Article

Mobile Phones and Head Tumours: A Critical Analysis of Case-Control Epidemiological Studies

Authors:
  • IRCCS Az. Ospedaliera Universitaria San Martino, Ist Nazionale Ricerca sul Cancro (IST) Genoa (Italy)
To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the authors.

Abstract

Protocols and results of case-control studies, pooled-and meta-analyses on the relationship between mobile phone use and risk of head tumours are critically analysed, and for each study strict elements necessary for evaluating its reliability are identified and applied (see Methods). In studies funded by public bodies, blind protocols give positive results revealing cause-effect relationships between long-term latency or use of mobile phones (cellulars and cordless) and statistically significant increases of ipsilateral risk of brain gliomas and acoustic neuromas, with biological plausibility. In studies funded or co-funded by the cellphone companies non-blind protocols give overall negative results with systematic underestimation of risk; however, also in these studies a statistically significant increase in risk of ipsilateral brain gliomas, acoustic neuromas, and parotid gland tumours is quite common when only subjects with at least 10 years of latency or exposure to mobile phones (only cellulars) are considered. Informed precautionary measures are therefore recommended as a step towards reducing risk of head tumours, especially for young people and those making intense use of cellular and cordless phones.

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the authors.

... In many respects, the Interphone findings were not consistent with those found in other studies, particularly those of Hardell's group. These differences have been analysed [32,33], and the authors point out that Hardell's studies generally include a higher number of participants with ≥ 10 years' use. The methodology of the two groups also differed. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background Cellphone and cordless phone use is very prevalent among early adolescents, but the extent and types of use is not well documented. This paper explores how, and to what extent, New Zealand adolescents are typically using and exposed to active cellphones and cordless phones, and considers implications of this in relation to brain tumour risk, with reference to current research findings. Methods This cross-sectional study recruited 373 Year 7 and 8 school students with a mean age of 12.3 years (range 10.3-13.7 years) from the Wellington region of New Zealand. Participants completed a questionnaire and measured their normal body-to-phone texting distances. Main exposure-metrics included self-reported time spent with an active cellphone close to the body, estimated time and number of calls on both phone types, estimated and actual extent of SMS text-messaging, cellphone functions used and people texted. Statistical analyses used Pearson Chi2 tests and Pearson’s correlation coefficient (r). Analyses were undertaken using SPSS version 19.0. Results Both cellphones and cordless phones were used by approximately 90% of students. A third of participants had already used a cordless phone for ≥ 7 years. In 4 years from the survey to mid-2013, the cordless phone use of 6% of participants would equal that of the highest Interphone decile (≥ 1640 hours), at the surveyed rate of use. High cellphone use was related to cellphone location at night, being woken regularly, and being tired at school. More than a third of parents thought cellphones carried a moderate-to-high health risk for their child. Conclusions While cellphones were very popular for entertainment and social interaction via texting, cordless phones were most popular for calls. If their use continued at the reported rate, many would be at increased risk of specific brain tumours by their mid-teens, based on findings of the Interphone and Hardell-group studies.
Technical Report
Full-text available
La letteratura scientifica recente conferma la sufficiente evidenza degli effetti dei CEM/EMF (Campi Elettro- Magnetici) a lungo termine sulla salute umana. Dopo una breve introduzione sulle Emissioni elettromagnetiche e salute umana, vengono riassunte le evidenze scientifiche recenti. Il principio di precauzione è ampiamente adottato nella Legislazione italiana in materia, e ne vengono riassunti i sommi capi, per poi passare ad una descrizione più dettagliata. Gli autori ritengono sia necessaria inoltre una valutazione congiunta degli effetti degli inquinanti elettromagnetici, chimici e ionizzanti. I risultati della valutazione diretta degli effetti biologici ampiamente disponibile in letteratura viene riassunta in appendice, mentre un dettaglio è fornito su alcuni studi epidemiologici sul personale addetto, e in particolare sull'esposizione ai radar, perché ritenuti particolarmente rilevanti nel caso di esposizione lavorativa di militari. Gli effetti biologici e sanitari delle radiazioni EMF - dai campi magnetici a frequenza estremamente bassa (ELF / EMF) alle radiofrequenze ad alta e altissima frequenza (RF / EMF) - sono chiaramente stabiliti e si verificano anche a livelli molto bassi di esposizione. Nel complesso, sono disponibili quasi 4.000 studi sperimentali che riportano una serie di effetti a breve e medio termine dei campi elettromagnetici, e che supportano la plausibilità biologica dei rischi a livello di conseguenze genotossiche, cancerogene e neurodegenerative a lungo termine sulle popolazioni umane esposte.
Article
Full-text available
There is public concern that use of mobile phones could increase the risk of brain tumours. If such an effect exists, acoustic neuroma would be of particular concern because of the proximity of the acoustic nerve to the handset. We conducted, to a shared protocol, six population-based case–control studies in four Nordic countries and the UK to assess the risk of acoustic neuroma in relation to mobile phone use. Data were collected by personal interview from 678 cases of acoustic neuroma and 3553 controls. The risk of acoustic neuroma in relation to regular mobile phone use in the pooled data set was not raised (odds ratio (OR)=0.9, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.7–1.1). There was no association of risk with duration of use, lifetime cumulative hours of use or number of calls, for phone use overall or for analogue or digital phones separately. Risk of a tumour on the same side of the head as reported phone use was raised for use for 10 years or longer (OR=1.8, 95% CI: 1.1–3.1). The study suggests that there is no substantial risk of acoustic neuroma in the first decade after starting mobile phone use. However, an increase in risk after longer term use or after a longer lag period could not be ruled out.Keywords: neuroma, acoustic, telephone, epidemiology, aetiology
Article
Full-text available
Our case-control studies were the first to report an association between the use of mobile or cordless phones and brain tumors; glioma and acoustic neuroma. Criticism of these results has been based partly on results from the Inter-phone studies conducted under the auspice of the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). Here, we com-pare study design and epidemiological methods used in our studies and the Interphone studies. We conclude that while our results appear sound and reliable, several of the Interphone findings display differential misclassification of exposure due to observational and recall bias, for example, following low participation rates in both cases and controls and bed-side computer guided interviews of cases rather than blinded interviews of cases and controls. However, as we have presented elsewhere, there seems to be a consistent pattern of an association between mobile phone use and ipsilateral glioma and acoustic neuroma using > 10 years latency period.
