Article

Cytotoxicity activity of extracts and compounds from Commiphora myrrha resin against human gynecologic cancer cells

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The purpose of this report is to explore the cytotoxicity effects of extracts and compounds from Commiphora myrrha resin on human gynecologic cancer cells. The results showed that AE (85% EtOH extract), and petroleum ether extract (PE) from C. myrrha significantly inhibited cell proliferation of A2780, SK-OV-3, and Shikawa with dose-dependent relation in vitro. The inhibitory effects of AE and PE on A2708 cell were strongest and the IC 50 s were 15.8 and 26.91 µg/ml, respectively. The IC 50 s of AE and PE on Shikawa cell lines were 20.73 and 26.63 µg/ml respectively. Furthermore, nine compounds were isolated and identified from bio-activity guided separation fraction, and were determined the cytotoxicity activity on A2780, SK-OV-3, SiHa cells and Shikawa cells. Compounds 1-4, 6 and 7 are isolated from this genus for the first time. The compound 6 and 7 exhibited obvious cytotoxicty effects on A2780, SK-OV-3, and Shikawa cancer cells with dose-dependent relationship. The antiprolifirative activity of compound 6 on A2780 cells was most obviously with IC 50 46.89 µM. The compound 7 with IC 50 26.93 µM inhibited cell growth of SK-OV-3 cells. The determined compounds have never shown antiproliferative activities on SiHa cells. These findings suggested that extracts and compounds from myrrh could be useful for preventing and treating human gynecologic cancer disease.

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... The main active constituents include volatile oil (cuminic aldehyde, eugenol, metacresol, pinene, limonene, diterpenes, and sesquiterpenes). 1,4,7,18,23,24 ; resin up to 40% (ether soluble portion: α, β and γ commiphoric 1, 4,7,18,25 acids and esters of another resin acid and two phenolic resins s e p t i c , d i u r e t i c , a n t i t u s s i v e , 3,12,13,14,15,16,18,30,28 ,31 14,3 3,14,19 emmenagogue expectorant, 1blood purifier, 3,16,18,31 16 31 19 anthelminthic deobstruent, brain tonic , abortive USES: Urogenital disorders: Ÿ Amenorrhea: Murr is used with elwa and iron component to 14,17,18,24,31,33,34 induce menstruation, if cause is qillate dam. ...
... The main active constituents include volatile oil (cuminic aldehyde, eugenol, metacresol, pinene, limonene, diterpenes, and sesquiterpenes). 1,4,7,18,23,24 ; resin up to 40% (ether soluble portion: α, β and γ commiphoric 1, 4,7,18,25 acids and esters of another resin acid and two phenolic resins s e p t i c , d i u r e t i c , a n t i t u s s i v e , 3,12,13,14,15,16,18,30,28 ,31 14,3 3,14,19 emmenagogue expectorant, 1blood purifier, 3,16,18,31 16 31 19 anthelminthic deobstruent, brain tonic , abortive USES: Urogenital disorders: Ÿ Amenorrhea: Murr is used with elwa and iron component to 14,17,18,24,31,33,34 induce menstruation, if cause is qillate dam. ...
... 14,33 Ÿ 1.75 g of murr with baiza neem barisht or Menorrhagia: 31 roghane kunjad is beneficial to arrest excessive menstrual blood loss. Ÿ Oleo-gum resin act as emmenagogue and antispasmodic, hence 3,7,8,13,25,30,33 used for irregular & painful menstruation. 12,13,14,18,33 Ÿ Murr is beneficial in PID, leucorrhoea Uterine infections: 12,14 and cervical stenosis. ...
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Commiphora myrrha is an important medicinal plant used in traditional system of medicine since Bible times, first described in Chinese medical literature in 600 AD. It belongs to the family Burseraceae. Murr is an oleo gum resin obtained from bark of this plant. Unani physicians mentioned its use in gynecological diseases like amenorrhea, menorrhagia, leucorrhea, pelvic inflammatory disease, cervical stenosis; as an abortificient and galactogogue; in treatment of wounds and ulcers, and also in various gastrointestinal, urinary tract and respiratory disorders due to its properties like detergent, desiccant, carminative, anti inflammatory, astringent, analgesic, anti septic, diuretic, emmenagogue, expectorant, etc . Pharmacological studies proved that it has antitumor, immunomodulatory, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, cytotoxic, antibacterial, hepatoprotective, antimicrobial and anti-ulcer activities due to the presence of volatile oil, tannins, phenols, steroids, terpenoids, carbohydrates, resins etc.. The present review focuses on traditional uses of Murr as mentioned in Unani literature in scientific manner
... The resin granules of C. myrrha and the seeds of P. mahaleb were purchased from the local market of Nizwa, Oman, and were stored at 25-33°C. The resin from the myrrh stem is a yellow fragrant oleo-gum with aromatic odour Shuaib et al., 2014;Shulan et al., 2011). Ribose and galacturonic acid are the major constituents isolated from C. myrrha oleo-gum-resin (Ammar et al., 2010). ...
... The oleo-gum resin contains about 2-8% volatile oil, 23-40% alcohol-soluble resin, 40-60% gum. Chemically it contains series of metabolites such as anti-inflammatory triterpenes (Carvalho et al., 2008;Hanuš et al., 2008;Refat et al., 2011;Shuaib et al., 2014;Shulan et al., 2011;). It decreases blood lipids and cholesterol and the guggulsterones act as antagonist ligands (Carvalho et al., 2008). ...
... Two aldobiuronic acids, which present as (Hanuš et al., 2008;Soni et al., 2013). Medicinally, it is used for treating various diseases and exhibited interesting biological activities such as anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antifungal, antimicrobial, antimycobacterial, antioxidant, hepatoprotective, smooth muscle relaxing, antimalarial, anticandidal, antischistosomal, larvicidal, molluscicidal, anticancer, antiulcer and hypolipidemic effects (Ali et al., 2008;Shulan et al., 2011). The dry kernel of mahaleb contains 3.2% crude fat, 2.8% crude protein, 6.3% ash, 5.7% fiber, 82.0% soluble carbohydrates, and trace amounts of fats and protein (Herrera et al, 1981). ...
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Aflatoxins and especially aflatoxin B, are the devastating contaminant of food and feed products with hazardous effects to mankind and his domestic animals. These investigations were set to evaluate the effect of various levels of Commiphora myrrha resin (1.0, 1.25, 2.25, and 3.25 g/100 ml) and Prunus mahaleb seed extract (0.75, 1.5, 2.5, and 3.5 g/100 ml) on the growth and aflatoxin secretion by two aflatoxigenic strains of Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus. The two plant extracts significantly (p<0.05) decreased aflatoxin secretion, and inhibited the fungal growth. Resin of C. myrrha displayed 51.9-95.7% reduction in total aflatoxin secretion by A. flavus, and 46.9-92% for A. parasiticus, and Seed extract of P. mahaleb decreased aflatoxin up to 53.7-95.8% and 40-94.7%, respectively. The inhibition of aflatoxin B (B1 and B2) by myrrh resin and seed extract of mahaleb ranged between 51.7-93.5, 50-93.6% (A. flavus) and 39.5-89.7%, 37.9-93% (A. parasiticus). The mycelial dry weight of A. flavus and A. parasiticus ws decreased up to 46.1-58.7%, 28.9-51.3% (Myrrh resin), and between 45-56.9%, 33.3-55.9% (Mahaleb seed extract). Nonetheless, the two plant extracts did not detoxify aflatoxin B1. Therefore, it apparent that the resin of C. myrrha and seed extract of P. mahaleb affected the biosynthesis pathway of aflatoxins. Thus, they can be recommended as effective natural plant biopreservative against aflatoxin contamination of food and feed products.
