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I2P Data Communication System


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As communication becomes more and more an integral part of our day to day lives, the need to access information increases as well. S ecurity is currently one of the most important factors to consider in our aim to achieve ubiquitous computing, and with it raises the problem of how to manipulate data while maintaining secrecy and integrity. This paper presents one of the most common widely used data communication systems for avoiding traffic analysis as well as assuring data integrity -I2P. I2P, just like every other technology aimed at securing data, has its pros and cons. The paper presents the benefits and drawbacks of I2P.
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I2P Data Communication System
Bassam Zantout and Ramzi A. Haraty
Department of Computer Science and Mathematics
Lebanese American University
Beirut, Lebanon 1102 2801
Abstract---As communication becomes more and more an
integral part of our day to day lives, the need to access
information increases as well. Security is currently one of the
most important factors to consider in our aim to achieve
ubiquitous computing, and with it raises the problem of how to
manipulate data while maintaining secrecy and integrity. This
paper presents one of the most common widely used data
communication systems for avoiding traffic analysis as well as
assuring data integrity - I2P. I2P, just like every other
technology aimed at securing data, has its pros and cons. The
paper presents the benefits and drawbacks of I2P.
Keywords - I2P; Traffic Analysis; Data Integrity.
Since the day the Internet became a common and reliable
mechanism for communication and data transfer, security
officers and security enthusiasts rallied to enforce security
standards on data transported over the globe. The goal was
to achieve data integrity and confidentiality, while using a
reliable data transport medium, which is the Internet.
Whenever a user tries communicating with another recipient
on the Internet, vital information is sent over different
networks until the information is dropped, intercepted, or
normally reaches the recipient. This information identifies
where the request is coming from by revealing the user’s IP
and hence the geographical location, what the user needs
from the recipient, and sometimes the identity of the user.
The moment the recipient replies back, the same type of
information is sent back along with a certain payload
(meaningful content) for which the user had requested.
Critical information traversing networks is usually
encrypted. Sometimes encrypting the payload alone is not
enough for users who wish to conceal their identities while
communicating with recipients over the Internet. Take for
example a reporter working undercover and sending critical
information over the Internet to a country that is at war with
where the reporter is res iding in. If the reporter’s identity is
revealed, then the reporter might be convicted. Hence,
concealing who is sending the information is sometimes
much more important than revealing the information itself.
In order to conceal the sender’s identity, different
implementations have proven successful. One of which is
the invention of anonymous networks. Anonymous
networks go beyond transferring information over the
Internet, whereby theoretically, the implementations can be
replicated on different communication technologies such as
mobile devices, wireless networks, etc. [1, 2, 3]. In 2003,
and due to a huge interest as well as considerable advances
in P2P concepts, whereby numerous projects for distributed
file sharing and P2P networking emerged, a new project
called the I2P (Invisible Internet Project) was introduced to
the public [4, 5, 6]. The main developers and supporters for
this project remain anonymous to this date and call
themselves nicknames whereby jrandom is the main
developer and the person responsible for this project, which
was later called I2P. jrandom, along with many developers
studied different anonymous systems at that time (Tor,
Tarzan, Freenet, Bitorrent) [7, 8, 9, 10] and then discovered
and implemented new and unique ideas for distributed P2P
anonymous systems, which promised better anonymity to its
users [11, 12].
The paper discusses I2P and presents its benefits and
drawbacks that will be discussed thoroughly including the
newly introduced methodology. The remainder of this paper
is organized as follows: Section two provides the
background of I2P. Section three discusses I2P in detail and
Section four provides a conclusion.
I2P is a low latency anonymizing mix network that offers
its users a certain level of traffic analysis prevention; hence,
hiding the identity of both the sender and receiver, while
utilizing a large set of encryption standards to hide data
content and to ensure payload delivery. Just like NetCamo
[13], I2P is intended to be used with nodes that have I2P
system installed. Moreover, just like Tor, I2P is capable of
relaying traffic through multiple nodes using tunnels and
encapsulated messages of data that are routed until the
destination is reached. However, the key difference is that
I2P is a message-based system instead of circuit-based as in
Tor. Moreover, unlike Tor, I2P is a fully distributed system
that does not rely on centralized directory servers to keep
track of participating nodes and network performance.