Article
Full-text available
We conducted a systematic review of scientific studies to evaluate whether the use of wireless phones is linked to an increased incidence of the brain cancer glioma or other tumors of the head (meningioma, acoustic neuroma, and parotid gland), originating in the areas of the head that most absorb radiofrequency (RF) energy from wireless phones. Epidemiology and in vivo studies were evaluated according to an agreed protocol; quality criteria were used to evaluate the studies for narrative synthesis but not for meta-analyses or pooling of results. The epidemiology study results were heterogeneous, with sparse data on long-term use (≥ 10 years). Meta-analyses of the epidemiology studies showed no statistically significant increase in risk (defined as P < 0.05) for adult brain cancer or other head tumors from wireless phone use. Analyses of the in vivo oncogenicity, tumor promotion, and genotoxicity studies also showed no statistically significant relationship between exposure to RF fields and genotoxic damage to brain cells, or the incidence of brain cancers or other tumors of the head. Assessment of the review results using the Hill criteria did not support a causal relationship between wireless phone use and the incidence of adult cancers in the areas of the head that most absorb RF energy from the use of wireless phones. There are insufficient data to make any determinations about longer-term use (≥ 10 years).
Article
Full-text available
Whether or not there is a relationship between use of mobile phones (analogue and digital cellulars, and cordless) and head tumour risk (brain tumours, acoustic neuromas, and salivary gland tumours) is still a matter of debate; progress requires a critical analysis of the methodological elements necessary for an impartial evaluation of contradictory studies. A close examination of the protocols and results from all case-control and cohort studies, pooled- and meta-analyses on head tumour risk for mobile phone users was carried out, and for each study the elements necessary for evaluating its reliability were identified. In addition, new meta-analyses of the literature data were undertaken. These were limited to subjects with mobile phone latency time compatible with the progression of the examined tumours, and with analysis of the laterality of head tumour localisation corresponding to the habitual laterality of mobile phone use. Blind protocols, free from errors, bias, and financial conditioning factors, give positive results that reveal a cause-effect relationship between long-term mobile phone use or latency and statistically significant increase of ipsilateral head tumour risk, with biological plausibility. Non-blind protocols, which instead are affected by errors, bias, and financial conditioning factors, give negative results with systematic underestimate of such risk. However, also in these studies a statistically significant increase in risk of ipsilateral head tumours is quite common after more than 10 years of mobile phone use or latency. The meta-analyses, our included, examining only data on ipsilateral tumours in subjects using mobile phones since or for at least 10 years, show large and statistically significant increases in risk of ipsilateral brain gliomas and acoustic neuromas. Our analysis of the literature studies and of the results from meta-analyses of the significant data alone shows an almost doubling of the risk of head tumours induced by long-term mobile phone use or latency.
Article
Full-text available
We studied the association between use of mobile and cordless phones and malignant brain tumours. Pooled analysis was performed of two case-control studies on patients with malignant brain tumours diagnosed during 1997-2003 and matched controls alive at the time of study inclusion and one case-control study on deceased patients and controls diagnosed during the same time period. Cases and controls or relatives to deceased subjects were interviewed using a structured questionnaire. Replies were obtained for 1,251 (85%) cases and 2,438 (84%) controls. The risk increased with latency period and cumulative use in hours for both mobile and cordless phones. Highest risk was found for the most common type of glioma, astrocytoma, yielding in the >10 year latency group for mobile phone use odds ratio (OR) = 2.7, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.9-3.7 and cordless phone use OR = 1.8, 95% CI = 1.2-2.9. In a separate analysis, these phone types were independent risk factors for glioma. The risk for astrocytoma was highest in the group with first use of a wireless phone before the age of 20; mobile phone use OR = 4.9, 95% CI = 2.2-11, cordless phone use OR = 3.9, 95% CI = 1.7-8.7. In conclusion, an increased risk was found for glioma and use of mobile or cordless phone. The risk increased with latency time and cumulative use in hours and was highest in subjects with first use before the age of 20.
Article
Full-text available
Objective During the last decade, mobile phone use increased to almost 100% prevalence in many countries of the world. Evidence for potential health hazards accumulated in parallel by epidemiologic investigations has raised controversies about the appropriate interpretation and the degree of bias and confounding responsible for reduced or increased risk estimates. Data Sources Overall, I identified 33 epidemiologic studies in the peer-reviewed literature, most of which (25) were about brain tumors. Two groups have collected data for ≥ 10 years of mobile phone use: Hardell and colleagues from Sweden and the Interphone group, an international consortium from 13 countries coordinated by the International Agency for Research on Cancer. Data Synthesis Combined odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) from these studies for glioma, acoustic neuroma, and meningioma were 1.5 (1.2–1.8); 1.3 (0.95–1.9); and 1.1 (0.8–1.4), respectively. Conclusions Methodologic considerations revealed that three important conditions for epidemiologic studies to detect an increased risk are not met: a ) no evidence-based exposure metric is available; b) the observed duration of mobile phone use is generally still too low; c) no evidence-based selection of end points among the grossly different types of neoplasias is possible because of lack of etiologic hypotheses. Concerning risk estimates, selection bias, misclassification bias, and effects of the disease on mobile phone use could have reduced estimates, and recall bias may have led to spuriously increased risks. The overall evidence speaks in favor of an increased risk, but its magnitude cannot be assessed at present because of insufficient information on long-term use.
Article
Full-text available
Case-control studies have reported inconsistent findings regarding the association between mobile phone use and tumor risk. We investigated these associations using a meta-analysis. We searched MEDLINE (PubMed), EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library in August 2008. Two evaluators independently reviewed and selected articles based on predetermined selection criteria. Of 465 articles meeting our initial criteria, 23 case-control studies, which involved 37,916 participants (12,344 patient cases and 25,572 controls), were included in the final analyses. Compared with never or rarely having used a mobile phone, the odds ratio for overall use was 0.98 for malignant and benign tumors (95% CI, 0.89 to 1.07) in a random-effects meta-analysis of all 23 studies. However, a significant positive association (harmful effect) was observed in a random-effects meta-analysis of eight studies using blinding, whereas a significant negative association (protective effect) was observed in a fixed-effects meta-analysis of 15 studies not using blinding. Mobile phone use of 10 years or longer was associated with a risk of tumors in 13 studies reporting this association (odds ratio = 1.18; 95% CI, 1.04 to 1.34). Further, these findings were also observed in the subgroup analyses by methodologic quality of study. Blinding and methodologic quality of study were strongly associated with the research group. The current study found that there is possible evidence linking mobile phone use to an increased risk of tumors from a meta-analysis of low-biased case-control studies. Prospective cohort studies providing a higher level of evidence are needed.