... Uvaol 90 [18]. Another biological activity that was investigated on MeOH extract of this plant has shown antifungal activity against Aspergillus niger and antibacterial activity at higher concentration. ...
... Investigation on the resin a new cycloartane type triterpene named cycloartane-1α,2α,3β,25-tetraol (neomyrrhaol) (15), along with four known terpenes, sandaracopimaric acid (16), abietic acid (17), 2-methoxy-5-acetoxyfruranogermacr-1(10)-en-6-one (18), and dehydroabietic acid (19) have been isolated. Compounds (18) [18]. ...
... Investigation on the resin a new cycloartane type triterpene named cycloartane-1α,2α,3β,25-tetraol (neomyrrhaol) (15), along with four known terpenes, sandaracopimaric acid (16), abietic acid (17), 2-methoxy-5-acetoxyfruranogermacr-1(10)-en-6-one (18), and dehydroabietic acid (19) have been isolated. Compounds (18) [18]. ...
Article
Currently, there are more than 85,000 plant species that have been documented for medical use globally. This implies, plant derived natural products hold great promise for discovery and development of new pharmaceuticals in diverse human ailments. Among these divers medicinal species Aframomum corrorima, Commiphora myrrha, Nigella sativa, Ocimum lamiifolium and Olea europaea are one of very well known valuable plants in serving the local people as spice, flavor, fumigants, and sources of traditional and modern medicines. In modern science their medicinal activities have been corroborated by phytochemical and biological research investigations. As the biological studies revealed they have antibacterial, antioxidant, antifungal, antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory properties even though further investigation required on in vivo and animal model to ascertain those in vitro activities are really valuable in life. The phytochemical investigations have also shown that these plants are holder of diversified useful compound classes like terpene, steroid, flavonoid, glycoside, fatty acid and alkaloids. However, their pharmacology and pharmacokinetics activities have to be further investigated in order to make sure their metabolic effect upon their usage because some compounds have ability to be metabolized during in vivo analysis, and to see whether these compounds have synergic or additive effects. Therefore, the purpose of this review paper is to present the compiled and unified scientific studies which have been done on the above well known medicinal plants about their description, medicinal uses, volatile and extracted active compounds, and chemical structures of isolated compounds in justification with scientific researches.
... The genus Commiphora, which includes more than 200 plant species, is distributed within dry regions of northeastern Africa, southern Arabia and India [11]. True myrrh is known in Persian medicine as "Mur e Makki" and is sourced from the Commiphora myrrha (Nees) Engl [12,13]. ...
... It is known that Myrrh has antiproliferative, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial effects and has also been used since ancient times in gynecological diseases, wounds, pain control, obesity, and coronary artery diseases [13,17]. In a traditional Persian manuscript from the ninth century, Rhazes (Persian physician) mentioned that Myrrh is also useful in the treatment of allergic rhinitis [12]. ...
... The results of in vitro studies showed that extracts and compounds from myrrh could be used as novel preventive and therapeutic agents in human gynecologic cancers as well as prostate cancer [13,44]. ...
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Background: Myrrh (Commiphora myrrha (Nees) Engl.) has a long history of traditional use as a herbal medicine for different purposes. In ancient traditional Persian manuscripts, it has been noted that myrrh may act as uterine stimulant and probably cause complete abortion. However, there is no evidence to verify this comment. Therefore, the current study was carried out to evaluate the efficacy and safety of Myrrh in the treatment of incomplete abortion. Materials and methods: In a randomized double-blinded placebo controlled clinical trial, 80 patients with ultrasound-documented retained products of conception (RPOC) were assigned to receive capsules containing 500 mg of Myrrh oleo-gum-resin or a placebo three times a day for 2 weeks. The existence of the retained tissue and its size were evaluated by ultrasound examination at the beginning and end of the study. Results: After 2 weeks, the mean diameter of the RPOC in the Myrrh group was significantly reduced compared with the placebo group (P < 0.001). Meanwhile, the rate of successful complete abortion was 82.9% in the intervention group and 54.3% in the placebo group (P = 0.01). The patients in both groups reported no serious drug-related adverse effects. Conclusion: This study shows that Myrrh is effective and safe in the resolution of the RPOC and may be considered as an alternative option for treatment of patients with incomplete abortion. However, further studies on active compounds isolated from myrrh and their uterine stimulant effects are needed. Trial registration: This study was retrospectively registered at Iranian Registry of Clinical Trials (www.irct.ir) IRCT code: IRCT20140317017034N7.
... Several works have described different methods for the extraction, purification and characterisation of some myrrh compounds (Dekebo et al., 2002;Zhu et al., 2003). An ethanol (EtOH) extract has been suspended in hot water and extracted using petroleum ether (PE), ethyl acetate (EtOAc) and butanol (BuOH) in a sequential manner (Su et al., 2001). All of the obtained fractions and some of the isolated compounds were tested to evaluate cytotoxic activity on cells of human ovarian, cervical and endometrial cancers. ...
... At the same time, myrrh resin has been subjected to SE using different solvents in sequence to obtain more active enriched extracts. A procedure that has been modified from the method reported by Su et al. (2001) was followed. The subsequent extractions were carried out under conventional heating at rfx with PE, EtOAc and BuOH (Table 1, Procedures 3a-c). ...
Article
With the aim to develop natural preservatives displaying also chemopreventive activity, different Commiphora myrrha (Nees) Engl. extracts were studied. Myrrh essential oils, obtained by steam distillation and microwave-assisted hydrodistillation, and several other extracts, obtained by sequential procedures with petroleum ether (PE), ethanol, ethyl acetate and butanol, have been screened for their antioxidant (DPPH scavenging assay ) and antiproliferative activity (on both nontumour and colon cancer cell lines) without previous purification. Considering that the colon cancer cell lines were more sensitive to PE and ethanol extracts, the latter of which showed the highest antioxidant activity (EC50=0.160 +/- 0.008mgmL(-1)), both have been selected for further antibacterial/antifungal activity tests using an antimicrobial diffusion test and a growth inhibition test on salads. Results showed that the ethanol extract possessed the higher antibacterial and antifungal activity. Compared to untreated product, fresh-cut salads treated with these two myrrh extracts displayed a significant lower bacterial growth. Although further investigation is required, these promising results offer hints as how to improve the shelf life of fresh-cut salad.
... Recent studies have shown that antioxidants and herbal derivatives may be effective against prevailing HPV infection (Bharti et al., 2009;Su et al., 2011;Wu et al., 2006). Plants remain as an important and continuing source for treating cancers. ...
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Bullet wood tree, also called Spanish cherry (Mimusops elengi L.) is a medium-sized evergreen tree belonging to family Sapotaceae which is widely used in the treatment of different ailments. The present study investigated cytotoxic potential of methanolic leaf and bark extracts against human cervical cancer cell line (SiHa) by MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2; 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assay, the apoptotic cells were quantified further by flow cytometry by FACS fluorescence activated cell sorting. The extract of M. elengi bark and leaf was effective towards tested cell line, with IC50 values of 35.08 ± 2.92 μg/ml and 67.46 ± 4.21 μg/ml respectively. Further there is an increase in apoptotic bodies from 0.24% to 60% and 69% after treatment with extracts. These extracts exhibit significant cytotoxic effect by inducing apoptosis. The M. elengi has never shown anticancer activity on SiHa cells. These findings suggested that extracts and compounds from this plant could be useful for preventing and treating human gynaecologic cancer disease.
... It also used in the treatment of stomach ache [21]. Commiphora myrrha (family: Burseraceae) traditionally used in amenorrhea, ache, dysmenorrhea, tumors, fever, stomach complaints, chest ailments, snake and scorpion bites, and skin infections [22]. ...
