Article

Teaching as a Profession in Zimbabwe: Are Teachers Facing a Motivation Crisis?

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Abstract

This study sought to investigate why Zimbabwean teachers seem demotivated in teaching as a profession and how the possible challenges could be addressed. A sample of 62 (32 male, 30 female) primary school teachers on the Bachelor of Education–in–Service programme in the Faculty of Education at a University in Zimbabwe was used in this study. A self–admin-istered questionnaire was used to collect the data. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics. The study found that both male and female teachers raised the following factors/issues and challenges: poor salaries, poor working conditions, poor accommoda-tion, lack of respect, political harassment/victimisation, overworking, the HIV/AIDS pandemic, absence of refresher courses, teachers not trained to cater for special needs children, and incompetency in terms of technological advancement. Among other issues, these challenges have resulted in low morale, poor delivery and brain drain in the education sector. There is a need for the Zimbabwean government to restore the dignity of the teacher through respect, better salaries and improved services.

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... As already mentioned in the introduction to this chapter, the teaching profession is key for any nation's future. Teachers mould every professional be it a nurse, engineer or pilot (Chireshe & Shumba, 2011). They play a central role in the quality of education students receive (Armstrong, 2009). ...
... They play a central role in the quality of education students receive (Armstrong, 2009). Dike (2009) andOlolude (2006) cited by Chireshe and Shumba (2011) argue that the teacher is the most important factor in determining the quality of education that children receive in schools. The teachers are the central players in education. ...
... Teacher motivation is an issue synonymous with the school system (Ofoegbu, 2004). Teacher motivation and morale has been found to be low in many countries such as Ghana, Lesotho, Kenya, Tanzania, Namibia, Malawi, Mozambique, Sierra Leone, Nigeria, Uganda, Zambia, Bangladesh, India, Zimbabwe, Scotland and USA (VSO, 2002b;Bennell, 2004;Adelabu, 2005;Kadzimira, 2006;Kayuni & Tambulasi, 2007;Chireshe & Shumba, 2011;Naong, 2011). In South Africa, teacher motivation is also low (Moloi, 2003;Steyn 2002) We have attempted to explain the tenets of motivation earlier on. ...
... Even so, the teaching profession in Zimbabwe is beset with never ending challenges and problems. The challenges inherent in the teaching profession, especially in Zimbabwe, are poor working and living conditions (Chireshe & Shumba, 2011). With such challenges prevalent in teaching, it is surprising that people continue to join teaching. ...
... Currently, newspaper reports state that the economy in the country is worse off as compared to the period of the GNU and the picture looks gloomy (Rusvingo, 2014). Research done in the area of education claims that some teachers are leaving their professions for greener pastures elsewhere outside the country (Chireshe & Shumba, 2011). While this is happening, there are some people who joined teaching when others were leaving. ...
... To begin with, there are some traditional challenges, written about for a long time, in the education sector and in teacher experience in particular. Studies done in Zimbabwe have shown that teachers felt demotivated to execute their duties due to lack of resources, lack of respect, poor working and living conditions, political harassment or victimization, incompetent use of technology, and lack of refresher courses (Chireshe & Shumba, 2011;Mareva, Gonye & Rubaya, 2013;Zvavahera, 2014). As these challenges have been discussed in other research, this study will focus on the new challenges teachers face in Zimbabwe as pointed out by recent literature. ...
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There are various reasons why people the world over join teaching, but there is limited literature exploring the reasons people joining teaching in Zimbabwe. The study was done at a secondary rural boarding school in the Midlands province of Zimbabwe. The purpose of this case study was to discover and understand why people continue to join teaching when there seem to be inherent problems in the profession. In-depth interviews, as well as document analysis, were used to collect data in this study. The 10 teachers who participated in the study were chosen through purposeful sampling and snowballing techniques and had a mean age of 39.3. The findings of the study were that the teachers joined teaching because of lack of alternatives, poor backgrounds, the need to take care of the family, love teaching and working with the kids, and failure to make the grade. It terms of benefits, the finding was that the only perceived benefit was survival. Professionalization of the profession through increased salaries, lower workload, increased cooperation between parents and schools, and the reintroduction of incentives are some of the recommendations made to encourage people to join and remain in schools.
... A highly skilled teacher produces highly skilled and intelligent students (Dike, 2009;Gwaradzimba Imba, & Shumbe, 2010& Olube, 2006. Highly motivated and satisfied teachers will have the passion and enthusiasm to produce highly motivated students (Ssendagire, 2009;Chireshe & Shumba, 2011). In these favourable working conditions, teachers can perform well and become productive when their well-being is considered and satisfied with their teaching careers. ...
... Teachers are believed to influence students one way or another. The reason for this is that teachers are seen as the determinants of what knowledge and what kind of knowledge or education will be received by students (Dike, 2009, Gwaradzimba et al., 2010, Olube, 2006Chireshe & Shumba, 2011). If that is the case, teachers are human and need motivation and satisfaction to deliver their job successfully. ...
... If that is the case, teachers are human and need motivation and satisfaction to deliver their job successfully. It can be said that a highly motivated or satisfied teacher will have the passion and enthusiasm to produce a highly motivated student (Gwaradzimba & Shumba, 2010;Chireshe & Shumba, 2011). ...
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This research aims to investigate how university students in Malaysia and Oman perceive the teaching profession. It explores their interests in considering teaching as their career in the future. A quantitative approach was used with a sample of 463 participants from Oman and Malaysia to achieve these objectives. For the analysis, confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) through structural equation model (SEM) was applied to create comparative models while examining the similarities and differences between the two countries' models. The models present the leading factors that significantly influenced students’ choices or decisions in pursuing a career in education or teaching. From the findings and models, according to Malaysian participants, teaching workload was found to be the leading factor and the main concern in the field of teaching, while personal growth was the leading factor and concern among Omani participants. Significant recommendations were provided, and this paper has contributed to the global research on the ongoing struggles of what teachers are facing in terms of workload, stress, and professional development, with some implications drawn for future research.
... Employees in the Zimbabwean context have also been experiencing high levels of work stress which can be traced back to the effects of globalisation. Zimbabwe like any other country has not been immune to these global effects (Chireshe & Shumba, 2011;Nhundu, 1999). Other factors that have contributed to work stress within the nation are fi nancial diffi culties which date back to the country's hyper-infl atory environment which saw a signifi cant decline in the gross domestic product of the insurance sector (Nyakazeya, 2011). ...
... Employees of some of the down-sized organisations have been exposed to high work-loads thereby forcing such employees to take work home after hours in an attempt to meet tight deadlines. The result has been unreasonable work demands and these among other factors have strained employees in various ways (Chireshe & Shumba, 2011;Nyakazeya, 2011;Nhundu, 1999). ...
... Most Zimbabweans are facing fi nancial diffi culties which have made them view insurance as a luxury that they cannot afford. Furthermore, insurance companies have reduced their premium rates in an attempt to attract clients resulting in the underwriting of low business (Chireshe & Shumba, 2011). This scenario has been worsened by the fact that insurance companies are fi nding it diffi cult to invest capital due to the unfavourable investment environment. ...
