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The elasmobranch fauna of the Thalberg Beds, early Egerian (Chattian, Oligocene), in the Subalpine Molasse Basin near Siegsdorf, Bavaria, Germany.

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Abstract

A single bed of conglomeratic, fossil-rich marls intercalated in siliciclastic Lower Egerian deposits (informally denoted as Thalberg Beds, middle to late Chattian, Late Oligocene) yields a diverse elasmobranch fauna. The conglomeratic bed is exposed in the Thalberg Graben, a few km south of Traunstein, Upper Bavaria. It forms part of the Lower Marine Molasse, deposited in the North Alpine Foreland Basin representing the western prolongation of the Central Paratethys. 22 shark and 5 batoid taxa were recognized, of which 16 and 1, respectively, could be identified to species level. Shark species related to living taxa, actively swimming and foraging in the water column of the neritic zone (Notorynchus, Carcharias, Isurus, Galeorhinus, Alopias, Galeocerdo, Carcharhinus, Squalus and probably the fossil genera Otodus (Carcharocles), Araloselachus, Physogaleus and Carcharoides), dominate the fauna both by the number of observed taxa and collected teeth. Species of planktivorous sharks and batoids are few and their gill rakers (Keasius) and teeth (Mobula, Megachasma) are very rarely encountered. Sharks and batoids inhabiting present-day and past benthic or epibenthic habitats, typically of warm-temperate shelf seas, are strongly underrepresented (scyliorhinids, dasyatids, myliobatids) or completely absent (rajoids) in the Thalberg assemblage. On the other hand, various taxa of deep-water sharks (Hexanchus, Heptranchias, Echinorhinus, Centrophorus) are variably common. The composition of the Thalberg elasmobranch assemblage differs significantly from well documented assemblages of the Chattian warm-temperate/subtropical North Sea shelf, mainly with respect to shallow-marine, benthic and deep-water species.
... Teeth of the genus Etmopterus are general rare within the fossil record and limited to a few localities, e.g., in France (Ledoux, 1972), Switzerland (Bolliger et al., 1995), Germany (Pollerspöck and Straube, 2017), Austria (Pollerspöck et al., 2018;Pollerspöck et al., 2020), and Slovakia (Underwood and Schlögl, 2013). None of the other known Oligocene faunas of the NAFB, e. g., Thalberg Beds (Reinecke et al., 2014), Schöneck Fm. (formerly "Fish Shale", Pfeil, 1981) or Miocene faunas of the upper Egerian Ebelsberg Formation, e.g., at Graben and Traunpucking (Pollerspöck et al., 2018) possess a similar domination of squalomorph sharks. In addition to the newly recorded squalomorphs, teeth of the lamniform Alopias exigua were to date unknown from the Oligocene deposits of the Eferding Formation (Schultz, 2001) but reported from equivalent sediments of the Thalberggraben in Germany (Reinecke et al., 2014). ...
... None of the other known Oligocene faunas of the NAFB, e. g., Thalberg Beds (Reinecke et al., 2014), Schöneck Fm. (formerly "Fish Shale", Pfeil, 1981) or Miocene faunas of the upper Egerian Ebelsberg Formation, e.g., at Graben and Traunpucking (Pollerspöck et al., 2018) possess a similar domination of squalomorph sharks. In addition to the newly recorded squalomorphs, teeth of the lamniform Alopias exigua were to date unknown from the Oligocene deposits of the Eferding Formation (Schultz, 2001) but reported from equivalent sediments of the Thalberggraben in Germany (Reinecke et al., 2014). ...
... In addition, the vertebrate composition of equivalent strata of the NAFB (e.g., Pfeil, 1981;Reinecke et al., 2014;Pollerspöck et al., 2018) contrasts significantly due to the presence of a conspicuous majority of squalomorph sharks (87%). Shark species related to living taxa such as Etmopterus, Heptranchias, Echinorhinus and Centroselachus are primarily bottom water-dwelling deepwater inhabitants of the continental and insular slopes (Ebert et al., 2013). ...