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The present study was designed to investigate the antioxidant activity of Solenostemma argel, Commiphora myrrha and Vernonia amygdaline. The antioxidant activities were conducted via DPPH radical scavenging and iron chelating assays. Potent antioxidant activity was presented by S. argel for both DPPH and iron chelating ability. The highest chelating ability was showed by the petroleum ether extract with 60%. The other tested plants showed low antioxidant potential. This study give rise to antioxidant property of S. argel.
... The extract of Commiphora myrrha Engl. showed significant cytotoxicity of breast cancer cells [22,23]. ...
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Ruyan Neixiao Cream (RYNXC) is a traditional Chinese herbal formula for treating mammary precancerous disease. This study was carried out to investigate in vivo anticancer effect of RYNXC and multiple constituents. 32 virginal Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into blank control group (BC), mammary precancer models group (MODEL), tamoxifen group (TAM), and Ruyan Neixiao Cream group (RYNXC). TAM was intervened by tamoxifen; RYNXC was intervened by Ruyan Neixiao Cream. The chromatographic separation was performed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled with mass spectrometry (MS). RYNXC showed significant improvement in erythrocyte aggregation index (EAI), hematocrit (HCT), fibrinogen (FIB), spleen coefficient, and uterus coefficient compared with MODEL. In RYNXC and TAM groups, atypical hyperplasia was observed in pathological mammary tissues; meanwhile in MODEL group, ductal carcinoma was observed in situ. Moreover, fifteen compounds were characterized according to HPLC-MS data, including organic acids, tannin, alkaloid, volatile oil, anthraquinones, and flavonoids. The study suggests that RYNXC was an effective Chinese herbal formula for mammary precancerous lesions and provides a scientific basis for the quality standard and the pharmacology of RYNXC. It will be beneficial to the future clinical application of RYNXC.
... The medical uses including fasciolicidal effect, and for the treatment of schistosomiasis (El Ashry et al., 2003;Massoud et al., 2001). Myrrh, either as a whole or some of its components, appears to have therapeutic effectiveness in the treatment of gynaecological cancer diseases (Su et al., 2011), while proving effective as an aesthetic, antibacterial, antifungal and anti-hyperglycaemic agent (Abdallah et al., 2009). Other medicinal uses include anti-ulcer, antipyretic, analgesic, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects (Shen et al., 2012). ...
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This study assessed the wound healing potential and antimicrobial activity of henna, pomegranate and myrrh extract formulations and their blend in excision, and dead space wound models in rats in comparison to a marketed ointment (gentamycin). The natural extracts were used in ointment formulations alone or in a combination of three extracts at a total concentration of 15% w/w in medications. The percent of wound contraction in case of henna, myrrh, pomegranate, the blend and gentamycin (10 mg/kg) were 85.90-98.5%, 88.35-99.52%, 93.55-100%, 97.30-100%, and 90.25-100% from days 16 to 20, respectively. The blended formulation showed the highest increase in the percent of wound contraction and decrease in the epithelisation period compared to other formulations and showed comparable results to the standard ointment. The histological studies of excision biopsy at day 24 showed healed skin structures with normal epithelisation, the restoration of adnexa and fibrosis within the dermis in all of the formulation- and gentamycin-treated groups while the control group lagged behind in the formation of the amount of ground substance in the granulation tissue. The formulations showed antimicrobial activity against Candida, Staphylococcus aureus, mucous membrane infections and E. coli topical infections. The study proved the wound healing potential and antimicrobial activity of the herbal extract.
... It is known that various anti-nutritional substances and xenobiotic chemical like saponin and tannin cause haemolysis, nutritional mal-absorbtion and abnormal haematopoiesis [31,32]. Commiphora myrrha contains several terpenes and steroids which are known to possess cytotoxic and anticancer activity [12,33]. Hence decreased level of haemoglobin (Hb) in the experimental animals fed different concentrations of the ether and ethanol extracts of the plant may probably be due to the rapid haemolysis leading to haemolytic anaemia, reduction in level of haemoglobin (Hb) which is a protein utilize by red blood cells for distribution of oxygen to other cells throughout the body [34]. ...
Article
Ether as well as ethanol extracts of Commiphora molmol administered orally to 42 rats at a dose rate of 200, 400 and 600 mg/kg body weight/d for 2 weeks were toxic to laboratory rats. Group 1 was the control which was fed regular diet without the plant extract. Groups 2, 4 and 6 were fed ethanol extract of C. molmol at a dose rate of 200, 400 and 600 mg/kg/body weight/d respectively. Groups 3, 5 and 7 were fed ether extract of C. molmol at a dose rate of 200, 400, 600 mg/kg/body weight/d respectively. The toxic effects were exhibited in all groups by a significant decrease (p<0.05) in the body weights of the experimental rats compared to those weights of the control rats. Experimental animals showed marked depression, abdominal pain, and dyspnoea at their late stages. Haematological changes in rats fed both ether and ethanol extracts of the plant were indicated by significant decrease (p<0.05) in the RBC count as well as in the haemoglobin concentrations while there was significant increase (p<0.05) in the WBC counts. Rats which fed ether extract showed significant decrease in glucose in all groups, cholesterol and triglycerides and a significance increase in bilirubin concentration in experimental animals which fed 400 and 600 mg/body weight/d. Histological changes in experimental rats were observed in the form of fatty change and necrosis of hepatocytes, renal tubular cell degeneration, and shrinkage of the glomeruli.
... Dehydroabietic acid (a naturally occurring diterpene rosin acid) and its synthetic derivatives have exhibited cytotoxicity toward various types of human cancer cells, including lung cancer cells [40,41]. Although the methyl ester derivative of dehydroabietic acid was previously identified in P. cocos and was shown to inhibit the tumor-promoting activity of 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) in vitro [42], dehydroabietic acid (3) was isolated from P. cocos and evaluated for its biological effects on human lung cancer cells for the first time in the present study. ...
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Previous studies have revealed the antitumor potential of Poria cocos Wolf against a broad spectrum of cancers. However, the biological activity of P. cocos against lung cancer, which is known as the leading cause of cancer mortality worldwide, and its underlying chemical and molecular basis, remain to be investigated. We aimed to evaluate the in vitro cytotoxicity of P. cocos toward human lung adenocarcinoma cells with different p53 statuses, to identify the bioactive constituents of P. cocos, and explicate the molecular mechanisms underlying the cytotoxicity of these constituents in human lung adenocarcinoma cells. An EtOH extract of the sclerotia of P. cocos exhibited cytotoxicity toward four human lung cancer cell lines: A549, H1264, H1299, and Calu-6, regardless of their p53 status. Chemical investigation of the extract resulted in the isolation of two triterpenoids, dehydroeburicoic acid monoacetate (1) and acetyl eburicoic acid (4); a sterol, 9,11-dehydroergosterol peroxide (2); and a diterpenoid, dehydroabietic acid (3). All of the isolated compounds were cytotoxic to the lung adenocarcinoma cell lines, exhibiting IC50 values ranging from 63.6 μM to 171.0 μM at 48 h of treatment. The cytotoxicity of the extract and the isolated compounds were found to be mediated by apoptosis, and accompanied by elevated Bax expression and/or Bcl-2 phosphorylation along with caspase-3 activation. Our data demonstrate that the sclerotium of P. cocos and its four bioactive constituents (1–4) exert cytotoxicity against human lung adenocarcinoma cells, regardless of their p53 status, by inducing apoptosis associated with mitochondrial perturbation, and proposing the potential to employ P. cocos in the treatment of lung cancer.