Article
Full-text available
The Hardell-group conducted during 1997-2003 two case control studies on brain tumours including assessment of use of mobile phones and cordless phones. The questionnaire was answered by 905 (90%) cases with malignant brain tumours, 1,254 (88%) cases with benign tumours and 2,162 (89%) population-based controls. Cases were reported from the Swedish Cancer Registries. Anatomical area in the brain for the tumour was assessed and related to side of the head used for both types of wireless phones. In the current analysis we defined ipsilateral use (same side as the tumour) as >or=50% of the use and contralateral use (opposite side) as <50% of the calling time. We report now further results for use of mobile and cordless phones. Regarding astrocytoma we found highest risk for ipsilateral mobile phone use in the >10 year latency group, OR=3.3, 95% CI=2.0-5.4 and for cordless phone use OR=5.0, 95% CI=2.3-11. In total, the risk was highest for cases with first use <20 years age, for mobile phone OR=5.2, 95% CI=2.2-12 and for cordless phone OR=4.4, 95% CI=1.9-10. For acoustic neuroma, the highest OR was found for ipsilateral use and >10 year latency, for mobile phone OR=3.0, 95% CI=1.4-6.2 and cordless phone OR=2.3, 95% CI=0.6-8.8. Overall highest OR for mobile phone use was found in subjects with first use at age <20 years, OR=5.0, 95% CI 1.5-16 whereas no association was found for cordless phone in that group, but based on only one exposed case. The annual age-adjusted incidence of astrocytoma for the age group >19 years increased significantly by +2.16%, 95% CI +0.25 to +4.10 during 2000-2007 in Sweden in spite of seemingly underreporting of cases to the Swedish Cancer Registry. A decreasing incidence was found for acoustic neuroma during the same period. However, the medical diagnosis and treatment of this tumour type has changed during recent years and underreporting from a single center would have a large impact for such a rare tumour.
Article
Full-text available
The debate regarding the health effects of low-intensity electromagnetic radiation from sources such as power lines, base stations, and cell phones has recently been reignited. In the present review, the authors attempt to address the following question: is there epidemiologic evidence for an association between long-term cell phone usage and the risk of developing a brain tumor? Included with this meta-analysis of the long-term epidemiologic data are a brief overview of cell phone technology and discussion of laboratory data, biological mechanisms, and brain tumor incidence. In order to be included in the present meta-analysis, studies were required to have met all of the following criteria: (i) publication in a peer-reviewed journal; (ii) inclusion of participants using cell phones for > or = 10 years (ie, minimum 10-year "latency"); and (iii) incorporation of a "laterality" analysis of long-term users (ie, analysis of the side of the brain tumor relative to the side of the head preferred for cell phone usage). This is a meta-analysis incorporating all 11 long-term epidemiologic studies in this field. The results indicate that using a cell phone for > or = 10 years approximately doubles the risk of being diagnosed with a brain tumor on the same ("ipsilateral") side of the head as that preferred for cell phone use. The data achieve statistical significance for glioma and acoustic neuroma but not for meningioma. The authors conclude that there is adequate epidemiologic evidence to suggest a link between prolonged cell phone usage and the development of an ipsilateral brain tumor.
Article
Full-text available
During recent years there has been increasing public concern on potential cancer risks from microwave emissions from wireless phones. We evaluated the scientific evidence for long-term mobile phone use and the association with certain tumors in case-control studies, mostly from the Hardell group in Sweden and the Interphone study group. Regarding brain tumors the meta-analysis yielded for glioma odds ratio (OR)=1.0, 95% confidence interval (CI)=0.9-1.1. OR increased to 1.3, 95% CI=1.1-1.6 with 10 year latency period, with highest risk for ipsilateral exposure (same side as the tumor localisation), OR=1.9, 95% CI=1.4-2.4, lower for contralateral exposure (opposite side) OR=1.2, 95% CI=0.9-1.7. Regarding acoustic neuroma OR=1.0, 95% CI=0.8-1.1 was calculated increasing to OR=1.3, 95% CI=0.97-1.9 with 10 year latency period. For ipsilateral exposure OR=1.6, 95% CI=1.1-2.4, and for contralateral exposure OR=1.2, 95% CI=0.8-1.9 were found. Regarding meningioma no consistent pattern of an increased risk was found. Concerning age, highest risk was found in the age group <20 years at time of first use of wireless phones in the studies from the Hardell group. For salivary gland tumors, non-Hodgkin lymphoma and testicular cancer no consistent pattern of an association with use of wireless phones was found. One study on uveal melanoma yielded for probable/certain mobile phone use OR=4.2, 95% CI=1.2-14.5. One study on intratemporal facial nerve tumor was not possible to evaluate due to methodological shortcomings. In summary our review yielded a consistent pattern of an increased risk for glioma and acoustic neuroma after >10 year mobile phone use. We conclude that current standard for exposure to microwaves during mobile phone use is not safe for long-term exposure and needs to be revised.
Article
Full-text available
Use of mobile telephones has been suggested as a possible risk factor for intracranial tumours. To evaluate the effect of mobile phones on risk of meningioma, we carried out an international, collaborative case-control study of 1209 meningioma cases and 3299 population-based controls. Population-based cases were identified, mostly from hospitals, and controls from national population registers and general practitioners' patient lists. Detailed history of mobile phone use was obtained by personal interview. Regular mobile phone use (at least once a week for at least 6 months), duration of use, cumulative number and hours of use, and several other indicators of mobile phone use were assessed in relation to meningioma risk using conditional logistic regression with strata defined by age, sex, country and region. Risk of meningioma among regular users of mobile phones was apparently lower than among never or non-regular users (odds ratio, OR = 0.76, 95% confidence interval, CI 0.65, 0.89). The risk was not increased in relation to years since first use, lifetime years of use, cumulative hours of use or cumulative number of calls. The findings were similar regardless of telephone network type (analogue/digital), age or sex. Our results do not provide support for an association between mobile phone use and risk of meningioma.
Article
Full-text available
Despite limited evidence, cellular telephones have been claimed to cause cancer, especially in the brain. In this Danish study, the authors examined the possible association between use of cellular telephones and development of acoustic neuroma. Between 2000 and 2002, they ascertained 106 incident cases and matched these persons with 212 randomly sampled, population-based controls on age and sex. The data obtained included information on use of cellular telephones from personal interviews, data from medical records, and the results of radiologic examinations. The authors obtained information on socioeconomic factors from Statistics Denmark. The overall estimated relative risk of acoustic neuroma was 0.90 (95% confidence interval: 0.51, 1.57). Use of a cell phone for 10 years or more did not increase acoustic neuroma risk over that of short-term users. Furthermore, tumors did not occur more frequently on the side of the head on which the telephone was typically used, and the size of the tumor did not correlate with the pattern of cell phone use. The results of this prospective, population-based, nationwide study, which included a large number of long-term users of cellular telephones, do not support an association between cell phone use and risk of acoustic neuroma.