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The North Alpine Foreland Basin (NAFB) comprises one of the most complete sedimentary records of the Oligocene and Miocene. Driven by global sea-level fluctuations, vast sedimentary influx and tectonic movement. The locality of Unterrudling near Eferding (Upper Austria) exposes the largest succession of sedimentary deposits from the late Oligocene in the eastern NAFB. Additionally, this section shows the facies transition from the shallow-water Linz-Melk Formation to the deep-water Eferding Formation. In this work, the fossil fauna and flora of the Eferding Formation as well as its lithology are re-evaluated using a multidisciplinary approach to gain new insights into the palaeoenvironment, palaeoclimate, and palaeoecology. A transgressive sequence is documented using sedimentological and ichnological data. Furthermore, a correlation to the late Chattian transgressive Ch-3 sequence is suggested. The impact of rising sea level on marine biota is shown in detail by analysing various groups (Bivalvia, Echinodermata, Anthozoa, Foraminifera, Chondrichthyes, Osteichthyes), with several newly reported species from the Eferding Formation. Moreover, washed in plant material was analysed for the interpretation of the terrestrial climate indicating mainly humid subtropical conditions. Finally, the presence of phosphatic nodules indicates eutrophication on the shelf environment and the possibility of upwelling currents.
... All of the 565 fish remains (173 shark, 94 ray and 298 teleost fossils) described herein have been found isolated, mostly by screening at the Máriahalom sandpit. Taxonomy of chondrichthyans follows Cappetta (2012) and Reinecke et al. (2001Reinecke et al. ( , 2005Reinecke et al. ( , 2014. Referred material: Five teeth (MTM VER 2016.2591., VER 2016.2592., VER 2016.2593., VER 2016.2601 ...
... The Máriahalom teeth are indistinguishable from other Squatina teeth reported from other Oligocene localities in Europe (e.g. Müller 1996;Baut and Génault 1999;Reinecke et al. 2014); however, the Máriahalom material also shows affinities with the species Squatina angeloides. On the other hand, the conservative evolution of Squatina dentition makes tooth-based separation of the species often problematic (Cappetta 2012 VER 2016.2589., VER 2016.2605., VER 2016.2607., VER 2016.2613., VER 2016.2744 ...
... A. cuspidatus is widely known from the Oligocene and Miocene teeth localities of Europe and North America (e.g. Cappetta 1987;Holec et al. 1995;Kocsis 2007;Reinecke et al. 2014 These sand tiger shark teeth are different from those of Carcharias gustrowensis (see below) in having a striated lingual face on the main cusp. They are also much smaller and more slender than those of A. cuspidatus. ...
Article
A rich and diverse ichthyofauna is described from the upper Oligocene (Egerian) sands of Máriahalom, Hungary. The site is dominated by brackish molluscs that are preserved together with rare marine and terrestrial vertebrates. Based on the isolated elasmobranch and bony fish remains, eight sharks, four rays and seven teleost taxa were identified from Máriahalom. The ichthyofauna represents a nearshore marine subtropical community dominated by odontaspidid and carcharhinid sharks and by euryhaline durophagous sparids and by sciaenid teleost fishes. Epibenthic feeders were common, whereas piscivorous taxa included barracudas, billfishes and numerous sharks, including the macropredatory Otodus angustidens. Palaeontological, sedimentological and stratigraphical data indicates a tideinfluenced and fluvial-influenced nearshore palaeoenvironment with brackish lagoons and normal marine littoral habitats. The remains of terrestrial, brackish and nearshore marine invertebrates and vertebrates accumulated in a tidal channel. The systematics of the ichthyofauna is consistent with the palaeogeography inferred from invertebrates, i.e. a Central Paratethys connected to the Mediterranean area during the Egerian.
... Oligocene of the Gulf and Atlantic Coastal Plains, USA (Case, 1980;Kruckow and Thies, 1990;Müller, 1999;Manning, 2006;Cicimurri and Knight, 2009), and the late Oligocene of Germany (Reinecke et al., 2014). According to White (1956) and Cicimurri and Knight (2009), the upper teeth of C. gibbesii present a smooth cusp flanked by serrated mesial and distal heels while the lower teeth exhibit a cusp flanked by low and smooth-edged heels. ...