...  Venesection of basilic vein is indicated in waram alrahim (PID) and saphenous vein in ehtebase tams (amenorrhea) to induce menstruation as it diverts the flow of blood from upper to lower organs [42] Evidence based medicines for cervical cancer Antiseptic, antifungal, antibacterial, cytotoxic,analgesic,antiviral,antiinflammatory,bacteriostati c, astringent, expectorant,carminative,stimulant, stomachic,leucocytogenic,aphrodisiac,diuretic,deodorant,o phthalmic, antispasmodic,anti dermatophyte. [43][44][45][46][47][48] 2. ...
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Cervical cancer is the most common gynecologic malignancy worldwide. It is the leading cause of death among females, accounts for 8.5% deaths per year. Human papilloma virus is the major risk factor. In classical Unani text, cervical cancer (sartan al- rahim) is caused by warame har or warame sulb of rahim and also due to dominance of khilte sawda (black bile), which is formed due to ehtiraq (detonation) of khilte safra (yellow bile). Clinical features are excessive tiredness, loss of appetite, foul smelling discharge per vaginum, pelvic pain, urinary symptoms, etc. Treatment options in conventional medicine include radical hysterectomy with pelvic lymph nodes dissection and concurrent chemo or radio therapy which have their own side effects like nausea, vomiting, loss of appetite and hair, early bruising and bleeding, anemia, renal problems, etc. Nowadays in spite of a number of interventions available, large number of patients suffers from poor prognosis. Therefore, the effort for finding new anticancer agents as an alternative with better efficacy and minimum side effects has been continued. Hence, there is a need for newer treatment which is to be safe, cost effective, easily available and free from side effects. The aim of this review paper is to provide evidence based analysis to Unani drugs having anti cancerous, activities in the treatment of cervical cancer. Moreover, this review article is focused to discuss how unani drugs and various food items act as anticancerous from scientific and medical point of view and how they are considered to be safe, effective and less expensive with virtually no side effects in the management of cervical cancer. Keywords: sartan al- rahim, cervical cancer, anticancerous, unani medicine
... These inherent antibacterial and antifungal properties are because myrrh contains sesquiterpenes and furanosesquiterpenoids [9,14]. More so, myrrh has been successfully applied in the treatment of gynecological cancer diseases, ulcers, pyretic, hyperglycemia, schistosomiasis, and pain [15][16][17]. Myrrh topical application to wounds and ulcers has been shown to be effective in wound healing by facilitating timely wound drying and cleansing [18][19][20]. Although myrrh has been widely used in hydrocolloid preparations of nanoparticles [21], however, its application via hydrocolloid wound dressing has not been applied. ...
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Common occurrence of dermal injuries has made wound dressing a critical component in wound healing. Hydrocolloid wound dressings have been developed as fanciful and effective wound dressing with ability for wound fluid control, adherence to wound site, and infection prevention. Effectiveness of topical application of myrrh resin to dermal wound has been well documented. We fabricated Mirderm hydrocolloid wound dressings with myrrh resin to enhance wound healing and improve on the mechanical characteristics of the hydrocolloid. The biocompatibility of Mirderm was assayed with CCK-8 while the wound healing efficacy was tested in vivo. The physical and mechanical properties were checked to affirm the suitability of Mirderm as hydrocolloid wound dressing. We observed Mirderm showed superior wound healing and mechanical capability suitable for hydrocolloid polymer relative to investigated commercial hydrocolloid and medical Gauze. These are indications that Mirderm may be an improvement on standard dressings such as Gauze and some commercial hydrocolloids.
... The name Commiphora originates from the Greek words kommi (means 'gum') and phero (means 'to bear'). More than 200 species of Commiphora are native to the seasonally dry tropics of India, Africa and Arabia from which majority yields a fragrant oleo-gum-resin on damage to the bark (Su et al., 2011). In India, guggul grows wildly in Rajasthan, Gujarat, Karnataka, Assam and used as a source of commercial gum guggul (Lal et al., 2010). ...
... The fresh nuts were authenticated in the Herbarium Section of the Department of Biological Science, Ahmadu Bello University Zaria by comparing the existing specimen (No 348). The hydromethanolic extraction was carried out according to the modified method of Su et al., (2011). ...
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Epilepsy is a common neurological disorder with an incidence of 3% in the general population. The prevalence is higher in developing countries where most people still rely on herbal medicine for the management due to cost, side effect and drug interactions associated with orthodox antiepileptics. Tiger nut has been reportedly used in the management of febrile convulsion in children. This study therefore, aims to evaluate the protective effect of tiger nut extract in pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) induced seizures in mice. Twenty-five mice were used for the study, divided into five groups of five mice each. Group I served as the control and received distilled water(1ml/kg) only, group II received 200mg/kg of sodium valproate (SV), an antiepileptic drug, and groups III, IV and V received 500mg/kg, 1000mg/kg and 2000mg/kg of the tigur nut extract respectively, intraperitoneal. Each group received 65mg/kg of PTZ (i.p) for induction of seizures one hour after treatments and the latency to onset (LO) and duration of seizure (DS) were recorded. The results showed that, LO and DS were significantly reduced in the treatment groups compared to the control. The protective effect was greater than SV at highest dose (2000mg/kg) tested. The findings in this study suggest that tiger nut may be beneficial in epilepsy.
... The name Commiphora originates from the Greek words kommi (means 'gum') and phero (means 'to bear'). More than 200 species of Commiphora are native to the seasonally dry tropics of India, Africa and Arabia from which majority yields a fragrant oleo-gum-resin on damage to the bark (Su et al., 2011). In India, guggul grows wildly in Rajasthan, Gujarat, Karnataka, Assam and used as a source of commercial gum guggul (Lal et al., 2010). ...
... It had also been probed that myrrh tinctures were effectively improved the glucose tolerance in both normal and diabetic rats [18][19][20] . Toxicity of solvent extracts of myrrh on goats 22 and cytotoxic effects on human gynecologic cancer cells had been reported 23 . Myrrh had been employed from the distant ages as a component of incense and perfume, in the holy oil of Jew and the 'kyphi' of Egyptian for embalming and fumigations. ...
... It also used in the treatment of stomach ache [21]. Commiphora myrrha (family: Burseraceae) traditionally used in amenorrhea, ache, dysmenorrhea, tumors, fever, stomach complaints, chest ailments, snake and scorpion bites, and skin infections [22]. ...
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The present study was designed to investigate the antioxidant activity of Solenostemma argel, Commiphora myrrha and Vernonia amygdaline. The antioxidant activities were conducted via DPPH radical scavenging and iron chelating assays. Potent antioxidant activity was presented by S. argel for both DPPH and iron chelating ability. The highest chelating ability was showed by the petroleum ether extract with 60%. The other tested plants showed low antioxidant potential. This study give rise to antioxidant property of S. argel.
... The traditional use of Myrrh has been known for the treatment of many diseases from ancient times to date and it is known that it is used for diseases such as gall bladder diseases, chest diseases, fever and stomach complaints, especially in the regions where it grows. It is also used in scorpion stings in India [6]. The name Myrr comes from the Arabic word "pain" "bitter" and is also called Mursafi. ...
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Although Salmonella cause serious infections in animals, they are also of great importance with their zoonotic features. In this study, the antibacterial effects of myrrh (Commiphora myrrha) essential oil on poultry and human isolated Salmonella spp., S. typhimurium ATCC 14028, also Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 43300), Gram-negative (Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922) were investigated agar well diffusion method and minimum inhibition concentrations (MICs) were determined micro dilution methods. In addition bioactive components analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrophotometer GC / MS. According to the results of GC-MS, major component of myrrh essential oil is curzerene with 24.99 % rate. This was followed by beta elemene with 21.75%. A total of 106 components were detected, and the other components detected were found at between 0.01% and 1.88% rate. Antibacterial test result showed that the zone diameter range of essential oil on Salmonella spp. isolates have been determined between 7.75 mm and 9.75 mm and MIC values ranging from 12.4 µg / ml to 49.6 µg / ml. In reference strains, it was seen that the most effective result was on Gram-positive bacteria.