Article
The objective of the study was to determine the relationship between work stress, work-home interference, and perceptions of organisational culture amongst insurance employees in the Zimbabwean context. Data were collected from a sample of 190 employees (females = 46%) who completed the Occupational Stress Inventory-Revised (OSI-R), the Work-Home Interference Questionnaire (SWING), and the Organisational Culture Index (OCI). Data analysis consisted of correlational and standard multiple regression analyses. The results revealed significant positive correlations between the sub-scales Role Overload, Role Insufficiency, Role Ambiguity, Role Boundary, Responsibilities, and Physical Environment of the OSI-R, the sub-scales Positive Work-Home Interference and Negative Work-Home Interference of the SWING, and the sub-scales Bureaucratic, Innovative and Supportive Culture of the OCI. These findings contribute to new knowledge in terms of the work stress experienced by insurance employees who are always under continuous pressure from the industry. Furthermore, it could be used to gain insight to enhance the work-life balance of insurance employees and the effect of organisational culture as perceived by insurance employees.
... While there are a number of Zimbabwean scholars and researchers writing on educational issues on Zimbabwe, the researcher has realized that most of them (Nhundu, 1999;McGregor, 2006;Chireshe & Shumba, 2011) have paid insignificant attention to the current, highly controversial issue of teacher incentive. Yet the issue of teacher incentive has dramatically impacted the lives of many Zimbabweans especially teachers, students and guardians/parents. ...
... Since question framing for in-depth interviews should not be framed in a harp hazard manner, the research was guided by the works of Erik Hofstee. According to Hofstee (2006: 135), August 2012, Vol. 2, No. 8 ISSN: 2222 "background type questions are important when carrying out in-depth interviews and it is also important to keep the interviewee to the topic being discussed, but it can also pay not to be too rigid". Although in-depth interviews have many advantages, the major one is that in in-depth interviews, the interviewees in most cases give you more than what you will have bargained for. ...
... The other method used in collecting data for this study was observation. The researcher observed the behavior of teachers at different stations in the province towards the so-called August 2012, Vol. 2, No. 8 ISSN: 2222 teacher incentive. This was done with the hope to obtain information on the feelings and impacts of teacher incentive on teacher motivation. ...
Article
For some decades, Zimbabwe's public education has been ranked one of the best in Southern Africa, Africa and the world-over. This was chiefly a result of high quality teachers, high quality supervision of examinations adopted from its colonial master (Britain), and good working conditions for education practitioners, among other reasons. This reality, however, has turned the otherwise since the turn of the new millennium and especially in the recent years due to economic meltdown in the country and mass exodus of qualified teachers to 'greener pastures'. Confronted with its deepening and crippling economic levels, the government of Zimbabwe has clearly indicated that it is unable to provide conducive conditions for the practitioners in public education, a situation that resulted in a series of strikes by practitioners which threatened to paralyse all the teaching-learning activities in the country. It is out of this background that the system of incentives to teachers was introduced to augment the meagre salaries earned by teachers so that public education in the country would not face liquidation or total paralysis. Yet, while the introduction of incentives in public education seems to have boosted morale of some teachers, it has deflated that of the majority of the practitioners in the profession. This paper examines the problems and/or impact of teacher incentives on education quality and stakeholders, that is, students, teachers, parents/guardians and the Ministry of Education, Sport, Arts and Culture.
... In this regard, teachers play a critical role in nurturing the minds and hearts of the youth. Almost every professional -be it a nurse, doctor, engineer or pilot -has passed through the hands of a teacher (Chireshe & Shumba, 2011). ...
... A number of studies on teacher professionalism have been carried out in Sub-Sahara Africa, Europe and Asia (Chireshe & Shumba, 2011;Barbara, et al 2011;Wits Education Policy Unit, 2005;Ntando, 2009;Hilferty, 2008). The countries covered by these studies include South Africa, Zimbabwe, Nigeria, Australia, United Kingdom and Japan. ...
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This study examines the factors hampering the professional autonomy of teachers at secondary schools in the Elliotdale Circuit of the Dutywa Education District. Secondary school teachers in the circuit were in constant fear of the loss of their professional autonomy as a result of interference and imposition on their professional duties. A qualitative approach with case study design was employed in the study. Purposive sampling technique was used to select five principals, twelve teachers, two subject advisors and three teacher union representatives. Data collected through face-to-face in-depth individual interviews were analysed thematically. Themes were drawn from the responses of the participants. Findings revealed that strict rules and regulations put in place by the department, the perceptions that teachers would not teach effectively when given professional autonomy, the constant supervision of teachers' work, bureaucracy as a management style, the existence of unqualified teachers, teachers' lack of passion for the profession and the prevalence of politicking and conflicts between the Department of Education and the teacher unions, were some of the factors found to be hampering the professional status of secondary school teachers in the Elliotdale Circuit. Some recommendations were made, these included: the Department of Education should use a democratic and participatory style of management in supervising teachers' work, the departmental officials should have less control over the teachers in relation to the core act of teaching and learning and the Department of Education should forge a working relationship with all the teacher unions in matters relating to teacher professional autonomy.
... Both male and female teachers raised the following factors/issues and challenges: poor salaries, poor working conditions, lack of respect, political harassment, overworking, absence of refresher courses, teachers not trained to cater for special needs children, and incompetency in terms of technological advancement. (Chireshe & Shumba, 2011) [4] . The large number of teachers working in public schools has to travel long distances every day. ...
... Both male and female teachers raised the following factors/issues and challenges: poor salaries, poor working conditions, lack of respect, political harassment, overworking, absence of refresher courses, teachers not trained to cater for special needs children, and incompetency in terms of technological advancement. (Chireshe & Shumba, 2011) [4] . The large number of teachers working in public schools has to travel long distances every day. ...
Article
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Universalization of secondary education became one of the important goals of Indian education system after the achievement of universalization of elementary education. Recently, Rashtriya Madhyamik Shiksha Abhiyan, a centrally sponsored scheme of the Ministry of Human Resource Development, Government of India, launched in the country in 2009 with an objective of providing universal secondary education in all government schools throughout the country. But during the implementation of this abhiyan, a number of difficulties were being faced by functionaries like CEOs, Heads, Teachers and SMDCs. Thus, the present paper is a genuine attempt to know difficulties faced by teachers during the implementation of Rashtriya Madhyamik Shiksha Abhiyan (RMSA) and to suggest some remedial measures. Descriptive Survey Method was used and the sample constituted 150 teachers of 30 Government secondary schools of three districts-Jammu, Kathua and Samba. A self developed Questionnaire was administered.The findings revealed that the difficulties considered as most important by teachers were-delay in receiving the School grants; duration of teacher training is not adequate as per the requirement; non-teaching work hampers the teaching responsibilities; lack of health services and first aids facility in school; no proper monitoring of In-service teacher training programmes etc.