... environments (e.g., Cicimurri and Knight, 2009). As evidenced by C. gibbesii fossils in European deposits (Reinecke et al., 2014), the species was able to move across oceanic basins. In parallel to modern hammerheads, the extinct S. laevissima has been found in inner to outer shelf deposits (e.g., Purdy et al., 2001;Cicimurri and Knight, 2009;Reinecke et al., 2011). ...
... howellii from the Uitpa Formation (Aquitanian) and those reported by Leriche (1938) Leriche (1938), represent the youngest fossil record for this taxon. The previous youngest record of C. gibbesii is from the Chattian of the Thalberg Beds in Bavaria, Germany (Reinecke et al., 2014). ...
Article
Abstract. Recent field expeditions have led to the discovery of a selachian assemblage from the earliest Miocene (Aquitanian) deposits of the Uitpa Formation in the Guajira Peninsula, Colombia. This elasmobranch assemblage provides a unique glimpse into the Caribbean biodiversity at the onset of the Neogene. The assemblage consists of 13 taxa, of which some are reported from Miocene deposits for the very first time. There are also new records of taxa in southern Caribbean. The taxonomic composition of the selachian assemblage was used to conduct a paleoenvironmental and paleobathymetric analysis of the lower Uitpa Formation. The maximum likelihood estimation of paleobathymetry suggests that the lower part of the Uitpa Formation was probably accumulated at a water depth of 100 to 200 m. This indicates a rapid increase in relative sea level or basin deepening, providing new insights into the possible causes of marine biota changes in the Cocinetas Basin during the Oligocene–Miocene transition (OMT).
... Reinecke et al. (2011) illustrated (plate 96, fig. 4) one of Probst's (1877) original specimens of D. strangulata, and the species was also reported by Reinecke et al. (2014) and Reinecke and Radwański (2015). The South Carolina specimens do appear to have a more convex labial face with less robust ornamentation, and they are more similar to D. strangulata than to D. rugosa in these respects (Reinecke et al. 2011, Reinecke and Radwański 2015. ...
... Because a comparative study of the dentitions of these extant taxa has yet to be undertaken, we herein conservatively retain this species within Dasyatis with the understanding that they may someday be referred to one of the aforementioned extant genera, or perhaps to an unknown fossil taxon. The Ashley Formation specimens are morphologically similar to D. strangulata, a taxon that has tentatively been identified from the late Chattian by Reinecke et al. (2014). However, we refrain from assigning the South Carolina specimens to this species due to their much older occurrence compared to the typically Miocene range of D. strangulata. ...
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Matrix surrounding a dermochelyid carapace and two cetacean skulls recovered from the Givhans Ferry Member of the Ashley Formation (lower Oligocene, Rupelian Stage) in South Carolina, USA yielded a surprisingly diverse assemblage of euselachian and teleost fishes. We identified 21 elasmobranch taxa, including 13 selachians and eight batoids, nearly all of which are known to occur in the overlying upper Oligocene (Chattian) Chandler Bridge Formation. Notable occurrences within the Ashley Formation paleofauna include a new shark, Scyliorhinus weemsi n. sp., and the first South Carolina Oligocene records of Squalus sp., Pristiophorus sp., and Pachyscyllium sp. Numerous teleost taxa were also documented based on isolated teeth, including species of Albulidae, Paralichthyidae, Osteoglossidae, Sparidae, Sciaenidae, Sphyraenidae, Scombridae, Trichiuridae, and possibly Labridae.
... I. oxyrinchus, Carcharias sp., Odontaspis sp., Otodus (Carcharocles) cf. O. angustidens, Parotodus benedenii, M. paradoxodon, Alopias cf. A. exigua, G. aduncus, P. contortus and H. serra have been reported with a wide global distribution during the Cenozoic (Gottfried & Fordyce, 2001;Cappetta, 2012;Reinecke et al., 2014;Carrillo-Briceño, Aguilera & Rodríguez, 2014;Carrillo-Briceño et al., 2015a), suggesting significant distances over oceanic basins and wide environmental ranges. The extinct Carcharhinus gibbesii, with 146 isolated teeth in the total sample, is the most abundant taxon in the elasmobranch assemblage from the Montañita-Olón site. ...