Article
Full-text available
There is considerable public concern about possible long-term adverse health effects of mobile phones. While there is scientific controversy about long-term health effects of high-frequency electromagnetic fields lasting for at least 50 yr, the rise and success of mobile telecommunication made it necessary to investigate the problem more comprehensively and assess the possible risk cautiously because never before in history has a substantial proportion of the population been exposed to microwaves in the near field and at comparably high levels. Because the mostly localized exposure target region is the head, most epidemiological studies focus on brain tumors. Overall nine epidemiological studies have been published, four from the United States, two from Sweden, and one each from Denmark, Finland, and Germany. Seven studies were mainly on brain tumors, with one investigating in addition to brain tumors salivary gland cancer and another cancer of the hematopoietic and lymphatic tissues, and one examining intraocular melanoma. All studies have some methodological deficiencies: (1) too short duration of mobile phone use to be helpful in risk assessment, (2) exposure was not rigorously determined, and (3) there is a possibility of recall and response error in some studies. Nevertheless, all studies approaching reasonable latencies found an increased cancer risk associated with mobile phone use. Estimates of relative risk in these studies vary between 1.3 and 4.6 with highest overall risk for acoustic neuroma (3.5) and uveal melanoma (4.2), and there is evidence for enhanced cancer risk with increasing latency and duration of mobile phone use.
Article
Full-text available
Handheld mobile phones were introduced in Sweden during the late 1980s. The purpose of this population-based, case-control study was to test the hypothesis that long-term mobile phone use increases the risk of brain tumors. The authors identified all cases aged 20–69 years who were diagnosed with glioma or meningioma during 2000–2002 in certain parts of Sweden. Randomly selected controls were stratified on age, gender, and residential area. Detailed information about mobile phone use was collected from 371 (74%) glioma and 273 (85%) meningioma cases and 674 (71%) controls. For regular mobile phone use, the odds ratio was 0.8 (95% confidence interval: 0.6, 1.0) for glioma and 0.7 (95% confidence interval: 0.5, 0.9) for meningioma. Similar results were found for more than 10 years' duration of mobile phone use. No risk increase was found for ipsilateral phone use for tumors located in the temporal and parietal lobes. Furthermore, the odds ratio did not increase, regardless of tumor histology, type of phone, and amount of use. This study includes a large number of long-term mobile phone users, and the authors conclude that the data do not support the hypothesis that mobile phone use is related to an increased risk of glioma or meningioma.
Article
Full-text available
The use of cellular and cordless telephones and the risk of brain tumours is of concern since the brain is a high exposure area. We present the results of a pooled analysis of two case-control studies on benign brain tumours diagnosed during 1997-2003 including answers from 1,254 (88%) cases and 2,162 (89%) controls aged 20-80 years. For acoustic neuroma, the use of analogue cellular phones gave an odds ratio (OR) of 2.9 and a 95% confidence interval (CI) of 2.0-4.3; for digital cellular phones, OR=1.5; 95% CI=1.1-2.1; and for cordless telephones, OR=1.5, 95% CI=1.04-2.0. The highest OR was found for analogue phones with a latency period of >15 years; OR=3.8, 95% CI=1.4-10. Regarding meningioma, the results were as follows: for analogue phones, OR=1.3, 95% CI=0.99-1.7; for digital phones, OR=1.1, 95% CI=0.9-1.3; and for cordless phones, OR=1.1, 95% CI=0.9-1.4. In the multivariate analysis, a significantly increased risk of acoustic neuroma was found with the use of analogue phones.
Article
Full-text available
To investigate the risk of glioma in adults in relation to mobile phone use. Population based case-control study with collection of personal interview data. Five areas of the United Kingdom. 966 people aged 18 to 69 years diagnosed with a glioma from 1 December 2000 to 29 February 2004 and 1716 controls randomly selected from general practitioner lists. Odds ratios for risk of glioma in relation to mobile phone use. The overall odds ratio for regular phone use was 0.94 (95% confidence interval 0.78 to 1.13). There was no relation for risk of glioma and time since first use, lifetime years of use, and cumulative number of calls and hours of use. A significant excess risk for reported phone use ipsilateral to the tumour (1.24, 1.02 to 1.52) was paralleled by a significant reduction in risk (0.75, 0.61 to 0.93) for contralateral use. Use of a mobile phone, either in the short or medium term, is not associated with an increased risk of glioma. This is consistent with most but not all published studies. The complementary positive and negative risks associated with ipsilateral and contralateral use of the phone in relation to the side of the tumour might be due to recall bias.
Article
Full-text available
The widespread use of cellular telephones has generated concern about possible adverse health effects, particularly brain tumors. In this population-based case-control study carried out in three regions of Germany, all incident cases of glioma and meningioma among patients aged 30–69 years were ascertained during 2000–2003. Controls matched on age, gender, and region were randomly drawn from population registries. In total, 366 glioma cases, 381 meningioma cases, and 1,494 controls were interviewed. Overall use of a cellular phone was not associated with brain tumor risk; the respective odds ratios were 0.98 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.74, 1.29) for glioma and 0.84 (95% CI: 0.62, 1.13) for meningioma. Among persons who had used cellular phones for 10 or more years, increased risk was found for glioma (odds ratio = 2.20, 95% CI: 0.94, 5.11) but not for meningioma (odds ratio = 1.09, 95% CI: 0.35, 3.37). No excess of temporal glioma (p = 0.41) or meningioma (p = 0.43) was observed in cellular phone users as compared with nonusers. Cordless phone use was not related to either glioma risk or meningioma risk. In conclusion, no overall increased risk of glioma or meningioma was observed among these cellular phone users; however, for long-term cellular phone users, results need to be confirmed before firm conclusions can be drawn.
Article
Full-text available
To study the use of cellular and cordless telephones and the risk for malignant brain tumours. Two case-control studies on malignant brain tumours diagnosed during 1997-2003 included answers from 905 (90%) cases and 2,162 (89%) controls aged 20-80 years. We present pooled analysis of the results in the two studies. Cumulative lifetime use for >2,000 h yielded for analogue cellular phones odds ratio (OR)=5.9, 95% confidence interval (CI)=2.5-14, digital cellular phones OR=3.7, 95% CI=1.7-7.7, and for cordless phones OR=2.3, 95% CI=1.5-3.6. Ipsilateral exposure increased the risk for malignant brain tumours; analogue OR=2.1, 95% CI=1.5-2.9, digital OR=1.8, 95% CI=1.4-2.4, and cordless OR=1.7, 95% CI=1.3-2.2. For high-grade astrocytoma using >10 year latency period analogue phones yielded OR=2.7, 95% CI=1.8-4.2, digital phones OR=3.8, 95% CI=1.8-8.1, and cordless phones OR=2.2, 95% CI=1.3-3.9. In the multivariate analysis all phone types increased the risk. Regarding digital phones OR=3.7, 95% CI=1.5-9.1 and cordless phones OR=2.1, 95% CI=0.97-4.6 were calculated for malignant brain tumours for subjects with first use use <20 years of age, higher than in older persons. Increased risk was obtained for both cellular and cordless phones, highest in the group with >10 years latency period.