... Put in another way, understanding employee job satisfaction is important for the transformation of performance and productivity in an institution. Job satisfaction of employees at higher learning institutions in Masvingo Province was surveyed basically to determine whether employees were satisfied or dissatisfied with their jobs at a time when media and research reports indicated that many dissatisfied skilled personnel were emigrating to neighbouring countries for better economic fortunes (Gwaradzimba and Shumba 2010;Chireshe and Shumba 2011). ...
... The finding that the sources of employee dissatisfaction with their jobs had to do with working conditions and remuneration packages echo the findings of Oyedeji (1995) and Ololube (2006), which revealed several job related factors as sources of university employees' dissatisfaction with their jobs. The working conditions and salaries of the participants in this present study like that of other civil servants in Zimbabwe were reported to be very low and demotivating (Chireshe and Shumba 2011). Some of the employees were contemplating leaving for greener pastures. ...
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The study investigated job satisfaction among employees of higher education institutions. One hundred and fifty academic and non-academic staff (male=75; female=75; age range: 24 to 54) participated in the study. A group-administered questionnaire was used to collect data. Data was analysed using descriptive statistics. The study found that few (69) employees were satisfied with their jobs. Of these, more female than male and younger than older employees reported that they were satisfied with their jobs. In addition, job sat isfaction decreased with a rise in academic qualifications. Further research should investigate the nature and magnitude of the influence of gender, age and educational level on job satisfaction among employees.
... Thus, ways to increase teacher motivation and capabilities can be assumed to be central to any systematic attempt to improve learning outcomes. Likewise, Chireshe and Shumba (2011) state that a motivated teacher leads to motivated students and good performance. Conversely, teachers who are not motivated to teach or are not satisfied with their career can impact negatively on student learning and the schools (Mendel, 1980). ...
... 181 The findings showed that the issues of salary and missing link between performance and reward were the biggest motivational challenge for teaching and participation in professional development in Ethiopia. The finding affirmed previous studies (see , Bennell, 2004;Adelabu, 2005;Mulkeen et al., 2007;Rasheed, Aslam &Sarwar, 2010;Chireshe & Shumba, 2011) conducted in developing countries that state low salary as a reason behind demotivation of teachers. The authors have stated that teachers are highly dissatisfied with their remuneration which resulted in low morale and thus poor performance among teachers. ...
Article
Teachers' work, learning, and professional development are central to any effort aiming at improving schools. Consequently, teachers must consider themselves as a lifelong learner, engage in continuous professional learning and apply that learning to improve student learning and achievement. This article explores teachers' motivation for teaching and professional development in secondary schools in Ethiopia. Data were collected via interviews and focus group discussions from 32 teachers. The analysis of the collected information revealed low salary and the absence of link between performance and reward as major motivational challenges for teachers. The identified motivational challenges were explained from the viewpoint of different motivational theories.
... Both male and female teachers raised the following factors/issues and challenges: poor salaries, poor working conditions, lack of respect, political harassment, overworking, absence of refresher courses, teachers not trained to cater for special needs children, and incompetency in terms of technological advancement. (Chireshe & Shumba, 2011) [4] . The large number of teachers working in public schools has to travel long distances every day. ...
... Both male and female teachers raised the following factors/issues and challenges: poor salaries, poor working conditions, lack of respect, political harassment, overworking, absence of refresher courses, teachers not trained to cater for special needs children, and incompetency in terms of technological advancement. (Chireshe & Shumba, 2011) [4] . The large number of teachers working in public schools has to travel long distances every day. ...
Article
Universalization of secondary education became one of the important goals of Indian education system after the achievement of universalization of elementary education. Recently, Rashtriya Madhyamik Shiksha Abhiyan, a centrally sponsored scheme of the Ministry of Human Resource Development, Government of India, launched in the country in 2009 with an objective of providing universal secondary education in all government schools throughout the country. But during the implementation of this abhiyan, a number of difficulties were being faced by functionaries like CEOs, Heads, Teachers and SMDCs. Thus, the present paper is a genuine attempt to know difficulties faced by teachers during the implementation of Rashtriya Madhyamik Shiksha Abhiyan (RMSA) and to suggest some remedial measures. Descriptive Survey Method was used and the sample constituted 150 teachers of 30 Government secondary schools of three districts-Jammu, Kathua and Samba. A self developed Questionnaire was administered.The findings revealed that the difficulties considered as most important by teachers were-delay in receiving the School grants; duration of teacher training is not adequate as per the requirement; non-teaching work hampers the teaching responsibilities; lack of health services and first aids facility in school; no proper monitoring of In-service teacher training programmes etc.
... Eggers and Calegari (2011) confirmed that teacher salaries were low compared to other jobs that required either college training or a degree. This was reiterated by Chireshe and Shumba (2011) and Gomba (2015), who further concluded that teachers in Zimbabwe were frustrated by low salaries in this hyperinflationary economy. It appears that teachers in Zimbabwe feel shortchanged (Taruvinga, 2018) and therefore frustrated into taking industrial action against ZimGov's salary policy, which does not fairly reflect teacher input. ...
... Similarly, another related study was conducted by Chireshe and Shumba (2011), which investigated reasons for Zimbabwean teachers' low motivation and how the possible challenges could be addressed. Their results revealed that both male and female teachers were stressed and their stressors included poor salaries, poor working conditions, poor accommodation and lack of respect among other stressors. ...
Article
This study sought to establish perceptions of block- release program students on the causes and effects of stress. A qualitative approach and a case study design were adopted. Sixty-three participants, (30 female and 33 male) doing a Master of Education degree in Psychology, at a state university in Zimbabwe were purposefully selected to participate in the study. Data were collected using an open-ended, self-administered questionnaire and were thematically analysed. Results for the study indicated that block- release students perceived themselves as experiencing stress. The perceived stressors were revealed as, shortage of accommodation, shortage of learning resources, packed time-tables, and work-overload. The effects of stress were revealed as academic failure, poor quality assignments, immorality, violence, insomnia and persistent headaches. Recommendations were made.
... In slums and low-income areas of sub-Saharan Africa children typically attend schools where rote learning is the order of the day (Dixon, Humble & Counihan, 2015;Hoadley, 2012;Nomlomo & Vuzo, 2014;Tabulawa, 2013). Rote learning and teaching to the test make it easier for government schoolteachers who have, in the main, become demotivated and removed from their educationalist roles and responsibilities (Chireshe & Shumba, 2011;Kremer, Muralidharan, Chaudhury, Hammer & Halsey Rogers, 2006;Tooley, 2009). School learners are unaccustomed to being asked to use their imagination and think differently to others. ...
Article
This study was carried out with 1,857 poor children from 17 schools, living in low-income areas of Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania. All children took the ‘Student Multiple Intelligences Profile’ (SMIP) questionnaire as part of a bigger project that gathered data around concepts and beliefs of talent. This paper sets out two aims, first to investigate the structural representation of the self perceived multiple intelligences for this set of children and second to discuss how the best fit model might reflect children’s culture and their school experiences. After carrying out exploratory factor analysis, a four factor first order model was shown to have a good fit. A higher order factor solution was investigated owing to the correlation of two latent constructs. In order to provide some insight into the multiple intelligences construct the relationship between the SMIP items, student test outcomes and attitudes to learning were examined. The item groupings were explored through African cultural beliefs around intelligences indigenous to African communities.