... The extinct Carcharhinus gibbesii, with 146 isolated teeth in the total sample, is the most abundant taxon in the elasmobranch assemblage from the Montañita-Olón site. Like the above-mentioned sharks, C. gibbesii was an oceanodromous species with a wide distribution in North America, Europe and Tropical America during the Oligocene-early Miocene (Cicimurri & Knight, 2009;Reinecke et al., 2014;Carrillo-Briceño et al., 2016b, 2019. In the early Miocene of Colombia, C. gibbesii was reported in both shallow and deep-water environments (Carrillo-Briceño et al., 2016b, 2019. ...
Article
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The occurrence and diversity of elasmobranchs from the Oligocene–Miocene boundary from Tropical America is poorly known in comparison with the paleodiversity from younger Neogene intervals of the region. Here we describe a newelasmobranch assemblage from the rich fossil site of Montañita-Olón (Dos Bocas Formation, Santa Elena, Ecuador), where other vertebrates have already been described: for example, sea turtles and cetaceans. We report a total of 27 elasmobranch taxa, 19 of which are new fossil records for Ecuador, 10 new records for the Central Eastern Pacific and four new records for South America. Additionally, in order to reconstruct the environment where these marine remains were deposited, we performed abundance, paleobathymetric and habitat preference analyses, concluding that they were likely deposited in an outer neritic (open shelf) environment. The study of Oligocene and early Miocene marine elasmobranchs faunas in Tropical America is key to addressing the issues in the evolutionary historyof this group.
... We were not able to detect any dental morphological or morphometrical differences between fossil teeth anaylsed herein and the specimen shown in Underwood & Schlögl (2013 Reinecke et al. 2005Reinecke et al. , 2014. Nevertheless, they show typical characters allowing an assignation to the genus Squalus. ...
... S. acanthias differs significantly from the fossils described herein, for example S. acanthias displays a shorter, more slender apron not overhanging the root. The fossil Squalus alsaticus (Bor et al. 2012;Reinecke et al. 2014) differs from the fossils described here by the reduction of the labial foramina as well as its size ). ...
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In this study, a diverse fauna of fossil elasmobranch teeth from the Early Miocene (Middle Burdigalian) is analysed. The fossil diversity strongly resembles extant deep-water shark and ray assemblages. The fossils were collected from the Upper Marine Molasse of the lower Ottnangian in the Neuhofener Beds location, Mitterdorf, Germany. The collection site is a clay pit in between the Lower Bavarian villages Fürstenzell and Schmidham. The sample revealed 14 shark and four ray species. We present the first record of fossils assigned to taxa Nanocetorhinus tuberculatus, Deania and Apristurus from Germany. In addition, we describe a hitherto unknown genus and species of shark, Pseudoapristurus nonstriatus gen. et sp. nov., based on fossil teeth. The documented diversity is compared to both extant and fossil records of neoselachian deep-water diversities, and it is evident that this Miocene fauna is very similar in composition to indo-pacific deep-water assemblages. Key words: Bavaria, Early Miocene, deep-water, Chondrichthyes, Ottnangian, Burdigalian, Upper Marine Molasse
... Fossil evidence shows the genus Notorynchus was widespread in the North Atlantic (Europe) during the Lower Cretaceous (Smart 2001;Maisey 2012), before disappearing from the Upper Cretaceous, and reappearing almost 50 million years later in the Eocene (Smart 2001). The species N. primigenius represented the genus between the Oligocene-Pliocene (Reinecke et al. 2014), and seemed to have left the North Atlantic and Mediterranean around 4 Mya. At the global scale, patterns of genetic structure among most N. cepedianus subpopulations showed historical divergence and subsequent isolation between Oceania, Eastern Pacific, and South Atlantic basins (Schmidt-Roach et al. 2021), a pattern that is common to other globally distributed coastal shark species (Benavides et al. 2011;Bester-van der Merwe et al. 2017). ...