Instead, I2P utilizes a modified Kademlia algorithm [14]
that handles network and node information that is
distributed and maintained among different nodes in the I2P
network. After several years of discussions and
development, I2P is still considered in the alpha stage
whereby the core components and driving engine have been
changed frequently and will continue to change due to
enhancements. I2P is still not concerned a fully reliable
anonymous system, although developers and users can
logon to the network for a test drive.
The following sections describe how I2P functions and
what makes its corresponding components unique. It is
important to note that I2P, while similar to Tor in some of
its definitions, differs immensely in its design and
A. Garlic and Onions, Cells versus Cloves
The Second Generation Onion Routing Project, Tor, as
well as the original onion routing design devised a system
based on cells whereby a cell is of fixed size that contains
encrypted information of either instructions to other onion
router nodes, or data/payloads to be delivered to a certain
recipient. The onion cell has fixed size in order to conceal
hints about information or the content of the data being
transmitted from and between nodes in the system. This
fixed sized technique was considered as a security and
anonymity enforcing mechanism since traffic analysis of
fixed size cells could prevent against website fingerprinting,
and target/sender correlation attacks. While this technique is
indeed effective in high-end Tor nodes where millions of
cells are passing every hour through these nodes; however,
fixed cells prove inefficient when it comes to end-to-end
attacks and time-based attacks since cells are not padded
with random data and lack intentionally introduced delays
(with latency considerations). Garlic routing was inspired
from onion routing whereby garlic cloves are simply a
combination of one or two onion cells in addition to extra
padded information of random size. Hence, the atomic data
unit for the I2P system is indeed the same as the onion
system; however, not a single atomic unit is transmitted
alone. Instead, previously encrypted onion cells are grouped
together, with extra padding, as well as delay/no-delay
instructions to other I2P nodes, and then packaged in so
called Garlic cloves, which are then passed to other I2P
nodes, in an encrypted format. The size of a clove as well as
the number of onion cells differs between I2P nodes in order
to add additional randomness to the system. As I2P nodes
receive encrypted Garlic cloves, they are able to decrypt
them (using public and private keys) and then treat each
onion cell independently and sometimes with special latency
and priority requirements sent by embedded instructions.
Each I2P node is then able to repackage received onion cells
using new encrypted garlic cloves and then send them to
other I2P nodes.
This alone makes I2P a message-based system instead of
a circuit-based system as in Tor. However, the notion of
circuits and hops still exists. What is important to note is
that if two users who have both installed the I2P client
software, these users will be able to send information to
each other in fully encrypted format, and thus prevent end-
to-end attacks to non-global adversaries.
B. Tunnel and Communication amongst I2P Nodes
I2P utilizes a huge set of protocols, encryption standards,
and P2P concepts in order to achieve the highest levels of
anonymity for its users. This section describes I2P node and
user communication in details. However, it is important to
stop and visit two vital concepts in P2P networking and to
I2P, which are DHT and Kademlia.
C. DHT (Distributed Hashed Tables)
A hash table is a simple algorithm that given a hash
function and a certain input, then a unique output
(depending on the hash function) is derived. Hash functions
are extremely efficient in locating values that correspond to
a certain input, and the notion of buckets is used to indicate
many values a hash function could outputted to when a
single input is used. A DHT is a similar concept for
decentralized distributed systems whereby one is able to
lookup information in a distributed system efficiently.
Given two pairs of information (name, value) which are
stored in a DHT, participating nodes can work together in
maintaining and mapping these pair of information amongst
each other with minimal amount of resource and network
overhead. DHT was crafted after being inspired from
inefficient distributed lookup services found in P2P
implementations at the time. These P2P implementations
where mainly focused at locating resources or files in
distributed systems whereby three methodologies were
1) Centralized Indexed System: a central system was
assigned whereby participating nodes pushed
whatever resource listing they had to this system.