... Regular in vivo treatment of MRZ, a commercial extract of Commiphora molmol, does not have antitumor activity against EAC cells and it was stated that MRZ treatment alone or in combination with cisplatin or 5-Fluorouracil did not alter the hematological profile (El-naggarSabry 2011). Some sesquiterpenoids, which are components of myrrh, have been reported to have an antiproliferative effect by inhibiting androgen receptor signaling in the human prostate cancer cell (LNCaP and PC3) lines (Su et al. 2011, Wang et al. 2011. Again, myrrh water extract accelerates the cell cycle by clearly stimulating proliferation in human dermal fibroblast cells, and type III, which is involved in wound healing in fibroblasts has been reported to stimulate upstream collagen mRNA expression (Bai et al. 2012). ...
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Commiphora myrrha, located in the tropical zone, is a widely used tree for medicinal purposes in the Arabian Peninsula and a large part of Africa. In this research, cytogenotoxic effects of the commercially available Commiphora myrrha essential oil (myrrh) were studied using micronucleus (MN), comet, and total oxidant (TOS), and total antioxidant (TAS) assays on human peripheral lymphocytes under in vitro conditions. In addition, pure pBR322 plasmid DNA was used to investigate DNA damaging/protecting activity of the essential oil. Finally, a bacterial reversion (Ames) test was performed using Salmonella typhimurium mutant strains TA98 and TA100 to determine the potential effect of the agent in the induction of gene mutations. The high concentration of Commiphora myrrha (0.125 µL/mL) induced MN formation significantly compared to the untreated control in both treatment times (24 or 48 h). Only at the highest concentration, nuclear division index (NDI) values were found lower than the controls. In the Comet test performed on healthy lymphocytes, only the highest concentration of myrrh caused significant increases in the percentage of damaged cells and genetic damage index (GDI) values. Myrrh oil showed no significant mutagenic effect on mutant Salmonella strains. In addition, the substance did not directly damage plasmid DNA but also protected DNA against damaging factors such as H2O2 and UV. Finally, in the TAS and TOS assays, no significant differences on the oxidative stress parameters were found in cell culture compared to the control. The results of this study showed that myrrh oil exerts cytogenotoxic risk only at higher concentrations.
... Phytochemicals present in this plant had been investigated previously and resulted in a series of metabolites including terpenoids, steroids, flavonoids, lignans, carbohydrates, and long chain aliphatic alcohol derivatives isolated and identified from Commiphora species. These secondary metabolites of the Commiphora species exhibited diverse biological activities, such as cytotoxic effects [12] . The present study demonstrated the fasciocidal properties of Mirazid ® oleoresin extract and myrrh volatile oil which caused disruption to the tegument of adult F. gigantic after in vitro incubation. ...
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To evaluated the histological changes within the tegument of adult Fasciola gigantica (F. gigantica) that led to the gross changes that were visible externally. The effects of oleoresin extract of myrrh (Mirazid(®)), myrrh volatile oil and triclabendazole sulphoxide (reference drug) on the tegumental structure of adult F. gigantica following treatment in vitro had been determined by light microscopy. The internal changes in the tegument observed in this study were compatible with surface changes seen in the previous scanning electron microscopy study, using the same drugs. The swelling of tegumental syncytium was a particular feature of their action, but its level was much greater with myrrh volatile oil, in which vacuolization of the tegument and loss of spines were observed. The present study demonstrated the fasciocidal properties of Mirazid(®) oleoresin extract, and it might be possible to reinforce its fasciocidal activity by increasing its content of myrrh volatile oil.
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Cervical ectopy is one of the commonest gynecological conditions seen in OPD’s, about 80-85% of women suffer from cervical ectopy during their life time. Many a times, it is an accidental finding in an asymptomatic woman coming for routine gynecological examination. Although it is a benign lesion, but may predispose to complications like infertility, cervical intraepithelial neoplasm, risk of various sexually transmitted infections like C. trachomatis, N. gonorrhoea, human papilloma virus, human immunodeficiency virus, cytomegalovirus and shows malignant changes as it progresses. Ectopy occurs when the columnar epithelium lining the endocervix, extends onto the ectocervix. As the disease takes 10-20 years to progress from pre invasive to invasive disease, preventive measures such as screening and treatment modalities should be adopted. Early diagnosis of cervical ectopy is important for its effective management and for prevention of its long-term sequel. The treatment option available in conventional medicine includes surgical procedure either electro or, cryocautery, but have their own complications. Hence, this treatment is limited due to its complications and contraindications and need for safer alternate therapy. In Unani system of medicine, various formulations are available as treatment of quruhal rahim, which have been recommended to be used locally in the form of humool for immediate healing of wound, exhibiting the properties of anti-inflammatory (muhallile warm), desiccant (mujaffif), wound healing (mundamile qurooh), sedative (musakkin), antiseptic (dafa’e ta’ffun) etc. This review article gives a detailed description of cervical ectopy as mentioned in classical Unani text including its etiopathogenesis, clinical presentation and principles of treatment as well as evidence-based Unani medicine.
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Recurrent miscarriage places a huge psychological burden on a woman who is trying to conceive. Meanwhile, the use of traditional medicine still plays an important role within the Saudi Arabian culture, where many patients still seek alternative forms of therapy. However, this traditional way of treatment might expose patients to many hazards. We present a case of a 32-year-old pregnant woman with a history of infertility and recurrent miscarriages. She used large amounts of myrrh herbs for 2 months, since a traditional healer told her that her current pregnancy would progress safely by its use. However, her pregnancy was complicated with an acute abdominal pain. Her symptom was relieved as soon as she stopped taking myrrh. We assume that myrrh acted as a uterine stimulant causing acute abdominal pain. Scientific studies should be carried out to evaluate the safety of Myrrh intake during pregnancy.
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Maleopimaric acid N-aryl imides (2) and methyl maleopimaric acid N-aryl imides (3) were designed and synthesized. Their atropisomers (A and B) were separated into their enantiomeric pure forms and the anti-proliferative activity was tested against NCI, A549, Hep G-2, MGC-803 and Hct-116 cell lines, respectively. A significant difference in the level of cytotoxicity was observed between R and S conformers. Atropisomers A with an R configuration exhibited significant toxicity (the IC50 values ranging from 7.51 to 32.1μM). Further experiments proved that antitumor activity of 2A was achieved through the induction of cell apoptosis by G1 cell-cycle arrest.