Article
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Predicting the potential distribution of species and possible dispersal corridors at a global scale can contribute to better understanding the availability of suitable habitat to move between, and the potential connectivity between regional distributions. Such information increases knowledge of ecological and biogeographic processes, but also has management applications at a global scale, for example, for estimating the restocking ability of exploited regional subpopulations. As a case study, we tested the utility of environmental niche modeling to investigate the potential global distribution of a highly mobile temperate marine coastal species, the broadnose sevengill shark (Notorynchus cepedianus). First, we characterized and compared three model variants using global data and regional data from two geographically distant and genetically diverging subpopulations in the Southwest Atlantic and southern Australia. The best performing model was then transferred to the rest of the world to obtain a final global prediction for the species. Predictions revealed broad suitable areas across temperate regions of the Northern and Southern Hemispheres. As a final step, we overlaid underwater seamount data on suitability maps to simulate possible dispersal corridors and regional connectivity. Global subpopulation connectivity and dispersal are discussed in the light of recent genetic evidence, to help explain why unoccupied suitable areas are not currently accessed by the species. This study highlights the potential use of global and regional data for the assessment of habitat suitability of species at a global scale, and provides considerations when applying these models to other highly mobile species.
... The root is low and its lobes rounded with a narrow medial lingual groove. The specimens from the Montañita-Olón site resemble those specimens reported from the late Oligocene of Europe (Reinecke et al., 2014), North America (Cicimurri & Knight, 2009) and early Miocene of Colombia (Carrillo-Briceño et al., 2016b and Venezuela (Carrillo-Briceño et al., 2016a). Batomorphii Cappetta, 1980Myliobatiformes Compagno, 1973 Mobulidae Gill, 1893 Mobula Rafinesque, 1810 †Mobula fragilis (Cappetta, 1970) ...
Thesis
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The cartilaginous fishes and bony fishes are both highly successful groups with a long, complex evolutionary history. Fossils of these fishes are quite common in Cenozoic localities around the world, but this thesis focuses on those from Europe and South America. In Europe, fossil remains were reported from the Mediterranean Paratethys and Mediterranean seas, whereas in South America the records are most common along the eastern Pacific coast. Although there is a relatively rich fossil record of Cenozoic fishes from both regions, there is still further need for taxonomic descriptions, and diversity and biogeographic analyses for some groups and regions to better understand diversity patterns in deep time. The general aim of this doctoral thesis thus is to provide new insights into faunal compositions and diversity patterns of Cenozoic fishes from Europe and the eastern Pacific coast of South America in order to contribute to increase the knowledge of the groups. Specifically, I aimed at improving the knowledge of particular taxonomic groups (e.g., eagle rays), time intervals (e.g., early Miocene) and regions (e.g., Paratethys). For the fishes from South America, the results summarize as follows: (1) a new highly diverse assemblage of cartilaginous fishes from the Oligocene/Miocene boundary of Ecuador, including new records from the country, Central Eastern Pacific and South America, (2) the fossil record of early Miocene cartilaginous fishes from Chile was increased from 13 to 21 taxa, including the first oral tooth of a new sawfish species, Pristiophorus humboldti from the Neogene of South America, (3) the biogeographic analysis of the genus Heterodontus suggests that its current extirpation from southern Peru and Chile, probably was caused by oceanographic, tectono-eustatic and ecological changes that occurred in the region during the Pliocene-Pleistocene transition, (4) the dominance of juveniles of the white shark Carcharodon carcharias and the particular paleoenvironmental conditions of the Coquimbo Formation (Chile) are interpreted as criteria used to define the first nursery area of this shark species in the fossil record, (5) the eagle rays, Aetomylaeus, from the Neogene of Chile and Peru is described in detail based on morphological analyses of their dental plates and their diagnostic characters are defined to avoid future taxonomic problems, (6) a fossil specimen of the sawshark Pliotrema is presented for the first time from the Neogene of the south-eastern Pacific (Chile), (7) Neogene fossil remains of bony fishes are described from the Bahia Inglesa Formation Chile, the material is preliminary assigned to one species, six genera, three families and one subfamily. In the case of the Miocene European fishes, the results summarize as follows: (1) 26 sharks and 11 batoids are described from the early Miocene of the Auwiesholz Member of the Achen Formation in the Simsee area, southern Germany. The identified fauna shows different biogeographic dynamics, probably related to the climatic, oceanographic and tectonic events that occurred during the early Miocene, (2) the Neogene fossil record of chondrichthyans from Europe is summarized for the first time based on an exhaustive literature review and complemented with data downloaded from online repositories and museum online collections databases. The preliminary results of this study show that up to 27% of chondrichthyan genera from Europe are globally extinct, whereas 56% are regionally extinct. The increase of the genus richness and the origination pulses observed through the time is mainly related to climatic warming events, whereas the extinction pulse relates to climatic cooling events that occurred at regional and global scales during the Neogene. New methodological approaches are necessary to be used in the future to test the consistency of these preliminary interpretations.