Article
Full-text available
Two Swedish epidemiological studies have shown an association between the use of mobile telephones, mainly of the analogue type, and brain tumours. These findings have been corroborated in a Finnish study. Supportive evidence has also come from studies in USA, but these investigations, as well as a Danish study, are inconclusive due to e.g., few exposed subjects, short latency periods and methodological shortcomings. The Swedish Radiation Protection Authority (SSI) engaged two epidemiologists from a private company to conduct a review of the literature. They claimed that use of mobile telephones is not associated with increased risk for brain tumours. Their conclusion was, however, based on an unbalanced view of current literature in favour of studies showing no association. These circumstances are further explored in this communication.
Article
Full-text available
A summary of epidemiologic evidence regarding the effect of mobile phone use on intracranial tumor risk was obtained by means of a meta-analysis. Reports of published studies on mobile phone use and intracranial tumors were sought. Altogether 12 relevant publications were identified from the PubMed database and reference lists of articles. Fixed or random effects analysis was carried out depending on the presence of heterogeneity between studies. Risk estimates were obtained for people who had used mobile phones for the longest periods of time (>5 years in most reports). A pooled estimate was calculated for all intracranial tumors combined and also separately for different histological tumor types. Separate analyses were conducted also based on the tumor location and type of mobile telephone network (NMT or GSM). Twelve studies with 2780 cases gave a pooled odds ratio (OR) of 0.98 [95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.83-1.16] for all intracranial tumors related to mobile phone use. For gliomas, the pooled OR was 0.96 (95% CI 0.78-1.18), for meningiomas it was 0.87 (95% CI 0.72-1.05), and for acoustic neuromas it was 1.07 (95% CI 0.89-1.30). Little indication was found for increased risks of analogue or digital phone use or temporal or occipital tumors. The totality of evidence does not indicate a substantially increased risk of intracranial tumors from mobile phone use for a period of at least 5 years.
Article
Full-text available
Handheld mobile phones were introduced in Denmark and Sweden during the late 1980s. This makes the Danish and Swedish populations suitable for a study aimed at testing the hypothesis that long-term mobile phone use increases the risk of parotid gland tumors. In this population-based case-control study, the authors identified all cases aged 20–69 years diagnosed with parotid gland tumor during 2000–2002 in Denmark and certain parts of Sweden. Controls were randomly selected from the study population base. Detailed information about mobile phone use was collected from 60 cases of malignant parotid gland tumors (85% response rate), 112 benign pleomorphic adenomas (88% response rate), and 681 controls (70% response rate). For regular mobile phone use, regardless of duration, the risk estimates for malignant and benign tumors were 0.7 (95% confidence interval: 0.4, 1.3) and 0.9 (95% confidence interval: 0.5, 1.5), respectively. Similar results were found for more than 10 years' duration of mobile phone use. The risk estimate did not increase, regardless of type of phone and amount of use. The authors conclude that the data do not support the hypothesis that mobile phone use is related to an increased risk of parotid gland tumors.
Article
Full-text available
The rapid increase of mobile phone use has increased public concern about its possible health effects in Japan, where the mobile phone system is unique in the characteristics of its signal transmission. To examine the relation between mobile phone use and acoustic neuroma, a case-control study was initiated. The study followed the common, core protocol of the international collaborative study, INTERPHONE. A prospective case recruitment was done in Japan for 2000-04. One hundred and one acoustic neuroma cases, who were 30-69 years of age and resided in the Tokyo area, and 339 age, sex, and residency matched controls were interviewed using a common computer assisted personal interview system. Education and marital status adjusted odds ratio was calculated with a conditional logistic regression analysis. Fifty one cases (52.6%) and 192 controls (58.2%) were regular mobile phone users on the reference date, which was set as one year before the diagnosis, and no significant increase of acoustic neuroma risk was observed, with the odds ratio (OR) being 0.73 (95% CI 0.43 to 1.23). No exposure related increase in the risk of acoustic neuroma was observed when the cumulative length of use (<4 years, 4-8 years, >8 years) or cumulative call time (<300 hours, 300-900 hours, >900 hours) was used as an exposure index. The OR was 1.09 (95% CI 0.58 to 2.06) when the reference date was set as five years before the diagnosis. Further, laterality of mobile phone use was not associated with tumours. These results suggest that there is no significant increase in the risk of acoustic neuroma in association with mobile phone use in Japan.
Article
Full-text available
To evaluate brain tumour risk among long-term users of cellular telephones. Two cohort studies and 16 case-control studies on this topic were identified. Data were scrutinised for use of mobile phone for > or =10 years and ipsilateral exposure if presented. The cohort study was of limited value due to methodological shortcomings in the study. Of the 16 case-control studies, 11 gave results for > or =10 years' use or latency period. Most of these results were based on low numbers. An association with acoustic neuroma was found in four studies in the group with at least 10 years' use of a mobile phone. No risk was found in one study, but the tumour size was significantly larger among users. Six studies gave results for malignant brain tumours in that latency group. All gave increased odd ratios (OR), especially for ipsilateral exposure. In a meta-analysis, ipsilateral cell phone use for acoustic neuroma was OR = 2.4 (95% CI 1.1 to 5.3) and OR = 2.0, (1.2 to 3.4) for glioma using a tumour latency period of > or =10 years. Results from present studies on use of mobile phones for > or =10 years give a consistent pattern of increased risk for acoustic neuroma and glioma. The risk is highest for ipsilateral exposure.