... Unattractive working conditions have been reported in Africa as reasons why people do not want to be teachers, for example, perceived low salary, unattractive work locations, and unprofessional treatment of teachers ( Mulkeen et al., 2007). Low salaries and poor working conditions are the main reasons pushing out potential candidates from teaching profession in Zimbabwe ( Chireshe and Shumba, 2011;Marist International Solidarity Foundation, 2011;Chivore, 1988;1986). Teaching in Zimbabwe is attracting few candidates and this has threatened viability of teacher education programmes. ...
... Unattractive working conditions have been reported in Africa, for example, perceived low salary, unattractive work locations, and unprofessional treatment of teachers (Mulkeen et al., 2007). Low salaries and poor working conditions have been reported as the main reasons for pushing out potential teacher candidates in Zimbabwe (Chireshe & Shumba, 2011;Marist International Solidarity Foundation, 2011). It appears student teachers' motives for becoming teachers are determined to some extent by contextual factors. ...
Article
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This study explored identities commonly used in teacher education and student teachers’ motives for becoming a teacher. The qualitative case methodology employed interviews and biographical questionnaires data collection methods. Data was gathered through interviewing student teachers and lecturers. Qualitative data analysis began by defining a priori themes and identifying parts of the interview transcripts that were relevant to these a priori themes. The initial coding was then refined by adding additional codes which emerged from the data to create a final coding template to interpret findings. Data analysis methods revealed that student teachers were motivated to join teaching by chance, important other, remuneration, vocation and interest developed through work experience. However prospective candidates did not get places to train as teachers on the basis of their motivation to become teachers. Further the study revealed that motives influenced “what”, “where”, and “how” student teachers were learning. This study recommends using interviews to establish motives as a way to supplement selection of student teachers.
... According to Bennel and Akyeampong (2007:5) cultivating motivation and capability of teachers are positively associated with learning outcomes in the school. By the same token, Chireshe and Shumba (2011) state that satisfaction of teachers is positively related to motivation of student learning and their school performance. In other words, dissatisfied teachers may be the cause of low motivation of students and low academic achievement in the school. ...
Thesis
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... The victimisation of teachers and unconducive work relations have become common phenomena in some Zimbabwean schools (Kurebwa, Wadesango & Dick, 2014;Chireshe & Shumba, 2011;Erlwanger, 2013;Magudu, 2012. Victimisation as used in this article refers to different forms of force used to get a task done or an element of instilling fear on subordinates to get tasks done. ...
Article
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The article addresses the challenges faced in the implementation of the new curriculum in Zimbabwe. The new curriculum was rolled out in the midst of various trajectories (challenges), such as lack of resources, inadequate teacher preparation and resistance from teachers and parents, among others. We used relational leadership as a theoretical lens, which buttresses a need for school leadership that prioritises relationships within the implementation context. The study was qualitative, with 25 participants chosen through purposeful sampling and snowballing from five different schools in rural Zimbabwe. Data were collected through interviews and a focus group discussion. The data were then analysed using the lens proposed by Laws, Harper and Marcus (2003), where various themes were identified responding to the research questions. The study found that healthy school relations, though overlooked, are very important in the success of any curriculum implementation process and that there is a need for curriculum planners, school heads, teachers and learners to invest in healthy relations underpinned by social justice, emancipation and improvement of school conditions as alternatives to enhance a contested curriculum implementation. © 2018, Western Australian Institute for Educational Research Inc.. All rights reserved.
... The victimisation of teachers and unconducive work relations have become common phenomena in some Zimbabwean schools (Kurebwa, Wadesango & Dick, 2014;Chireshe & Shumba, 2011;Erlwanger, 2013;Magudu, 2012. Victimisation as used in this article refers to different forms of force used to get a task done or an element of instilling fear on subordinates to get tasks done. ...
Article
Full-text available
The article addresses the challenges faced in the implementation of the new curriculum in Zimbabwe. The new curriculum was rolled out in the midst of various trajectories (challenges), such as lack of resources, inadequate teacher preparation and resistance from teachers and parents, among others. We used relational leadership as a theoretical lens, which buttresses a need for school leadership that prioritises relationships within the implementation context. The study was qualitative, with 25 participants chosen through purposeful sampling and snowballing from five different schools in rural Zimbabwe. Data were collected through interviews and a focus group discussion. The data were then analysed using the lens proposed by Laws, Harper and Marcus (2003), where various themes were identified responding to the research questions. The study found that healthy school relations, though overlooked, are very important in the success of any curriculum implementation process and that there is a need for curriculum planners, school heads, teachers and learners to invest in healthy relations underpinned by social justice, emancipation and improvement of school conditions as alternatives to enhance a contested curriculum implementation.
... In Nigeria, teachers who were unhappy with their conditions of service were less motivated, which had a direct result on student academic performance (Adeyinka, Asabi, & Adedotun, 2013). A study conducted in Ghana found a statistically significant link between teacher motivation and the delivery of quality education (Akuoko, Dwumah, & Baba, 2012), and the majority of both male and female teachers in a study conducted in Zimbabwe agreed that the challenges faced by teachers were demotivating and thus led to poor academic results among students (Chireshe & Shumba, 2011). These findings are important because efforts to foster teacher behavior change are typically directly linked to a desire to improve student learning outcomes. ...
... The centrality of a motivated teacher in providing good quality teaching has been researched extensively as a worldwide issue (Chireshe & Shumba 2011;Griffin 2010;Legotlo 2014;Kayuni & Tambulasi 2007;Steyn 2002;Urwick et al. 2005). Although motivated teachers play a central role in the quality of education that learners receive, research has found that many teachers around the world lack motivation to perform their duties due to various reasons, one of which relates to inadequate incentive (Armstrong 2009:24;Legotlo 2014:132;Urwick et al. 2005:132). ...
Thesis
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One of the challenges facing education systems worldwide is the motivation of qualified teachers to teach at rural schools. Teaching at rural schools is a challenge as rural areas are characterised by adverse living and working conditions, making qualified teachers prefer living and working at urban schools where conditions are more comfortable. Namibia implemented the financial incentive to motivate qualified teachers to teach at rural schools and improve learner performance. The implementation of the financial incentive in Namibia has received little research attention in establishing its effectiveness. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the financial incentive on the performance of learners at rural schools, as this performance relates to teacher motivation. To achieve this, a literature study and an empirical investigation were conducted. An interpretivist research paradigm informed the methodology for the study. A mixed-methods research approach, which relied more on a qualitative research design, included a research sample of 28 teachers, five school principals and two education officials. Data were collected through interviews and document analysis. Individual interviews were conducted with education officials and school principals. Focus group interviews were conducted with teachers. Document analysis entailed accessing applicable documents of each research site in the office of the school principal. Textual data were analysed and presented thematically and numeric data were analysed and presented as frequencies and percentages. Key findings established that financial incentive has contributed little to the performance of learners in rural schools. The fact that rural schools are not properly categorised according to environmental challenges results in teachers not receiving realistic financial incentive. Teachers were therefore not motivated by financial incentive, but by other factors relating to being tuned to nature in rural areas, being exposed to lower living costs and enjoying accommodating school leadership and community care. A revisiting of the implementation of the financial incentive is recommended in order to negate shortcomings and enhance the potential of financial incentive to contribute to improved learner performance as steered by motivated teachers.