... Van den Bosch, 1978;Steurbaut & Herman, 1978;Van den Bosch, 1980;Baut & Génault, 1999;Reinecke et al., 2001;Génault, 2012;Herman et al., 2013;Baut et al., 2021) and the Chattian (e.g. Reinecke et al., 2005Reinecke et al., , 2014Haye et al., 2008). The Eocene-Oligocene transition was characterized by global cooling and Antarctic glaciation (Hutchinson et al., 2020). ...
Article
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Mustelus is a problematic genus in palaeoichthyology. Due to the scarcity of fossil teeth, relative homogeneity in tooth morphology and the lack of published extant dentitions, the early history of smooth-hound sharks remains poorly understood. Recently, two teeth were collected in the Tortonian Deurne Member (Diest Formation) near Antwerp (Belgium). Surprisingly, a detailed SEM-based comparison with the extant North-Eastern Atlantic species (Mustelus mustelus, Mustelus asterias, Mustelus punctulatus) allowed assigning the fossil teeth to Mustelus aff. punctulatus. Today, this species is largely restricted to the Mediterranean and lies at the very base of the placental Mustelus clade evolution. Until now, this species remained unrecognized in the existing fossil record. By (re)evaluating isolated teeth from other upper Miocene localities in the southern North Sea Basin, the existence of a widely distributed population of Mustelus aff. punctulatus for the late Serravallian and the Tortonian can now be postulated. Thereafter, the species disappeared from the North Sea. Until today, no single record of Mustelus punctulatus is known from the Mediterranean predating the Messinian Salinity Crisis. Therefore, it is hypothesized that the current populations have their origin in southward migration from northern, Atlantic populations, and this probably after the “Zanclean Flooding”.
... rinchus komt tot op heden nog steeds voor, haar vroegste verschijning situeren we in het laat-oligocene Chattiaan (Reinecke et al., 2014). ...
Article
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(INFORMAL ABSTRACT) The discovery of a tooth of the little known lamniform species 'Isurus' flandricus (Leriche, 1910) from the Berg Member (Rupelian) near Vliermaal (Limburg, Belgium) is reported. An extensive literature study was carried out, presenting different points of view regarding the genus of this species, which is still the subject of discussion. Possibly, 'Isurus' flandricus consists of several species that cannot be distinguished yet. It is suggested that special attention should be paid to UA3 teeth in the future, especially whether the broad (Carcharodon-type) or narrow morphology (Isurus-type) can be recognized.
... Synonymies and nomina dubia are unclear or not detailed, and the systematics of the family requires a detailed revision. As an example, although Hexanchus agassizi (Eocene-Oligocene) closely resembles Hexanchus microdon (Late Cretaceous-early Eocene), and these two species are difficult to separate (Ward 1979;Reinecke et al. 2014), currently both are widely regarded as valid species. Adnet (2006) briefly examined Palaeocene-Eocene Hexanchus teeth worldwide and suggested that most of early and middle Eocene specimens can be attributed to H. agassizi and not to several contemporaneous species. ...
Article
The first results of the investigation of the Late Jurassic (Kimmeridgian–early Tithonian) fish fauna from the fossil-rich Pálihálás Limestone Formation (“Long trench”, Eperkés-hegy, Olaszfalu, Hungary) are detailed here. The present study provides the first systematic faunal data of a Jurassic marine fish community from the Transdanubian Mountains. The low-diversity neoselachian fauna includes Notidanodon sp., Sphenodus sp., and indeterminate synechodontiform, possible indeterminate scyliorhinids, and further, yet indeterminate forms. Actinopterygians are represented by Caturus sp. and indeterminate actinopterygian teeth and scales. The Olaszfalu hexanchid is the most similar to Notidanodon lanceolatus; however, specific determination is not possible. The Olaszfalu record is the second Jurassic (and also the earliest) report of the genus Notidanodon, which re-dates the earliest occurrence of Hexanchidae back into the boundary of the Kimmeridgian–early Tithonian.