The central node then performed indexing on this
information and any user who wished to locate data
present on the distributed nodes queried the central
system for the location of data. A similar system
that received its 15 minutes of fame was Napster
that later faced enormous slowdowns as the size of
the files and data increased.
2) Flooded Query System: is another system that
required for each query, a user issued, to be
distributed to all participating nodes in the system.
Although this might reveal the most updated results
since no central system performance or update
delays might occur; however, allowing such a
system to scale was improbable since as the
number of search queries increases and as the
number of nodes increases, the number of
broadcasts and replies also increase. Gnutella is an
example of such a P2P system.
3) Heuristic Key Based Routing: was utilized by
Freenet, whereby a resource was associated with a
key and resources with similar keys are located in a
cluster or group of similar nodes. So based on the
key a user issues, a key based routing is
implemented and the query is directed to these set
of nodes instead of being broadcasted to all nodes,
or a centralized system.
DHT was developed to overcome the above points and is
characterized by the following:
1) Decentralization: each node is an independent node
that does not rely on a centralized system for
coordinating tasks and locating information.
2) Scalability: A DHT system is able to scale highly
(millions of nodes) while keeping its phenomenal
and efficient search capabilities as is.
3) Fault Tolerance: nodes in a DHT system may join
and leave the system while keeping all stored
information in the system intact.
4) Performance: Given n nodes in a system, then as
the number of nodes increases or decreases, the
system is able to retrieve information in the
O(logn) (Big O notation).
DHTs received a great deal of attention by many
academic institutes for which implementations like Chord,
Kademlia, CAN, Pastry and Tapestry where developed. The
implementations differ in some details; however, the overall
concept is the same whereby three components are
identified: keyspace, keyspace partitioning, and overlay
A keyspace is a set of sequence of bits of a certain fixed
length F. For any content that needs to be stored in a DHT
system a filename is hashed and one obtains a hashed value
of size F that corresponds to a certain resource R. The data
along with the hashed filename are introduced into the DHT
network and the DHT system forwards (through the overlay
network) such information amongst DHT nodes until the
data arrives to the DHT node responsible for keeping track
of this file information. A query then given to any node in
the DHT system about this filename is hashed and then
forwarded (using the overlay network) till it arrives to the
node responsible for such information.
Nodes in a DHT system are conceptually arranged in
circular ring network although physically nodes may be
geographically dispersed over the globe. Each node is aware
of its successor and predecessor, and traversal of the nodes
usually occurs clockwise.
For two keys k1 and k2, keyspace partitioning is
illustrated as the distance between k1 and k2 represented by
δ(k1,k2), whereby the distance does not relate to network
latency or geographical location. Each node in the DHT
network is then give a key as its identifier; hence, a node
with ID i owns all the keys for which i is closest to. The
keyspace is split into contiguous segments whose endpoints
are the node IDs, whereby for any two nodes i1 and i2 for a
key kx then i2 holds all the keys that fall between i1 and i2.
The DHT system may introduce a pool of nodes whereby
each of pool is responsible for replicated data content to
cater for node joins and departures in the system as
displayed in Figure 1.
Figure 1. Sample DHT system.
The overlay network can be described by the fact that
each node keeps track of its adjacent nodes ; hence,
traversing the system may require an O(n) (Big O notation.
Although this might become extremely inefficient for large
systems, a series of enhancements where introduced, as in
Chord and Kademlia, which reduced the traversal to O(logn)
by adding a routing table to each node (through continuous
lookups as nodes join and leave the network or as queries
traverse the network, nodes are able to keep track changes).
The search method using the overlay network is executed
using a greedy algorithm that forwards/routes searches to
the closest node holding a key similar or close enough to the
original key. Of course, different DHT designs have
different implementations of the overlay network.
DHT is considered a core infrastructure that has been
used to build many complex systems that have been widely
adopted and later modified by many implementations like
Bittorrent, I2P, Coral Content Distribution, eMule, and
Freenet, and many others.