... Motivation can profoundly shape teachers' ultimate performance (Armstrong, 2009;Robert, Bullough & Hall-Kenyon, 2012;Legotlo, 2014;Urwick, Mapuru & Nkoboti, 2005). The necessity to focus attention on teacher motivation is premised on the recognition that teachers play an important role in the learning process of learners as role models (Chireshe & Shumba, 2011;Griffin, 2010;Kayuni & Tambulasi, 2007;Legotlo, 2014;Steyn, 2002;Urwick, Mapuru & Nkoboti, 2005). ...
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Teacher motivation is an integral part of the success of the teaching and learning processes. The purpose of this study was to establish the factors underlying teacher recruitment, motivation and retention within a rural context. A case study design was employed as a methodology for the study. The collected data was analysed by establishing themes and emerging categories. The study established that teachers at rural schools were motivated by crucial work-related factors which were both intrinsic and extrinsic in nature. Employment opportunities, family background, leadership, rural environment and support services were some of the major factors motivating teacher to be recruited and retained with rural school teaching. The study recommended that school leaders should acquire a holistic understanding of the diverse factors motivating teachers, so that they can nurture these factors and motivate teachers appropriately. This will ensure that rural schools remains with motivated teaching personnel for improved performance.
... The researchers found out that teachers put more value on intrinsic aspects of their job, and that there was a positive relation between intrinsic and extrinsic rewards, and job satisfaction. Chireshe and Shumba (2011) investigated the reasons behind Zimbabwean teachers" demotivation in teaching as a profession and how the existing challenges could be addressed. Their sample consisted of 62 male and female primary school in-service teachers. ...
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Teacher motivation is of paramount importance to the growth of any education system. Despite its significance, the topic has been largely overlooked at the expense of learner motivation research. To further investigate the issue, a questionnaire was developed to find the status of teacher (de)motivation and its underlying components within the Iranian context. The survey also examined the difference between male versus female, and English language versus non-English subject teachers in terms of their (de)motivation. The participants consisted of 509 secondary school teachers from 18 Iranian cities. The questionnaire content was grounded on a focus-group interview as well as a number of extant need-based motivational theories. Upon data collection, a Principal Components Analysis was conducted to identify the minimally optimum items of the so-called 'need-based teacher motivation inventory' (NTMI). The findings underscored English teachers" low motivation, suggesting that secondary school English teachers were less dissatisfied with their school administration and colleagues, the work environment, and the job itself. However, they felt demotivated by meagre earnings, inequity in payment, lack of autonomy and recognition, poor contribution to decision-makings, inadequacy of in-service training programs, unfair opportunities for promotion, non-standard teacher evaluation criteria, and unappealing instructional materials. The results also showed no difference between female teachers and their male counterparts. Nevertheless, English-subject teachers were found to be less motivated. Iranian Ministry of Education seems to be in desperate need of restoring the dignity of its staff through investing in improved services, reasonable payment, and imparting the recognition that teachers deserve.
... Essential needs which should constitute their working conditions comprise housing, energy, nutrition, clothing, healthcare, education, potable water, childcare, transportation and savings (Alonge et al., 2020;Drusilla et al., 2004;Nhundu, 1999). Such working conditions if conducive enhance the teacher's productivity and job commitment (Alonge et al., 2020;Chireshe & Shumba, 2011). ...
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Orientation: For Zimbabwean schools to deliver quality education in this competitive and hyperinflationary environment, teachers must be paid a living wage, which is commensurate with their noble profession to spruce up their public image and retain the best. Research purpose: The research established the Zimbabwean urban teachers’ working conditions, which affected their job performance and proffered remedies. Motivation for the study: Schools with favourable working conditions attracted, developed and retained highly qualified, experienced and effective teachers. The opposite resulted in low productivity, high turnover, absenteeism, moonlighting, job hopping and attrition. Research approach/design and method: A qualitative approach informed by a constructivist grounded theory was used. Sixteen experienced teachers and four education managers had their lived experiences on the phenomenon under investigation interrogated as experienced in Bulawayo Metropolitan Province (BMP). Main findings: The findings suggested that the improvement of the teachers’ working conditions enhanced their job performance. Teachers bemoaned the low remunerations that could not meet their basic physiological needs, which were fundamental in enhancing their job performance. They also claimed that the teacher to learner ratio and curriculum demands overworked them amid the scarcity of resources. Sponsored career development opportunities were unavailable. Practical/managerial implications: Improving the working conditions of teachers would not only enhance their job performance but also reduce high turnover, attrition rate and moonlighting, which has become a malaise in Zimbabwean schools. Contributions/value-add: The study revealed that improving the remuneration for teachers has a domino effect on their poor working conditions. Keywords: job performance; teacher burnout; teachers’ working conditions; motivational; factors; turnover.
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Post-2005 migration movements from Zimbabwe to South Africa have included a growing number of children. These children face considerable difficulties in accessing the South African educational system. School attendance rates are significantly lower amongst migrant than South African children. This paper is based on recent interviews with Zimbabwean parents and guardians in Cape Town and Johannesburg and shows the levels and types of discrimination they and their children face as well as their powerlessness to effect change. The exclusion of migrant children from education contravenes South Africa’s international human rights obligations as well as its own Bill of Rights and Department of Education directives. The Department of Home Affairs, however, makes schools sites for the enforcement of the draconian provisions of the 2002 Immigration Act. School authorities therefore operate with conflicting mandates. The evidence suggests that most prefer to side with the Department of Home Affairs and make their schools unwelcoming spaces for Zimbabwean children.
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This paper contributes to the debate on the role played by the political crisis in Zimbabwe in causing teacher migration to South Africa in the presence of other social and economic drivers. The paper uses data collected through a questionnaire self-administered by 100 Zimbabwean teachers in South Africa (migrants) and another 100 in Zimbabwe (non-migrants). In-depth interviews with a few migrant teachers were used to supplement these data. Although it was the second most mentioned reason for the teachers' migration to South Africa, the role played by political violence or repression in Zimbabwe in causing this migration should not be downplayed. Most migrant teachers came from Zimbabwean schools affected by political violence to a large extent before or after the 2008 presidential elections, especially rural areas. Teachers that held positions or distributed opposition party regalia were mostly displaced by violence. There is an urgent need for political transformation to more democratic rule in Zimbabwe.
