and urbanisation trends in South East Asia, throughout studying the typological and morphological character of 'littoral maritime' cities which grew in the 15th century onwards across littoral or coastal straits of maritime Asia represent pre-modern vernacular rooted forms from which contain patterns that are urban, yet naturally-balanced with the environment. As these grew as a result of maritime trade, it is highly densed yet still reflect ecological features and conditions are still intact. The paper reconstructs some of these patterns and identify four central character as a result of their urban which resonate with 'ecological themes': 1) accretion qualities; 2) river-gravitation; 3) fractality and 4) centricity. The paper argues that although these patterns emerge from medieval times, these maritime cities constitute a 'gentle' and ecologically-sound approach to development which can unite the coexistence of urbanisation and nature. In such conditions, the tropical jungle exists side by side with densed urbanisation. The paper uses the reconstruction of the former (pre-colonial) morphologies in South East Asia to demonstrate the character of these centers, which are organic and informal evolvements having certain morphologies, configurations, architectural structures and their similarities and common principles in terms of urban patterns and principles are discussed. The pursuit of the optimal balance between 'man' and 'nature' must reflect in a city which consider living beings as both animal, vegetation and man, and which are, at present, in danger of critical depletion, and eventually extinction. Cases of built language, topography, ecology, landscape forms and urban configuration patterns and parameters across the region are presented and the paper argues that the rise of sustainability in city planning favors the compact and densed formal patterns which are reflective of these centers across the coastline of the straits historically and these constitutes principles that can sustain ecology, climatic balance yet an active cultural conduit of the place.
Chapter
In ecological design and planning, as well as in regenerative design, the consideration of the whole is paramount, as indicated in the literature that were reviewed and in the previous chapters. If we are to shift from our current mechanical ‘set of parts’ thinking, to a holistic, integral based systems thinking, we must understand the nature of the change required. The foundation for the evolution of understanding, and thereby of the way we participate as part of nature, is through understanding the patterns of the whole. Wholeness thinking recognizes that the entirety is interconnected, and moves us beyond mechanics into a world activated by complex interrelationships such as natural systems, human social systems, and the conscious forces behind their actions (Seamon, Christopher Alexander and a phenomenology of wholeness. In EDRA – Environmental Design Research Association, Architecture Department. Manhattan, KS: Kansas State University, 2007). It is thus appropriate to introduce the concept of wholeness as a fundamental entity of nature, and in this chapter, we investigate the phenomena of the unfolding of the whole which creates living structures, and group these emergent characteristics as the 15 fundamental properties of wholeness. The chapter further discuss the generative processes of design, including patterns and pattern languages, morphogenetic sequences, and the generative code. The chapter concludes with the fundamental pattern Transformations Of Wholeness [9], providing guidance on an all-encompassing philosophy.
Article
The study aims to analyse the fractal geometry of eight (eight) traditional housing facade planes, which were preserved facade originality and damaged (it is determined regarding window dimensions) in the historic urban centre of Afyonkarahisar. The scope of the study is the concept of fractal in the conceptual framework, fractal geometry and fiction, architectural and fractal fiction, explanation of the traditional Turkish housing definition and formation, determination of building tags in field survey, the box-counting method based on fractal fiction, evaluation of data and findings. The examples in this study have been selected from three-floor, pinnacle, and entrance facades in traditional housing within the “Urban Archeological Site” of the Afyonkarahisar. According to the traditional housing facades defined, the window space remained in its original state, and two different groups were identified, which was damaged originality. Two-dimensional front views of the eight samples in the two groups were drawn vectorially by taking the facade relievo. The fractal fiction between each other was analysed using the “box-counting method”. The analysis of traditional housing facades preserved originality or which was damaged; originality was made according to the data obtained.
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The full journal of architecture and design review on sustainability and urbanism issues.
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In the 2016 Abiola Lecture, Mbembe argued that “the plasticity of digital forms speaks powerfully to the plasticity of African precolonial cultures and to ancient ways of working with representation and mediation, of folding reality.” In her commentary, Pype tries to understand what “speaking powerfully to” can mean. She first situates the Abiola Lecture within a wide range of exciting and ongoing scholarship that attempts to understand social transformations on the continent since the ubiquitous uptake of the mobile phone, and its most recent incarnation, the smartphone. She then analyzes the aesthetics of artistic projects by Alexandre Kyungu, Yves Sambu, and Hilaire Kuyangiko Balu, where wooden doors, tattoos, beads, saliva, and nails correlate with the Internet, pixels, and keys of keyboards and remote controls. Finally, Pype asks to whom the congruence between the aesthetics of a “precolonial” Congo and the digital speaks. In a society where “the past” is quickly demonized, though expats and the commercial and political elite pay thousands of dollars for the discussed art works, Pype argues that this congruence might be one more manifestation of capitalism’s cannibalization of a stereotypical image of “Africa.”