Article
Full-text available
Background: Use of cell phones has increased dramatically since 1992 when they were first introduced in France. Certain electromagnetic fields (at extremely low frequency) have been recognized as possibly carcinogenic by the International Agency for Research on Cancer. Given the use of radiofrequency technology in cell phones, the rapid increase in the number of cell phones has generated concerns about the existence of a potential health hazard. To evaluate the relationship between the use of cell phones and the development of tumors of the head, a multicentric international study (INTERPHONE), coordinated by the International Agency for Research on Cancer, was carried out in 13 countries. This publication reports the results of the French part of the INTERPHONE study. Methods: INTERPHONE is a case-control study focused on tumors of the brain and central nervous system: gliomas, meningiomas and neuromas of cranial nerves. Eligible cases were men and women, residents of Paris or Lyon, aged 30-59, newly diagnosed with a first primary tumor between February 2001 and August 2003. The diagnoses were all either histologically confirmed or based upon unequivocal radiological images. Controls were matched for gender, age (+/-5 years) and place of residence. They were randomly drawn from electoral rolls. Detailed information was collected for all subjects during a computer-assisted face-to-face interview. Conditional logistic regression was used to estimate the odds ratio (OR) for an association between the use of cell phones and risk of each type of cancer. Results: Regular cell phone use was not associated with an increased risk of neuroma (OR=0,92; 95% confidence interval=[0.53-1.59]), meningioma (OR=0,74; 95% confidence interval=[0.43-1.28]) or glioma (OR=1.15; 95% confidence interval=[0.65-2.05]). Although these results are not statistically significant, a general tendency was observed for an increased risk of glioma among the heaviest users: long-term users, heavy users, users with the largest numbers of telephones. Conclusion: No significant increased risk for glioma, meningioma or neuroma was observed among cell phone users participating in Interphone. The statistical power of the study is limited, however. Our results, suggesting the possibility of an increased risk among the heaviest users, therefore need to be verified in the international INTERPHONE analyses.
Article
Full-text available
The objective of this nationwide study was to assess the association between cellular phone use and development of parotid gland tumors (PGTs). The methods were based on the international INTERPHONE study that aimed to evaluate possible adverse effects of cellular phone use. The study included 402 benign and 58 malignant incident cases of PGTs diagnosed in Israel at age 18 years or more, in 2001–2003, and 1,266 population individually matched controls. For the entire group, no increased risk of PGTs was observed for ever having been a regular cellular phone user (odds ratio = 0.87; p = 0.3) or for any other measure of exposure investigated. However, analysis restricted to regular users or to conditions that may yield higher levels of exposure (e.g., heavy use in rural areas) showed consistently elevated risks. For ipsilateral use, the odds ratios in the highest category of cumulative number of calls and call time without use of hands-free devices were 1.58 (95% confidence interval: 1.11, 2.24) and 1.49 (95% confidence interval: 1.05, 2.13), respectively. The risk for contralateral use was not significantly different from 1. A positive dose-response trend was found for these measurements. Based on the largest number of benign PGT patients reported to date, our results suggest an association between cellular phone use and PGTs.
Article
Full-text available
In a case-control study in Japan of brain tumours in relation to mobile phone use, we used a novel approach for estimating the specific absorption rate (SAR) inside the tumour, taking account of spatial relationships between tumour localisation and intracranial radiofrequency distribution. Personal interviews were carried out with 88 patients with glioma, 132 with meningioma, and 102 with pituitary adenoma (322 cases in total), and with 683 individually matched controls. All maximal SAR values were below 0.1 W kg(-1), far lower than the level at which thermal effects may occur, the adjusted odds ratios (ORs) for regular mobile phone users being 1.22 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.63-2.37) for glioma and 0.70 (0.42-1.16) for meningioma. When the maximal SAR value inside the tumour tissue was accounted for in the exposure indices, the overall OR was again not increased and there was no significant trend towards an increasing OR in relation to SAR-derived exposure indices. A non-significant increase in OR among glioma patients in the heavily exposed group may reflect recall bias.
Article
Full-text available
We evaluated long-term use of mobile phones and the risk for brain tumours in case-control studies published so far on this issue. We identified ten studies on glioma and meta-analysis yielded OR = 0.9, 95% CI = 0.8-1.1. Latency period of > or =10-years gave OR = 1.2, 95% CI = 0.8-1.9 based on six studies, for ipsilateral use (same side as tumour) OR = 2.0, 95% CI = 1.2-3.4 (four studies), but contralateral use did not increase the risk significantly, OR = 1.1, 95% CI = 0.6-2.0. Meta-analysis of nine studies on acoustic neuroma gave OR = 0.9, 95% CI = 0.7-1.1 increasing to OR = 1.3, 95% CI = 0.6-2.8 using > or =10-years latency period (four studies). Ipsilateral use gave OR = 2.4, 95% CI = 1.1-5.3 and contra-lateral OR = 1.2, 95% CI = 0.7-2.2 in the > or =10-years latency period group (three studies). Seven studies gave results for meningioma yielding overall OR = 0.8, 95% CI = 0.7-0.99. Using > or =10-years latency period OR = 1.3, 95% CI = 0.9-1.8 was calculated (four studies) increasing to OR = 1.7, 95% CI = 0.99-3.1 for ipsilateral use and OR = 1.0, 95% CI = 0.3-3.1 for contralateral use (two studies). We conclude that this meta-analysis gave a consistent pattern of an association between mobile phone use and ipsilateral glioma and acoustic neuroma using > or =10-years latency period.
Article
Results of case-control studies of mobile phone use and acoustic neuroma have been inconsistent. We conducted a case-case study of mobile phone use and acoustic neuroma using a self-administered postal questionnaire. A total of 1589 cases identified in 22 hospitals throughout Japan were invited to participate, and 787 cases (51%) actually participated. Associations between laterality of mobile phone use prior to the reference dates (1 and 5 years before diagnosis) and tumor location were analyzed. The overall risk ratio was 1.08 (95% confidence interval (CI), 0.93-1.28) for regular mobile phone use until 1 year before diagnosis and 1.14 (95% CI, 0.96-1.40) for regular mobile phone use until 5 years before diagnosis. A significantly increased risk was identified for mobile phone use for >20 min/day on average, with risk ratios of 2.74 at 1 year before diagnosis, and 3.08 at 5 years before diagnosis. Cases with ipsilateral combination of tumor location and more frequently used ear were found to have tumors with smaller diameters, suggesting an effect of detection bias. Furthermore, analysis of the distribution of left and right tumors suggested an effect of tumor-side-related recall bias for recall of mobile phone use at 5 years before diagnosis. The increased risk identified for mobile phone users with average call duration >20 min/day should be interpreted with caution, taking into account the possibilities of detection and recall biases. However, we could not conclude that the increased risk was entirely explicable by these biases, leaving open the possibility that mobile phone use increased the risk of acoustic neuroma.