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The education system in Zimbabwe continues to face a shortage of qualified teachers especially in high schools where a bigger proportion of the teachers are holders of first degrees but who lack professional teaching qualifications. Yet there is a perceived general unwillingness by uncertified graduate teachers to invest in attaining professional teaching qualifications. The objective of the study was to find the determinants of willingness by uncertified graduate teachers to acquire professional teaching qualifications. Cross-sectional data were collected from a sample of 87 uncertified graduate teachers selected from a multi-stage cluster sample of high schools. A logit model of possible determinants was estimated. The study found that the majority of high school uncertified graduate teachers were unwilling to train as professional teachers. It was concluded that age, gender, type of degree, cost of training, remuneration, and the desire to work with children are statistically significant determinants of willingness to train as professional teachers. The study recommends that the government should make the teaching profession more attractive by making the remuneration of teachers competitive and comparable to those of other professions. Pay differences between certified and uncertified graduate teachers should be substantially different. The government should also make the cost of training affordable by offering financial assistance to those teachers who intend to train as professional teachers.
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Previous research suggests that student–teachers graduate from initial teacher education programmes with varying degrees of motivation to teach. In recent literature, there are student–teachers described to be ambivalent regarding motivation for teaching. More understanding about these cases will inform the design of initial teacher education programmes and the provision of measures to support beginning teachers. Moreover, in-depth research is required such that the meaning of ambivalence regarding motivation for teaching can be better defined. This article reports findings from a 4-year longitudinal study on student–teachers engaged in an initial teacher education programme. Cases showing ambivalence regarding motivation for teaching are identified. The article provides the meaning of ambivalence and analyses the programme experience of student–teachers who are ambivalent regarding teaching. The findings inform us as to whether ambivalence changes at the beginning, the end and/or during the teacher education programme, and the factors affecting the perceptions of ambivalence. The factors are concern about career prospects; lack of confidence in their ability to fulfil the role of a teacher; and influence from the social context. The analysis suggests that ambivalence regarding motivation to teach needs to be addressed beyond the initial teacher education programme level. Implications for ways to build up student–teachers’ confidence and enhance their motivation for teaching are discussed.
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In brief we examined Early Childhood Education in the participating African Union countries on the basis of expansion, enrolment, teachers, rural, and gender distribution. In the last three decades, Early Childhood Education has undergone tremendous changes in terms of growth and development. More schools for Early Childhood Education have been constructed in villages, rural and urban areas. Such construction has been in response to the demand of the people for such provision. The sample consisted of 15 African Union countries linguistically using Arabic, English and French. The data collected was based on a questionnaire administered to senior officials in the Department/Ministry of Education in each one of the participating countries. In addition, documents were solicited from the Departments for statistical purposes. DOI: 10.5901/mjss.2014.v5n20p1403
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The study explored the factors that impact negatively on teacher motivation as regards the implementation of what they learn at Continuing Professional Development (CPD) programmes. The research was conducted in Zomba Rural Education District in Malawi and focussed on primary school teachers. The study used a qualitative research design and collected data through focus group discussions, interviews and document reviews. The results show that poor allowances that teachers receive during CPD training and poor conditions of service such as salaries, promotions and accommodation for teachers, have contributed to lack of motivation of teachers to effectively implement at classroom level, what they learn at CPD training. This calls for the government and stakeholders in education to seriously look into factors that are de-motivating teachers to implement what they learn from CPD programmes if gains in CPD programmes are to be realized.
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The study is an analysis of views of Primary School teachers in Zomba Rural Education District in Malawi on their preferences as regards the implementation of Continuing Professional Development (CPD) programmes. The concern of the study was that despite the Government of Malawi putting in place structures to facilitate the implementation of Continuing Professional Development for primary school teachers, teachers have not improved their classroom practices. This study used a mixed method design that collected both quantitative and qualitative data through questionnaires, focus group discussions and interviews. In total, 798 teachers, representing 47% of teachers in the district, responded to the questionnaire. The researchers conducted 34 focus group discussions with teachers from various schools and held interviews with 34 head teachers. The study focussed on aspects of CPD implementation such as mode, venue, duration, time of the year, organization, form of recognition, and nature of the CPD programmes. Quantitative data were analysed using a software package known as Statistical Package for Social Scientists (SPSS) while the analysis of the qualitative data involved clustering common themes and writing stories and ranking the responses. The results show a gap between preferences of teachers and the way CPD programmes are implemented in the district. This calls for collaboration between CPD programme organizers and teachers.
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This paper investigates whether pupil’s attainment, attitude and self-confidence are associated with teacher beliefs, experience, school characteristics, background and wealth. Data gathered from 1857 poor children living in Kinondoni, Tanzania included test scores, household data, school and teacher information as well as teacher and peer perceptions. Some results are expected, test scores being significantly and positively correlated, teachers identifying good readers as high ability, and peer and teacher nomination around student ability showing significant levels of concordance. Children from wealthier households are less likely to score higher on tests apart from reading. Teacher experience negatively affects all scores apart from Kiswahili. In general school and teacher factors have a negative affect on children’s self confidence and positive attitude to learning.
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This paper employed a multiple case study design to establish the coping strategies used by early childhood development (ECD) teachers to cope with work-related stress. Unstructured in-depth interviews were used to obtain data from eighteen participants. Data were analysed qualitatively. Findings revealed that teachers draw from different coping mechanisms for sustenance and support in the events of stress. The teachers resorted to improvisation in order to acquire resources; relied on divine intervention from God; drew from external support systems such as the family and the church; and applied physical exertion such as gardening and strolling along the beach as ways to avert and manage stress. It was also found that some teachers resigned themselves to their fate and allowed stress to dominate with little or no alternatives on how to cope or manage stress. It is therefore suggestive that there are evidence-based training and development needs for ECD teachers that will enable them deal with numerous inevitable stress incidences. On the basis of these findings, a number of recommendations have been made.
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This study attempted to identify, describe and compare the sources and levels of stress as well as the coping strategies among teachers in four mainstream schools (n=40; males=20; females=20) and three Special Needs Education schools (n=40; males=20=; females=20) in the Mutare Urban district of Education in Eastern Zimbabwe. The seven schools were conveniently selected. A comparative survey design was used. The respondents were requested to complete a stress diagnostic questionnaire. Respondents were also asked to report on how they coped with stress and what system changes in the Ministry of Education, Sport, Arts and Culture in Zimbabwe could prevent or ameliorate their stress. Cross tabulations were used. The study revealed that both groups of teachers were stressed by perceived lack of government support, lack of resources and heavy workload, and time spent on individual pupils for those in Special Needs Education. Stress levels for the teachers were in general elevated but those of women both in the mainstream and in Special Needs Education were more elevated than those of their male counterparts. Main stress management methods included sharing problems with colleagues, physical exercise, cheering with family and friends. Suggested system-wide improvements to reduce stress included provision of more resources, reduction of class size and better remuneration.