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Haiti’s multi-soul complex proves a deeply enigmatic aspect of Vodou cosmology. This essay examines Haitian concepts of personhood and ‘plural soul’ philosophy in relationship to Vodou’s figurative mystic vessels, specifically the body-pot and head-pot. I introduce several African philosophies of multiple souls to contextualize Haiti’s multi-soul complex as a legacy of African indigenous thought regarding plural personhood. I argue that the physical body and head serve as primordial sacred vessels in Vodou, ‘filled’ with a collective of many soul-selves (i.e., gwo bon anj, ti bon anj, lwa mèt tèt, etc.). Drawing from historical and ethnographic research, I investigate a person’s ‘private souls’ and the ‘plural/public spirit pantheon’ to explain the dynamics between inner soul-selves and communal guiding spirits. Ultimately, a person’s sacred body-pot and divine head-pot reveal how Haitian devotees exist as a multitude of souls, as Vodou initiation harmonizes relationships between their private soul-selves and the community’s public spirits.
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Tarihsel süreç içerisinde birçok yerleşimde sosyo-kültürel ve fiziksel anlamda değişim ve dönüşümler meydana gelmiştir. Bu değişimlerin aktörü ya da aktörleri her yerleşim için farklılık göstermiştir. Çalışmanın örneklem alanı olan Isparta kenti de başta yaşanan “göçler” olmak üzere, doğal afetler, imar değişiklikleri ve yönetim değişikliği gibi nedenlerle bu süreci yaşamıştır. Kentin yaşadığı bu süreçte ortaya çıkan kent dinamikleri konut alanlarının oluşumu ve konut yapıları üzerinde doğrudan etkili olmuştur. Söz konusu örneklem alanda bu etkinin değerlendirilebilmesi için, 20.yy da yaşanmış olan mübadele ve bu süreçte yaşanan kullanıcı değişiminin etkisinin görüldüğü, günümüze kadar ulaşmayı başarmış olan konut üzerinden değerlendirme ve kıyaslama yapılabilmesi uygun bulunmuştur. Tez çalışmasının ana hedefi; sosyal bilgi ve sayısal bilginin beraber yorumlanması ile tarihsel süreç içerisinde “göç” dinamiği nedeniyle konut yapılarında meydana gelen değişim ve dönüşümlerinin tespit edilmesidir. Bu hedefle çalışma kapsamında alan çalışması, literatür çalışması ve sayısal değerlendirme yöntemleri kullanılmıştır. Kent dinamikleri içerisinden seçilen “göç” olgusunun yerleşimde etkili olduğu alanlar tespit edilmiş, bu alanlarda oluşan konut yapılarından özgün örnekler, görsel analiz yöntemiyle tescilli olma durumlarına bakılmaksızın seçilmiştir. Konutların ustaları ve kullanıcıları ile ilgili farklılıkların örnek seçiminde karışıklık yaratmaması hedeflenerek; Gayrimüslim etkisindeki yapılar içerisinden bu topluma ait özel bir uygulama olduğu düşünülen “taş taklidi sıva uygulaması” nın mevcut olduğu tüm konutlar belgelenmiş, diğer yapı grubundan da aynı sayıda örnek ele alınmıştır. Örneklem seçimindeki bu yöntem, çalışmanın ikincil hedefi olan, söz konusu özel uygulamanın ustaları ve ait oldukları topluma dair net bilgiye ulaşılması ve değerlendirilmesini oluşturmaktadır. Belirlenen tüm konutların plan ve cephe kurgularına ait veriler belgelenmiştir. Çalışma sürecinde mübadele etkisi ile kullanıcısı değişen yerleşim alanlarında bulunan konut yapıları ile bu süreci yaşamamış olan mahallelerdeki konut yapılarının plan kurgusu anlamında farklılık göstermedikleri sonucuna ulaşılmıştır. Konutlar arasındaki farklılığın cephe kurgusuna yansımış olabileceği öngörüsü ile bir sayısal yöntem belirlenmiş, doluluk-boşluk oranlarının değerlendirilmesi planlanmıştır. Elde iii edilen cephe çizimleri “fraktal geometri” kavramı altında “kutu sayım metodu” ile analiz edilmiştir. Çalışma sonucunda ortaya çıkan sayısal sonuçlar değerlendirilmiş, örneklem grupları arasında doluluk-boşluk oranlarının birbirine yakın olduğu, dolayısı ile toplumsal farklılaşmanın konut cephe kurgusuna yansımasından sayısal olarak söz edilemeyeceği görülmüştür. Ancak gayrimüslim konut yapı örneklerinin seçimde bir parametre olarak kullanılan taş taklidi sıva uygulamasına farklı bir kimlik taşımasından dolayı ICOMOS‟un en küçük ölçekli korunacak değerleri arasına alınması kapsamında önemli bir değer oluşturmuştur. Yapılan alan çalışması sırasında tespit edilen tüm yapıların tescilli olup olmadığına bakılmaksızın yapı adresleri, konumu, fotoğrafı, cephe çizimi ve kontrol listesinin bulunduğu belgeleme çalışmaları yapılmış, bu yapıların ve beraberinde söz konusu uygulamanın gelecek nesillere aktarılması için önemli bir sonuç elde edilmiştir. Anahtar Kelimeler: Geleneksel Konut, Taş Taklidi Sıva, Fraktal Geometri, Isparta
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