Article
There is continuing public and scientific interest in the possibility that exposure to radiofrequency (RF) electromagnetic fields (EMF) from mobile telephones or other wireless devices and applications might increase the risk of certain cancers or other diseases. The interest is amplified by the rapid world-wide penetration of such technologies. The evidence from epidemiological studies published to date have not been consistent and, in particular, further studies are required to identify whether longer term (well beyond 10 years) RF exposure might pose some health risk. The "Cosmos" study described here is a large prospective cohort study of mobile telephone users (ongoing recruitment of 250,000 men and women aged 18+ years in five European countries - Denmark, Finland, Sweden, The Netherlands, UK) who will be followed up for 25+ years. Information on mobile telephone use is collected prospectively through questionnaires and objective traffic data from network operators. Associations with disease risks will be studied by linking cohort members to existing disease registries, while changes in symptoms such as headache and sleep quality and of general well-being are assessed by baseline and follow-up questionnaires. A prospective cohort study conducted with appropriate diligence and a sufficient sample size, overcomes many of the shortcomings of previous studies. Its major advantages are exposure assessment prior to the diagnosis of disease, the prospective collection of objective exposure information, long-term follow-up of multiple health outcomes, and the flexibility to investigate future changes in technologies or new research questions.
Article
This review summarizes and interprets epidemiologic evidence bearing on a possible causal relation between radiofrequency field exposure from mobile phone use and tumor risk. In the last few years, epidemiologic evidence on mobile phone use and the risk of brain and other tumors of the head in adults has grown in volume, geographic diversity of study settings, and the amount of data on longer-term users. However, some key methodologic problems remain, particularly with regard to selective nonresponse and inaccuracy and bias in recall of phone use. Most studies of glioma show small increased or decreased risks among users, although a subset of studies show appreciably elevated risks. We considered methodologic features that might explain the deviant results, but found no clear explanation. Overall the studies published to date do not demonstrate an increased risk within approximately 10 years of use for any tumor of the brain or any other head tumor. Despite the methodologic shortcomings and the limited data on long latency and long-term use, the available data do not suggest a causal association between mobile phone use and fast-growing tumors such as malignant glioma in adults (at least for tumors with short induction periods). For slow-growing tumors such as meningioma and acoustic neuroma, as well as for glioma among long-term users, the absence of association reported thus far is less conclusive because the observation period has been too short.
Article
The continued success of mobile telecommunication producing a still growing population of users amounting to hundreds of millions of people worldwide has raised concerns about possible consequences on public health if mobile phones turn out to be less safe than previously assumed. In fact, never before in history has a device been used that exposes such a great proportion of the population to microwaves in the near-field and at comparatively high levels. The advantages of this technology with respect to health protection are undeniable, considering the many lives that have been saved by mobile phone calls in cases of emergency. On the other hand, telephoning while driving has become an important cause of accidents. However, the issue of possible long term effects such as the development of cancer is controversial. While there are still not enough data to present a final risk assessment, there is evidence from epidemiological and experimental studies that long term exposure to emissions from mobile phones may lead to a small to moderate increased risk of developing certain types of cancer. If a high proportion of the population is exposed, even a small additional risk could be of great importance to public health protection; hence measures reducing exposure may be indicated. However, because of the undeniable scientific uncertainties, industry lobbying has been successful in avoiding too strict prevention strategies. After not more than 20 years of mobile telecommunication, the third generation of mobile phones is already awaiting introduction onto the market (some test areas are now in operation). In Europe mobile telephony started in 1981, and in the USA in 1983. The first generation mobile phones were the so called analogue types. The signal was transmitted by frequency modulation in frequency bands around 450 MHz and 900 MHz. The mobile phones had peak power of emission …
Article
Radiofrequency exposure from mobile phones is concentrated to the tissue closest to the handset, which includes the auditory nerve. If this type of exposure increases tumor risk, acoustic neuroma would be a potential concern. In this population-based case-control study we identified all cases age 20 to 69 years diagnosed with acoustic neuroma during 1999 to 2002 in certain parts of Sweden. Controls were randomly selected from the study base, stratified on age, sex, and residential area. Detailed information about mobile phone use and other environmental exposures was collected from 148 (93%) cases and 604 (72%) controls. The overall odds ratio for acoustic neuroma associated with regular mobile phone use was 1.0 (95% confidence interval = 0.6-1.5). Ten years after the start of mobile phone use the estimates relative risk increased to 1.9 (0.9-4.1); when restricting to tumors on the same side of the head as the phone was normally used, the relative risk was 3.9 (1.6-9.5). Our findings do not indicate an increased risk of acoustic neuroma related to short-term mobile phone use after a short latency period. However, our data suggest an increased risk of acoustic neuroma associated with mobile phone use of at least 10 years' duration.
Article
To evaluate a possible association of glioma or meningioma with use of cellular telephones, using a nationwide population-based case-control study of incident cases of meningioma and glioma. The authors ascertained all incident cases of glioma and meningioma diagnosed in Denmark between September 1, 2000, and August 31, 2002. They enrolled 252 persons with glioma and 175 persons with meningioma aged 20 to 69. The authors also enrolled 822 randomly sampled, population-based controls matched for age and sex. Information was obtained from personal interviews, medical records containing diagnoses, and the results of radiologic examinations. For a small number of cases and controls, the authors obtained the numbers of incoming and outgoing calls. They evaluated the memory of the respondents with the Mini-Mental State Examination and obtained data on socioeconomic factors from Statistics Denmark. There were no material socioeconomic differences between cases and controls or participants and non-participants. Use of cellular telephone was associated with a low risk for high-grade glioma (OR, 0.58; 95% CI, 0.37 to 0.90). The risk estimates were closer to unity for low-grade glioma (1.08; 0.58 to 2.00) and meningioma (1.00; 0.54 to 1.28). The results do not support an association between use of cellular telephones and risk for glioma or meningioma.
Article
To evaluate the possible selection bias related to the differential participation of mobile phone users and non-users in a Finnish case-control study on mobile phone use and brain tumors. Mobile phone use was investigated among 777 controls and 726 cases participating in the full personal interview (full participants), and 321 controls and 103 cases giving only a brief phone interview (incomplete participants). To assess selection bias, the Mantel-Haenszel estimate of odds ratio was calculated for three different groups: full study participants, incomplete participants, and a combined group consisting of both full and incomplete participants. Among controls, 83% of the full participants and 73% of the incomplete participants had regularly used a mobile phone. Among cases, the figures were 76% and 64%, respectively. The odds ratio for brain tumor based on the combined group of full and incomplete participants was slightly closer to unity than that based only on the full participants. Selection bias tends to distort the effect estimates below unity, while analyses based on more comprehensive material gave results close to unity.