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The essential oils obtained by hydrodistillation of resins of Boswellia neglecta, B. pirottae, B. rivae, Commiphora myrrha (myrrh) and C. guidottii (opopanax or scented myrrh) were analysed using GC–MS. α-Thujene (19.2%), α-pinene (16.7%) and terpinen-4-ol (12.5%) were found to be the major components in B. neglecta; limonene (14.8%) in B. rivae; trans-verbenol (15.5%) and terpinen-4-ol (14.6%) in B. pirottae; (E)-β-ocimene (33%) in gum opopanax and furanoeudesma-1,3-diene (34%) in myrrh. Copyright © 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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In order to study the biological activities of tea preparations and purified tea polyphenols, their growth inhibitory effects were investigated using four human cancer cell lines. Growth inhibition was measured by [3H]thymidine incorporation after 48 h of treatment. The green tea catechins (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) and (-)-epigallocatechin (EGC) displayed strong growth inhibitory effects against lung tumor cell lines H661 and H1299, with estimated IC50 values of 22 microM, but were less effective against lung cancer cell line H441 and colon cancer cell line HT-29 with IC50 values 2- to 3-fold higher. (-)-Epicatechin-3-gallate, had lower activities, and (-)-epicatechin was even less effective. Preparations of green tea polyphenols and theaflavins had higher activities than extracts of green tea and decaffeinated green tea. The results suggest that the growth inhibitory activity of tea extracts is caused by the activities of different tea polyphenols. Exposure of H661 cells to 30 microM EGCG, EGC or theaflavins for 24 h led to the induction of apoptosis as determined by an annexin V apoptosis assay, showing apoptosis indices of 23, 26 and 8%, respectively; with 100 microM of these compounds, the apoptosis indices were 82, 76 and 78%, respectively. Incubation of H661 cells with EGCG also induced a dose-dependent formation of H2O2. Addition of H2O2 to H661 cells caused apoptosis in a manner similar to that caused by EGCG. The EGCG-induced apoptosis in H661 cells was completely inhibited by exogenously added catalase (50 units/ml). These results suggest that tea polyphenol-induced production of H2O2 may mediate apoptosis and that this may contribute to the growth inhibitory activities of tea polyphenols in vitro.
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Myrrh (from the stem of the Commiphora molmol tree) is an oleo gum resin that may prove efficacious for the treatment of fascioliasis. We studied 7 patients who were passing Fasciola eggs in their stools and treated them with myrrh. The drug (a formulation consisting of 8 parts of resin and 3.5 parts of volatile oils, all extracted from myrrh) was given in a dose of 12 mg/kg per day for 6 consecutive days in the morning on an empty stomach. Patients were followed for 3 months. The therapy proved to be effective, with pronounced improvement of the general condition and amelioration of all symptoms and signs. A dramatic drop in the egg count was detected at the end of treatment. Eggs were no longer detectable in the feces 3 weeks after treatment and after a follow-up period of 3 months. High eosinophilic counts, elevated liver enzymes, and Fasciola antibody titers returned to nearly normal. No signs of toxicity or adverse effects were observed. We conclude that the formulation of myrrh is safe, well tolerated, and effective for treating fascioliasis.
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Occurrence, constituents and medicinal use of myrrh, obtained from the stem of different Commiphora species are reviewed. The constituents of the volatile oil, the resin and the gum are outlined in detail. Myrrh has considerable antimicrobial activity and is medicinally used in a variety of diseases.
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Praziquantel (PZQ) is widely and effectively used in the control of bilharziasis which constitutes a major endemic health problem in Egypt. However, recent studies recommended that the drug must be re-evaluated because of its potential carcinogenicity and genotoxicity. Mirazid is a new natural anti-schistosomal drug formed of myrrh extract and considered to be a safe drug. This work was conducted to evaluate and compare hepatotoxic, genotoxic and carcinogenic effects of PZQ and Mirazid on adult male albino rats by assessment of serum levels of ALT, AST and bilirubin, histopathological study of the liver and cytogenetic study of bone marrow cells. 100 adult male albino rats were equally divided into 4 groups: (I): negative control, (II): control rats received distilled water, (III): received weekly single oral dose of PZQ (1500 mg/kg) for 6 weeks, (IV): received daily oral dose of Mirazid (500 mg/kg) for 6 weeks. At the end of the study 10 rats of each group were investigated by assessment of the levels of AST, ALT, & Bilirubin. After scarification, liver sections were examined by light microscopy. Another 10 rats of each group were submitted to cytogenetic examination. It was found that praziquantel induced a significant increase in the mean values of AST, ALT and bilirubin with areas of hyaline degeneration, fatty changes, dysplasia and necrosis in the liver sections. It also induced a significant increase in the incidence of chromosomal aberrations as polyploidy, fragment, deletion and ring chromosome as compared with control group. Mirazid induced a non significant increase in the mean values of AST, ALT and bilirubin, with a normal hepatic tissue, and a non significant increase in the incidence of chromosomal aberrations, as compared with the control group. On comparing both drugs, praziquantel induced a significant hepatotoxic, genotoxic and carcinogenic effects. It was concluded that, Praziquantel is considered to be a hepatotoxic, genotoxic and carcinogenic drug. On the other hand, Mirazid seemed to be a safe and promising antiparasitic drug, free from hepatotoxic, genotoxic and carcinogenic effects.
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Myrrh and opopanax has been used throughout history in incense and as a perfume. Since Bible times it has been used for the treatment of wounds. The first attempts to identify content compounds were almost 100 years ago. In this review we discuss the present state of knowledge in the chemistry of substances of Commiphora spp.
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Aim: To study the mechanism and inhibitory effect of aspirin on U251 cells in vitro. Methods: The effects of aspirin on proliferation of U251 cells were assessed using the MTT assay. Cell cycle analysis was done by flow cytometry. Annexin V-FITC Apoptosis Detection Kit was used to detect apoptosis of cells. Western blot was employed to analyze expression of apoptosis-related protein Bcl-2 and Caspase-3. Results: The growth inhibiton of U251 cells by aspirin was in a time-and-dose-dependent manner. After treatment with 8 mmol • L -1, cell cycle was arrested at G2/M phase. Aspirin also significantly enhanced apoptosis of U251 cells with down-regulated anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2, and activation of Caspase-3. Conclusions: Aspirin can significantly inhibit the growth of U251 cells through inducing cell apoptosis in vitro.
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In order to study the biological activities of tea preparations and purified tea polyphenols, their growth inhibitory effects were investigated using four human cancer cell lines. Growth inhibition was measured by [ 3 H]thymidine incorporation after 48 h of treatment. The green tea catechins (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) and (-)-epigallocatechin (EGC) displayed strong growth inhibitory effects against lung tumor cell lines H661 and H1299, with estimated IC 50 values of 22 μM, but were less effective against lung cancer cell line H441 and colon cancer cell line HT-29 with IC 50 values 2- to 3-fold higher. (-)-Epicatechin-3-gallate, had lower activities, and (-)-epicatechin was even less effective. Preparations of green tea polyphenols and theaflavins had higher activities than extracts of green tea and decaffeinated green tea. The results suggest that the growth inhibitory activity of tea extracts is caused by the activities of different tea polyphenols. Exposure of H661 cells to 30 μM EGCG, EGC or theaflavins for 24 h led to the induction of apoptosis as determined by an annexin V apoptosis assay, showing apoptosis indices of 23, 26 and 8%, respectively; with 100 μM of these compounds, the apoptosis indices were 82, 76 and 78%, respectively. Incubation of H661 cells with EGCG also induced a dose-dependent formation of H 2 O 2 . Addition of H 2 O 2 to H661 cells caused apoptosis in a manner similar to that caused by EGCG. The EGCG-induced apoptosis in H661 cells was completely inhibited by exogenously added catalase (50 units/ml). These results suggest that tea polyphenol-induced production of H 2 O 2 may mediate apoptosis and that this may contribute to the growth inhibitory activities of tea polyphenols in vitro.
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The resin of Commiphora incisa (Burseraceae) has yielded three C22 compounds derived by loss of the C-17 side chain from a dammarane triterpene. They have been ident̀ified by spectral analysis and chemical modification as 4α,4β,8β,10β,14α-pentamethyl-5α-gon-16-en-3-one (mansumbinone), the corresponding 3-hydroxy compound (mansumbinol) and the derivative 3,4-seco-mansumbinoic acid in which the A-ring has opened between C-3 and C-4. A fourth compound was characterized as 16(S),20(R)-dihydroxydammar-24-en-3-one, a possible precursor of the mansumbinanes.