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The political, economic and social challenges in Zimbabwe are well documented. Public schools have been damaged by a shortage of resources, and by a brain drain of teachers. This has led many parents to seek private education for their children but the country’s economic problems mean that they often cannot afford to pay the fees. This demanding context informed the authors’ study of leadership in 12 private schools in Harare and the surrounding area. Individual and focus group interviews were conducted with 19 leaders in these schools. The findings show that most of the schools have experienced significant falls in student numbers, despite cutting fees. This creates a severe management challenge for principals, other leaders and school owners. There have been redundancies at several of the schools, which the leaders find stressful, while salary levels remain modest although still higher than those in the public sector. The infrastructure and facilities are generally good compared to those in the public sector but leaders lament that they cannot be enhanced in the current financial climate. Most of the schools have a distinctive Christian ethos, and a vision to provide the best possible education for their children, but the leaders’ ambitious plans are thwarted by Zimbabwe’s harsh economic realities.
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In a dynamic and multidimensional school context teacher’s opinion about his/her job seems to be of high concern due to beneficial results related to the final produced work. In this study we examine Greek teachers’ attitude towards Herzberg’s “Motivation-Hygiene Theory” which justifies their job dissatisfaction-satisfaction. We specify the degree Greek teachers are satisfied/dissatisfied by their service administration and indicate which factors in Herzberg’s Theory are thought more fulfilled than others or which need more attention so that teachers are improved personally and professionally. Participants demonstrate a moderate to a negative attitude regarding their service potential to deploy teachers as human resource while almost half of them believe that school displays motivation elements but it is not able to use these elements for the benefit of school-work produced and teachers themselves. Administration exhibits a partial fulfillment or relative inefficiency to satisfy Herzberg’s factors deteriorating dissatisfaction and enhancing job satisfaction. Skiadas, G. (2020). Motivation - Hygiene Theory: Greek teacher’s attitude towards maintenance factors and motivators in school environment. Scientific Educational Journal “educ@tional circle”8,(1),19-37
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The concept of the inclusive program is an organized according to the ability and needs of students with the aim of learners to be successful and can optimize the potential within themselves. Currently, the inclusive program is newly embodied in formal education programs such as elementary, junior, and senior high schools. The current problem does not clear the maturity of the concept of the inclusive education program in non-formal education, especially in non-formal of early childhood education. This study aims to find out how the assessment process done by teachers in Bunayya Islamic preschooler finding out the source of learning needs such as students with special needs. The research method used is the qualitative method by using triangulation of subject, time, and place. The result of this research show that Bunayya Islamic preschooler make an initiative to create their own learning concepts without technical guidance such as inclusive curriculum development and lesson plans. Bunayya Islamic preschooler runs the learning program by planning, implementing and evaluating the needs of learning resources of children with special needs. The conclusion of this study are the teacher performs several steps such as the identification of special needs children, pre-qualification priorities and the development of the learning curriculum to adopted the learning interpretation and alternative program for preschoolers and parent’s concepts
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With pupil-qualified teacher ratios averaging 78:1 and high teacher turnover, the primary education system in Malawi urgently needs to retain teachers. This paper draws from an ethnographic study of teacher experiences to examine how and why teachers planned to leave primary teaching despite limited opportunities to do so. Engaging the sociological concept of boundary work, I argue that “aspiring to leave teaching” was a resource primary teachers used to distance themselves from a profession with low status and minimal growth prospects. This paper stresses the need for robust teacher support systems in order for governments to achieve education for all.
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In a study involving 67 veteran New York City teachers five occupational coping scales were constructed: advice seeking, positive comparisons, selective ignoring, discipline and direct action. Multiple regression analyses with controls for social-demographic factors and adversity in the job environment indicated that advice seeking and direct action were most consistently related to lower (depressive and psychophysiologic) symptom levels and that positive comparisons and direct action were most consistently related to higher morale (job satisfaction and motivation to continue in the profession). Selective ignoring appeared to buffer the impact of adverse work environments on symptoms. The results suggest that teaching may constitute an occupational role which is an exception to Pearlin & Schooler's (1978) more general findings on the lack of efficacy of work-related coping behaviours.
Conference Paper
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According to recent international research, Special Educational Needs (SEN) teachers serve one of the most stressful occupations. Special working conditions such as the high ratio of teachers and pupils, the limited progress due to the various problems of the pupils with special needs and the high workload exert an additional psychological pressure on the personality and the work performance of SEN teachers. The aim of this study was to investigate the specific sources of stress which make the work of Greek SEN teachers especially demanding and the specific mechanisms that they use to cope with this stress. Since there was no relevant previous research in Greece, the specific sources of stress were constructed after in-depth interviews and a review of the pertinent international literature. Questionnaires were administered to a representative sample of SEN teachers of special classes and special schools across Greece. The findings will be discussed in reference to current educational practice and suggestions for intervention will be given. It is envisaged that the identification of the specific sources of stress will shed some light into the problems of SEN teachers that make their job particularly difficult.
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Significantly, job satisfaction and motivation are very essential to the continuing growth of educational systems around the world and they rank alongside professional knowledge and skills, center competencies, educational resources as well as strategies, in genuinely determining educational success and performance. This study assessed the differences and relationship between the level of teachers' job satisfaction, motivation and their teaching performance in Rivers State of Nigeria. A questionnaire titled 'TEJOSAMOQ' was used to collect data for the study. While the data for the study was analyzed using multiple statistical procedures: mean point value, standard deviation, and variance, t-test of significance and One-way-analysis of variance (ANOVA). The survey results revealed that teacher related sources of job satisfaction seem to have a greater impact on teaching performance, as teachers are also dissatisfied with the educational policies and administration, pay and fringe benefits, material rewards and advancement.
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This working paper is based on country case studies of Ethiopia, Ghana, Guinea, Madagascar, Tanzania, and Uganda, and an extensive literature review. In many parts of Africa, the demand for secondary teachers substantially exceeds the supply, due to factors such as secondary teacher attrition, bottlenecks in the teacher preparation system, and perceived unattractive conditions of service. Few countries have strong policies, strategies, and programs for recruiting able secondary school graduates to secondary teaching. The paper suggests several critical and promising areas for improvement in the quality of secondary teachers through new approaches to recruitment; pre-service and in-service teacher development; and improvements in the deployment, utilization, compensation, and conditions of service for teachers. This working pape r has been produced as part of the Secondary Education in Africa (SEIA) initiative of the Africa Human Development Department (AFTHD). SEIA initiatives's main objective is to assist Sub-Saharan Africa countries to better respond to the increasing demand for more and better secondary education. All SEIA products are available on the website: www.worldbank.org/afr/seia.