Article
Public concern has been expressed about the possible adverse health effects of mobile telephones, mainly related to intracranial tumors. We conducted a population-based case-control study to investigate the relationship between mobile phone use and risk of glioma among 1,522 glioma patients and 3,301 controls. We found no evidence of increased risk of glioma related to regular mobile phone use (odds ratio, OR = 0.78, 95% confidence interval, CI: 0.68, 0.91). No significant association was found across categories with duration of use, years since first use, cumulative number of calls or cumulative hours of use. When the linear trend was examined, the OR for cumulative hours of mobile phone use was 1.006 (1.002, 1.010) per 100 hr, but no such relationship was found for the years of use or the number of calls. We found no increased risks when analogue and digital phones were analyzed separately. For more than 10 years of mobile phone use reported on the side of the head where the tumor was located, an increased OR of borderline statistical significance (OR = 1.39, 95% CI 1.01, 1.92, p trend 0.04) was found, whereas similar use on the opposite side of the head resulted in an OR of 0.98 (95% CI 0.71, 1.37). Although our results overall do not indicate an increased risk of glioma in relation to mobile phone use, the possible risk in the most heavily exposed part of the brain with long-term use needs to be explored further before firm conclusions can be drawn.
Article
To test the hypothesis that exposure to radio-frequency electromagnetic fields from mobile phones increases the incidence of gliomas, meningiomas and acoustic neuromas in adults. The incident cases were of patients aged 19-69 years who were diagnosed during 2001-2002 in Southern Norway. Population controls were selected and frequency-matched for age, sex, and residential area. Detailed information about mobile phone use was collected from 289 glioma (response rate 77%), 207 meningioma patients (71%), and 45 acoustic neuroma patients (68%) and from 358 (69%) controls. For regular mobile phone use, defined as use on average at least once a week or more for at least 6 months, the odds ratio was 0.6 (95% confidence interval 0.4-0.9) for gliomas, 0.8 (95% confidence interval 0.5-1.1) for meningiomas and 0.5 (95% confidence interval 0.2-1.0) for acoustic neuromas. Similar results were found with mobile phone use for 6 years or more for gliomas and acoustic neuromas. An exception was meningiomas, where the odds ratio was 1.2 (95% confidence interval 0.6-2.2). Furthermore, no increasing trend was observed for gliomas or acoustic neuromas by increasing duration of regular use, the time since first regular use or cumulative use of mobile phones. The results from the present study indicate that use of mobile phones is not associated with an increased risk of gliomas, meningiomas or acoustic neuromas.
Article
The only known risk factor for sporadic acoustic neuroma is high-dose ionising radiation. Environmental exposures, such as radiofrequency electromagnetic fields and noise are under discussion, as well as an association with allergic diseases. We performed a population-based case-control study in Germany investigating these risk factors in 97 cases with acoustic neuroma, aged 30 to 69 years, and in 194 matched controls. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated in multiple logistic regression models. Increased risks were found for exposure to persistent noise (OR=2.31; 95% CI 1.15-4.66), and for hay fever (OR=2.20; 95% CI 1.09-4.45), but not for ionising radiation (OR=0.91; 95 % CI 0.51-1.61) or regular mobile phone use (OR=0.67; 95% CI 0.38-1.19). The study confirms results of recently published studies, although the pathogenetic mechanisms are still unknown.
Interphone Study: it's not just brain tumors Available from: www.magdahavas.com Mobile phone use and acoustic neuroma risk in Japan
  • M Havas
  • S Akiba
  • Y Kikuchi
Havas M. Interphone Study: it's not just brain tumors. Available from: www.magdahavas.com/2010/05/17/interphone_parotid_gland_tumors [18] Takebayashi T, Akiba S, Kikuchi Y, et al. Mobile phone use and acoustic neuroma risk in Japan. Occup Environ Med 2006; 63: 8027. [19]
Cordless telephone use: implications for mobile phone research Long-term use of cellular phones and brain tumours: Increased risk associated with use for > or = 10 years
  • M Redmayne
  • I Inyang
  • C Dimitriaidis
Redmayne M, Inyang I, Dimitriaidis C, et al. Cordless telephone use: implications for mobile phone research. J Environ Monit 2010; 12: 809-12. [35] Hardell L, Carlberg M, Soderqvist F, et al. Long-term use of cellular phones and brain tumours: Increased risk associated with use for > or = 10 years. Occup Environ Med 2007; 64: 626-32. [36]
Mobile phone use and risk of tumors: a meta-analysis [56] International Agency for research on cancer (IARC). The Interphone Study 2010 Available from: www.iarc.fr/en/researchgroups
  • Sk Myung
  • W Ju
  • Dd Mcdonnell
Myung SK, Ju W, McDonnell DD, et al. Mobile phone use and risk of tumors: a meta-analysis. J Clin Oncol 2009; 27: 5565-72. [56] International Agency for research on cancer (IARC). The Interphone Study 2010. Available from: www.iarc.fr/en/researchgroups/RAD/RC Ad.html [57]
Mobile phones and head tumours. The discrepancies in cause-effect relationships in the epidemiological studies-how do they arise? Available from
  • M Kundi
  • Ag Levis
  • N Minicuci
  • P Ricci
Kundi M. The controversy about a possible relationship between mobile phone use and cancer. Environ Health Perspect 2009; 117: 316-24. [39] Levis AG, Minicuci N, Ricci P, et al. Mobile phones and head tumours. The discrepancies in cause-effect relationships in the epidemiological studies-how do they arise? Environ Health 2011; 10: 59. Available from: http://www.ehjournal.net/content/10/1/59 [40]
An international prospective cohort study of mobile phone users and health (Cosmos): design considerations and enrolment Systematic review of wireless phone use and brain cancer and other head tumors
  • J Schuz
  • P Elliott
  • A Auvinen
Schuz J, Elliott P, Auvinen A, et al. An international prospective cohort study of mobile phone users and health (Cosmos): design considerations and enrolment. Cancer Epidemiol 2011; 35: 37-43. [58] Repacholi MH, Lerchl A, Roosli M, et al. Systematic review of wireless phone use and brain cancer and other head tumors. Bioelectromagnetic 2011; doi: 10.1002/bem.20716.
Wireless phone use and brain tumour risk
  • L Hardell
Hardell L. Wireless phone use and brain tumour risk. Eur J Oncol 2010; 5: 363-78.
The Interphone Study Group. Brain tumour risk in relation to mobile telephone use: results of the INTERPHONE international case-control study
The Interphone Study Group. Brain tumour risk in relation to mobile telephone use: results of the INTERPHONE international case-control study. Int J Epidemiol 2010; 39: 675-94.
Acoustic neuroma risk in relation to mobile telephone use: results of the INTERPHONE international case-control study
The Interphone Study Group. Acoustic neuroma risk in relation to mobile telephone use: results of the INTERPHONE international case-control study. Cancer Epidemiol 2011; 35: 453-64