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Oleo-gum resins, hardened resinous plant exudates obtained from some Acacia, Boswellia and Commiphora species in the lowlands of Ethiopia, have been traded for centuries both on the international and domestic markets. However, their economic contribution to the rural households is little documented. A reconnaissance survey was carried out in Liban, one of the administrative zones in the Ethiopian Somali National Regional State (ESNRS), to investigate major oleo-gum resins collected for commerce and their economic contributions to rural households. The results showed that five types of oleo-gum resins are collected for commerce in Liban. These are gum arabic obtained from Acacia senegal, gum talha obtained from A. seyal, frankincense obtained from Boswellia neglecta and B. ogadensis, myrrh obtained from Commiphora myrrha (syn. C. molmol), C. truncata and C. borensis and hagar obtained from Commiphora africana. The average annual cash income generated per household was estimated to be US$80.00. This income contributes to 32.6% of annual household subsistence, and ranks second after livestock in the overall household livelihood. The contribution from crop farming was estimated to be 12%, which is about one third of the contribution from oleogum resins. These results show that oleo-gum resins obtained from the vegetation resources play a significant role in the economy of rural households in Liban. The vegetation resources and their oleo-gum resins also provide various goods and services for the rural households in Liban. Fodder for livestock, traditional medicines for human and livestock disease treatments, incense for fumigation, cultural and religious rituals, and emergency foods during droughts
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Myrrh is an herbal product that has been used since ancient ages for traditional medication and other purposes. The revolution of myrrh as an antiparasitic agent in Egypt began in the 1990s through scientific evidence-based research. The human trematode infections in Egypt were the main focus of research with stories of success and disagreement, at times. The present paper reviewed the antiparasitary activity of myrrh with stress on its possible mode of action, its safety, efficacy and effectiveness on trematode infections in experimental studies and clinical trials in Egypt as well as its molluscicidal effects on the intermediate hosts of trematodes.
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The essential oil from leaves of Commiphora africana collected in Benin was analyzed by capillary GC and GC/MS. The essential oil was characterized by a majority of sesquiterpenoid constituents with bisabolane skeleton among them bisabolone (38.4%) and β-sesquiphellandrene (19.1%) were the most abundant.The radical scavenging activity of the oil was found to be low comparatively to that of butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT).
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The purification and structure characterization of seven aromatic sesquiterpenes from scented Commiphora myrrha are reported. Their structures were determined on the basis of spectral data, especially of NMR evidence. Among them, compound 1 is a new furanosesquiterpene and compound 2 is identified as a new natural aroma found in Commiphora spp. All compounds except 4 were isolated, for the first time, from Commiphora myrrha. Copyright © 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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The relative stereochemistry of a furanosesquiterpene, reported previously from myrrh, but isolated here from Commiphora sphaerocarpa is determined for the first time as (1(10)E,2R*,4R*)-2-methoxy-8,12-epoxygermacra-1(10),7,11-trien-6-one. Likewise the stereochemistry of furanodienone was established by NMR and X-ray crystallography as (1(10)E,4E)-8,12-epoxygermacra-1(10),4,7,11-tetraen-6-one.
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Oleo-gum resins, hardened resinous plant exudates obtained from some Acacia, Boswellia and Commiphora species in the lowlands of Ethiopia, have been traded for centuries both on the international and domestic markets. However, their economic contribution to the rural households is little documented. A reconnaissance survey was carried out in Liban, one of the administrative zones in the Ethiopian Somali National Regional State, to investigate major oleo-gum-resins collected for commerce and their economic contributions to rural households. The results showed that five types of oleo-gum-resins are collected for commerce in Liban. These are gum arabic obtained from Acacia Senegal, gum talha obtained from A. seyal, frankincense obtained from Boswellia neglecta and B. ogadensis, myrrh obtained from Commiphora myrrha (syn. C. molmol), C. truncata and C. borensis and hagar obtained from C. africana. The average annual cash income generated per household was estimated to be US$ 80.00. This income contributes to 32.6% of annual household subsistence, and ranks second after livestock in the overall household livelihood. The contribution from crop farming was estimated to be 12%, which is about one-third of the contribution from oleo-gum resins. These results show that oleo-gum resins obtained from the vegetation resources play a significant role in the economy of rural households in Liban. The vegetation resources and their oleo-gum resins also provide various goods and services for the rural households in Liban. Fodder for livestock, traditional medicines for human and livestock disease treatments, incense for fumigation, cultural and religious rituals, and emergency foods during droughts are among the most common. Opportunities and constraints for oleo-gum-resin-based development in Liban and other similar areas in Ethiopia are discussed. The results could be used as baseline information for evaluating the potential of the arid and semi-arid land vegetation resources of the country, to plan for extensive studies of their management, conservation and proper utilization.
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Although the anti-tumor effects of carvacrol have been demonstrated earlier, the exact underlying molecular mechanisms involved in its action have not been defined and in the present study an attempt has been made to identify the mechanism of carvacrol induced cell death in human metastatic breast cancer cells, MDA-MB 231. Apoptosis induced by carvacrol was determined based on different assays like MTT assay, Annexin V, mitochondrial membrane potential assay, multicaspase activation assay and cell cycle analysis by flow cytometer. Cleavage of PARP, cytochrome c release and modulation of Bax and Bcl2 ratio by Western blot analysis were also studied. The study clearly showed induction of apoptosis by carvacrol in MDA-MB 231 cells dose dependently at an IC(50) of 100 microM with a decrease in the mitochondrial membrane potential of the cells resulting in release of cytochrome c from mitochondria, caspase activation and cleavage of PARP. The data in the present study clearly demonstrated anti-tumor effects of carvacrol on human metastatic breast cancer cells, MDA-MB 231, and that the compound could have a potential therapeutic significance in treating cancer.
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A lectin (AMML) from the roots of Astragalus mongholicus was extracted and purified by affinity chromatographic technique. Human cervical carcinoma cell line (HeLa), human osteoblast-like cell line (MG63) and human leukemia cell line (K562) were used to check the effects of AMML on cell proliferation, apoptosis and cell cycle. Maximum growth inhibition (92%) was observed with HeLa cells, followed by K562 cells (84%) and MG63 (48%) cells. Morphological observation showed that AMML-treated HeLa cells displayed outstanding apoptosis characteristics, such as nuclear fragmentation and appearance of membrane-enclosed apoptotic bodies. The apoptosis of HeLa cells was confirmed by flow cytometry using Annexin V/FITC and propidium iodide (PI) staining technique. For the first time we also report a significant cell cycle arrest at S phase of HeLa cells by AMML. Therefore, the present investigation may lead to the possible therapeutic use of Astragalus mongholicus lectin.
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A new cycloartane-type triterpene named cycloartane-1alpha,2alpha,3beta,25-tetraol (neomyrrhaol) (1), along with four known terpenes, sandaracopimaric acid (2), abietic acid (3), 2-methoxy-5-acetoxyfruranogermacr-1(10)-en-6-one (4), and dehydroabietic acid (5) have been isolated from the resin of COMMIPHORA MYRRHA. Their structures were elucidated by means of 1D, 2 D NMR and HR-mass spectroscopy. Compounds 2-5 are known compounds but not previously isolated from the resin of C. MYRRHA. Compounds 4 and 5 exhibited significant aromatase inhibiting activity with IC50 values at 0.2 microM and 0.3 microM, respectively. As shown in the MTT assay, 2, 3, 4, and 5 had inhibitory effects on HUVEC growth with IC50 values of 0.122 microM (2), 0.125 microM (3), 0.069 microM (5). Compounds 1-5 did not inhibit contraction of the isolated uterine and did not protect HUVEC from damage induced by H2O2 at the tested concentration.