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This paper is based on a recent study on teacher motivation in India, which is part of an international research project on this topic covering 12 countries in South Asia and Africa. This study is based on review of government data, policy documents and published material on India and interviews with stakeholders in the state of Rajasthan and rapid survey in ten schools of Tonk District of Rajasthan. This report therefore draws upon national trends and explores them in the context of Rajasthan.The key issues pertaining to the motivation of primary school teachers can be summarised as follows: First, the education system has expanded rapidly and enrolment rates have shot up. But growth rate in the number of teachers has not kept pace with the rise in enrolment.Second, the social distance between the teachers and the children is wide in government schools (which cater to the very poor). Third, teachers lack the skills to manage so much diversity in the classroom. Fourth, systemic issues dealing with corruption have vitiated the larger teaching environment in the country. Fifth, teachers’ unions and block and district-level administrators claim they are asked to do a range of non-teaching taskswhich them away from the classroom. Sixth, teacher training has picked up since 1994 with almost all teachers expected to attend a range of training programmes every year. Seventh, teachers and administrators are continuously embroiled in court cases to do with promotions and placements, claiming arrears due to them and disciplinary action-related issues.
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Current research shows that stress levels among the teaching personnel has become a concern and most studies have found that stress is caused by physiological, psychological and environmental demands. This study seeks to determine: (1) factors that affect stress levels of teachers in primary school as a whole, and how these stress levels are related to experience and gender of teachers; (2) coping strategies that are used by these teachers to resist or adapt to stress, and (3) possible school system changes that could be adopted to combat stress among teachers. A purposive sample comprising 30 male and 20 female teachers from three primary schools in Bikita district in south–east Zimbabwe was used to obtain roughly comparable numbers of participants under the different levels of experience. It was not possible to obtain the ideal ten women in any of the schools studied. The result shows that the most stressful factors for both male and female teachers are: working on unnecessary tasks; taking work home after hours; unreasonable demands for work quality; unmanageable number of projects; more work than can be done in one day; and having no time for a break. Implications for these findings are discussed in detail in this paper. Keywords : stress levels, teachers, factors, experience, coping strategies, Zimbabwe Nigerian Journal of Guidance and Counselling Vol. 13 (1) 2008: pp. 25-40
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Brain drain is regarded as one of the greatest threats to socio-economic development in Africa. The need to reverse brain drain and reposition Africa in the twenty-first century cannot be overemphasised. The current situation in African countries demands that Africa should embark on a radical project to redeem itself from poverty, underdevelopment, disease, and hunger. This article examines the nature, extent and impact of the brain drain in Zimbabwe and South Africa. The problem of brain drain is urgent and merits high-level attention by African governments.
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Teacher attrition is generally positioned within research addressing teacher shortage, the wastage of resources and expertise, as well as that concerning teachers’ lowly status and poor working conditions. As such the research is fragmented and diverse. This paper attempts to draw together contemporary international attrition research in order to consider: how teacher attrition may be defined; patterns of attrition; influences upon attrition; the impact of attrition; and strategies employed for decreasing attrition. It concludes that research concerning teacher attrition requires the development of more comprehensive databases on teaching personnel and increased clarity of how attrition is being framed and investigated.
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Research on teacher stress has become a major area of international research interest. This paper reviews research findings on teacher stress and suggests five directions for future research: (i) monitoring the extent to which particular educational reforms are generating high levels of teacher stress; (ii) exploring why some teachers are able to successfully negotiate periods of career reappraisal and retain a positive commitment to the work, whilst others are not; (iii) clarifying the nature of the stress process in term of two types of triggers' one based on excessive demands and the other based on a concern with self-image; (iv) assessing the effectiveness of particular intervention strategies to reduce teacher stress; (v) exploring the impact of teacher-pupil interaction and classroom climate on teacher stress.
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A cognitive model based on the attribution of responsibility for stress was used as a framework for a study of the occupational stress and job satisfaction of teachers in New South Wales, Australia. One thousand questionnaires were distributed among 109 New South Wales Department of School Education schools of various types: single teacher, infants/primary, central and high school, throughout the state. There was a total response rate of approximately 49% (n = 487). The proposition that externalization of responsibility for stress may be explained in terms of self-defence styles was also investigated. Stress attributable to student misbehaviour was found to be associated with immature defence styles. Occupational stress and job satisfaction were treated as multidimensional phenomena and associations between the dimensions were explored. Teachers satisfied with their occupation attributed greater responsibility for stress to self than did dissatisfied teachers.
Article
Major sources of stress in Hong Kong teachers were investigated, with specific reference to guidance work as a potential source of stress. A survey of 415 secondary school teachers revealed that guidance-related aspects of work constituted a major dimension of stress, with guidance teachers, female teachers, younger teachers and junior teachers perceiving more stress than their counterparts in this dimension. Workload and time pressure were perceived as the most stressful aspects of work for all teachers. Results also showed an association between stress and job satisfaction, and biographical variables. Implications of the findings for teachers doing guidance work in Hong Kong and internationally are discussed.
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School teaching is regarded as a stressful occupation, but the perception of the job as stressful may be influenced by coping responses and social support. To assess the associations between teacher stress, psychological coping responses and social support, taking into account the plaintive set engendered by negative affectivity. Questionnaire survey of 780 primary and secondary school teachers (53.5% response rate). In stepwise multiple regression, social support at work and the coping responses behavioural disengagement and suppression of competing activities predicted job stress independently of age, gender, class size, occupational grade and negative affectivity. High job stress was associated with low social support at work and greater use of coping by disengagement and suppression of competing activities. It is suggested that behavioural disengagement and suppression of competing activities are maladaptive responses in a teaching environment and may actually contribute to job stress. Coping and social support not only moderate the impact of stressors on well-being but influence the appraisal of environmental demands as stressful.
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Since students generally perform better if taught by well qualified, trained and motivated teachers, recruiting better qualified young people is a prerequisite to improving the quality of educational provision. Ongoing economic reforms in Tanzania have left teaching as one of the few salaried careers open to secondary and tertiary leavers. This study considered the rationale of non-graduate students for choosing teaching as a career, perceptions of the job and future aspirations. Findings, which will inform the Sector Development Programme, indicate that although many initially regarded teaching as a ‘last resort’, low-status, low-paid job, the majority intended to become classroom teachers. Questions remain, however, as to their motivation, commitment and overall effectiveness.
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A total of 750 teachers from 16 government and non-government schools from areas of contrasted socio-economic status (SES) responded to a questionnaire designed to investigate associations between selected aspects of burnout among teachers working in secondary schools in Victoria, Australia. By comparing high and low burnout groups on biographic, psychological and work pattern variables, differences between teachers experiencing high and low levels of burnout were identified. Multiple regression analyses assessed the relative importance of these variables in accounting for the variance in each of the three burnout subscales. School type was related to perceptions of stress and burnout. Higher levels of burnout were associated with poorer physical health, higher rates of absenteeism, lower self-confidence and more frequent use of regressive coping strategies. Teachers classified as experiencing high levels of burnout attributed most of the stress in their lives to teaching and reported low levels of career commitment and satisfaction. Further, teachers who recorded high levels of burnout were characterised by lower levels of the personality disposition of hardiness, lower levels of social support, higher levels of role stress and more custodial pupil control ideologies than their low-burnout counterparts. Psychological variables were found to be more significant predictors of burnout than biographical variables.
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