... The only fossil skeletal material comes from the Santonian of Lebanon and belongs to Hexanchus gracilis Davis (1887); otherwise members of this genus are exclusively known by isolated teeth. So far, seven fossil species have been described: H. gracilis Davis (1887) Cappetta, 1990;Davis, 1887;Ward, 2014, 2015;Adolfssen et al., 2017;Reinecke et al., 2014;Adnet, 2000Adnet, , 2006Zhelezko and Kozlov, 1999;Takakuwa, 2006). Cione and Reguero (1994) presented the first record of Hexanchus from the Eocene of Antarctica, which is the southern-most occurrence. ...
Article
Rare remains of predominantly deep-water sharks of the families Hexanchidae, Squalidae, Dalatidae, Centrophoridae, and Squatinidae are described from the Eocene La Meseta Formation, Seymour Island, Antarctic Peninsula, which has yielded the most abundant chondrichthyan assemblage from the Southern Hemisphere to date. Previously described representatives of Hexanchus sp., Squalus weltoni, Squalus woodburnei, Centrophorus sp., and Squatina sp. are confirmed and dental variations are documented. Although the teeth of Squatina differ from other Palaeogene squatinid species we refrain from introducing a new species. A new daliatid taxon, Eodalatias austrinalis gen. et sp. nov. is described. This new material not only increases the diversity of Eocene Antarctic elasmobranchs but also allows assuming that favourable deep-water habitats were available in the Eocene Antarctic Ocean off Antarctica in the Eocene. The occurrences of deep-water inhabitants in shallow, near-coastal waters of the Antarctic Peninsula agrees well with extant distribution patterns.
Article
In this study we describe a new kitefin shark (Dalatiidae) genus and species Dracipinna bracheri gen. et sp. nov. based on upper Oligocene and lower Miocene tooth fossils. The teeth were excavated at three different sites which all lie in transgression phases. The fossil shark teeth are diverse and, depending on the excavation site, indicate pelagic to mesopelagic habitats. As these fossils were not found in older or younger sediments, we suggest a patchy distribution of the species. The fossils show several dental morphological characteristics of extant Dalatiidae. Phylogenetic analyses of combined morphological and DNA sequence-based data set suggest a weakly supported sister-group relationship of D. bracheri to extant Dalatiidae. Based on the dental morphological characters, we assign the dentition to a tearing type, which is rare among squaliform sharks and only known from a single extant species with a pelagic lifestyle. http://zoobank.org/urn:lsid:zoobank.org:pub:D4E3C807-8BEE-47EA-8DCA-6C8720ACAD0F
Article
A new Middle Miocene (Langhian – early Serravallian) assemblage with shark and ray teeth from Nyirád (Hungary, Transdanubia, Veszprém County) consists of nine families, with 15 different species. The assemblage shares many common genera with other Middle Miocene assemblages in the Paratethys (Notorynchus, Carcharias, Otodus, Cosmopolitodus, Hemipristis, Galeocerdo, Carcharhinus, and Aetobatus), and reflects a subtropical climate and a close connection with the Mediterranean Sea. However, a detailed faunal compilation of Miocene selachians reveals that several taxa that were still present in the Mediterranean or lived in the Paratethys during the Lower Miocene disappeared or became very rare by the Middle Miocene in the Central Paratethys (e.g., Isistius, Centrophorus, Mitsukurina, Carcharoides, Parotodus, Alopias). The taxa that went locally extinct in the Paratethys are mainly represented by deep-water or pelagic forms. Their disappearance is most probably related to the gradual separation of the Paratethys from the Mediterranean. The common presence of some large, rather pelagic sharks (e.g., Otodus, Cosmopolitodus) in the Central Paratethys during the Middle Miocene is explained here by the widespread occurrence of their potential prey represented by marine mammals (e.g., whales and dolphins).
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