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We have studied various factors involved in the optimal use of a tetrazolium (MTT) based colorimetric assay for cell growth and chemosensitivity. The assay is dependent on the ability of viable cells to metabolise a water-soluble tetrazolium salt into a water-insoluble formazan product. We have found that DMSO is the best solvent for dissolving the formazan product, especially where a significant amount of residual medium is left in the wells of the microtitre tray used for the assay. A reaction occurs between medium and a solution of MTT formazan in DMSO which changes the shape of the absorbance spectrum of the solution. The resulting optical density is not however greatly dependent upon the volume of added medium in the range 1-10 microliters. Between 10 and 40 microliters of added medium results in a gradually lower optical density than that produced by the smaller volumes. Above 40 microliters, the optical density increases again due to turbidity as protein precipitation occurs. When cells are incubated with MTT, the resulting optical density of the formazan product is dependent upon both the concentration of MTT and the incubation time. The optical density is stable for several hours after solution of the formazan in DMSO. A linear relationship is seen between optical density and cell number for incubation times of 2, 4, 6 or 24 h with 20 microliters of MTT (5 mg ml-1) added to 200 microliters medium. We have adopted 4 h as the standard incubation time for the assay. Only a small amount of MTT formazan product can be detected in the growth medium of wells in which cells have been exposed to MTT. Comparative chemosensitivity data for EMT6 mouse tumour cells show good agreement between results obtained using the MTT assay and results based on total cell count after a fixed period of growth.
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Limited scientific studies suggest that myrrh (Commiphora molmol) has antibacterial and anti-inflammatory activities. This study determined myrrh oil (MO) cytotoxicity to human gingival fibroblasts and epithelial cells and its effect, measured by ELISA, on interleukin (IL)-1beta-stimulated IL-6 and IL-8 production. Cell viability and cytotoxicity were determined by metabolic reduction of a tetrazolium salt to a formazan dye (MTT assay) and by release of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) from membrane damaged (LDH release assay) cells, respectively. Based on the MTT assay, 24- and 48-h exposures to </=0.001% MO had little effect on fibroblast and epithelial cell (24-h only) viability. At 48 h, 0.0005-0.001% MO decreased epithelial cell viability 30-50%. After 24 and 48 h, MO, at >/=0.005%, maximally decreased viability of all cell lines. In the LDH release assay, exposure to </=0.0001% MO caused <10% cytotoxicity to all cells. At 24 h, >/=0.0025% MO caused maximal cytotoxicity; </=0.001% MO caused 10-70% cytotoxicity. At longer exposure times, epithelial cells were more susceptible to cytotoxic effects of MO. There was little or no detectable IL-1beta-stimulated production of IL-6 or IL-8 by cells exposed to >/=0.0025% MO, probably reflective of loss of viability. At subtoxic MO levels (0.00001-0.001%), there was a significant reduction of IL-1beta-stimulated IL-6 and IL-8 production by fibroblasts, but not by epithelial cells.
Article
Ninety mice were divided into three main groups: G. I (non-infected control), G. II (infected non treated control) and G. III (infected treated), which was further subdivided into 4 subgroups: IIIA, IIIB, IIIC & IIID, where the drug was administered in a dose of 500 mg/kg body weight for five days before infection for subgroup IIIA, on the 1st day post infection (PI) for subgroup IIIB, 21 days PI for subgroup IIIC and 45 days post infection for subgroup IIID. All animals were sacrificed 80 days after the start of the experiment. Anti-schistosomal activity was assessed parasitologically by estimating the percentage reducetion of worm burden, egg count/gm tissues (liver & intestine), and the oogram pattern; histologically & histopathologically by examination of jejunum using different stains. The percentage reduction of worm burden was 30.35%, 64.54%, 76.92% and 98.46% respectively when compared to the infected non-treated control G. The maximum effect of the drug was observed in subgroups IIIC & IIID. Also, there was marked reduction in the egg count in tissues (liver & intestine). In addition the oogram pattern showed that myrrh had high antischistosomal activity. The histologically and histopathologically infected untreated (GII), when compared to non-infected non-treated control G. showed apparent shortening and flattening of the jejunal villi with focal loss of the epithelial covering. Loss of PAS positive brush border of many enterocytes with goblet cells hyperplasia was seen. Bilharzial granulomas were frequently encountered in the submucosa and the musculosa with numerous eosinophils content. In subgroups IIIA & IIIB, there was mild amelioration of the mucosal structural abnormalities. The granulomas were less frequently seen with decrease of their eosinophils. In subgroups IIIC & IIID there was restoration of the jejunal mucosal continuity, marked decrease in the granulomas and paucity of eosinophils. The present data proved that myrrh has a valuable schistosomicidal effect against different maturation stages of S. mansoni. The chemotherapeutic effect was more evident when the drug was given to the infected mice on the 21st as well as on the 45th day PI. The drug proved a promising chemoprophylactic agent when used five days before exposure to infection.
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Aqueous extracts of 12 Chinese medicinal herbs, Anemarrhena asphodeloides, Artemisia argyi, Commiphora myrrha, Duchesnea indica, Gleditsia sinensis, Ligustrum lucidum, Rheum palmatum, Rubia cordifolia, Salvia chinensis, Scutellaria barbata, Uncaria rhychophylla and Vaccaria segetalis were evaluated for their antiproliferative activity on eight cancer cell lines as well as on normal human mammary epithelial cells. Five human and three murine cancer cell lines representing different tissues (breast, lung, pancreas and prostate) were used. All the crude aqueous extracts demonstrated growth inhibitory activity on some or all of the cancer cell lines, but only two showed activity against the normal mammary epithelial cells. Overall, the murine cell lines tended to be more sensitive to most of the extracts compared with the human cell lines. Among the human cell lines, cell type specificity was observed for two extracts. These results indicate the potential use of traditional Chinese medicinal herbs as antineoplastic agents and suggest that further studies evaluating their mechanism(s) of action and the isolation of active antitumor compounds are warranted.
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In the present nonrandomized pilot study we determined the role of the vaginally administered aromatase inhibitor anastrozole (0.25 mg anastrozole/d for 6 months) in the treatment of women with histologically proven rectovaginal endometriosis. In a series of 10 patients, dysmenorrhea, physical and social functioning, but not chronic pelvic pain and dyspareunia, improved during therapy.
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A cycloartane-type triterpenoid (1), an aliphatic alcohol glycoside (2), an eudesmane-type sesquiterpenoid (3), and a guaiane-type sesquiterpenoid (4) were isolated from the resinous exudates of Commiphora opobalsamum along with six known sesquiterpenoids (5-10). Their structures were established by extensive analysis of their 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic data and chemical methods. The isolated compounds 1-3 and 5-9 were tested against human prostate cancer cell PC 3 and LNCaP. Among them, 1 and 2 showed moderate antiproliferative effects on human prostate cancer cell lines with IC50 values ranging from 5.7 to 23.6 microM; they were also able to inhibit the expression of androgen receptor (AR) in LNCaP cells. The six sesquiterpenoids were inactive in the bioassays.
Article
Since antiquity, the genus Commiphora is composed of more than 200 species, and has been exploited as a natural drug to treat pain, skin infections, inflammatory conditions, diarrhea, and periodontal diseases. In more recent history, products derived from Commiphora myrrha and various other species of Commiphora are becoming recognized to possess significant antiseptic, anesthetic, and antitumor properties. Traditional practice and evidence-based research have supported that these properties are directly attributable to terpenoids (especially furanosesquiterpenes), the active compounds present in myrrh essential oil. More recently, current studies have focused on applying clinical trial methodologies to validate its use as an antineoplastic, an antiparasitic agent, and as an adjunct in healing wounds.
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