D. Kademlia
I2P designers have adopted a DHT implementation by
Petar Maymounkov and David Mazi`eres, from the
University of New York, called Kademlia. This DHT
implementation is capable of running in a network where a
lot of node joins and departures occur and hence uses a
XOR-based metric topology whereby the distance between
two nodes is computed as the XOR of the node IDs
(knowing that the node IDs are in a certain increasing
sequence). Additionally, queries about keys and nodes in a
network are recorded by every DHT node through which a
query traverses through. This, along with efficient data
retrieval (O(logn)) due to a good routing implementation for
locating nodes and data in nodes, makes Kademlia a good
candidate for any DHT implementation.
E. I2P Tunnel and Node Characteristics
The I2P network is composed of I2P routers that relay
encrypted garlic cloves, and I2P users transmitting and
receiving such cloves to each other. I2P routers and
destinations (or end-user client nodes) have distinct
identification through cryptographic identities, which
enables them to send and receive messages as well as form
encrypted tunnels. Each I2P node or router in the network
has inbound and outbound tunnel(s) established and
connected to other I2P gateway(s). The number of tunnels
can be increased to form different routes by simply
connecting to different I2P gateways. When a message
needs to be relayed from a sender to a recipient the message
goes through the senders outbound tunnel to the end-point
of the tunnel, which is another I2P gateway and that
gateway then forwards the message to through a series or
hops (or directly) to the gateway of the recipient for which
then the message traverses the recipients inbound tunnel and
gets decrypted at the recipients node. Senders have no
information about the path the message will take except for
the gateway the senders have used to release the message.
Each I2P router in the I2P network is able to add delays,
introduce additional padding, and route information
according to a node directory lookup called the NetDB
(network database based on the Kademlia algorithm). Figure
2 better illustrates the I2P topology.
Figure 2. I2P network A sample of inbound and outbound tunnels used
for communication.
In the above illustration, Bob is able to send Alice
information in a couple of steps by:
1) Querying the NetDB to retrieve information about
routers identity and encryptions keys as well as
des tination’s public keys and reachability of
gateways and destinations. This information is
stored in the NetDB under two categories: the
RouteInfo and the LeaseSet.
2) Sending messages through its outbound tunnel to a
router then in turn converts the stream into the
inbound tunnel of Alice.
3) Getting back replies from Alice through Alice’s
outbound tunnel that in turn gets converted by I2P
routers to Bob’s inbound tunnels.
As such one can notice that I2P does not have any entry
and exit nodes like Tor, and data is encrypted end-to-end
among peers in the system. However, in order to achieve
this, both sender and recipient need to be on the I2P network
connected to at least a single I2P node with two tunnels
(inbound and outbound). The amount of tunnel creations is
user based. However, the default is creating four tunnels -
two for inbound and another two for outbound
communication respectively. This could be justified in the
event that if one tunnel goes down for any reason, then a
secondary tunnel exists. Moreover, adding more tunnels
means having different routes to the same destination or a
set of destinations. I2P users are also able to choose the
number of hops found on the path to a certain destination
whereby the illustration shows only a single hop from Bob
to Alice. I2P currently supports a maximum of two hops
before traffic is routed and delivered to its final destination.
Tunnel creations are time based and change every 10
minutes in order avoid any types of attacks on the tunnel
encryption. Even if tunnel encryption has been
compromised, then payloads - packages in garlic cloves,
have already a multilayer of synchronous and asynchronous
encryption standards to assure data integrity and anonymity.
Another type of tunnel exists, that has not been shown in the
preceding graphical illustration, used for I2P node
discovery. An explanation about node discovery is
discussed in the next section.
Nodes in an I2P network are classified into four different
categories according to speed and reliability:
1) High Capacity: are nodes that have a higher
connection capacities and uptime than the average
number of nodes connected to the system.
2) Fast: are nodes that are categorized as “high
capacity”; however, they are considered with fast
connection due to bandwidth (throughput)
compared also to the average number of nodes with
connection speeds.
3) Not Failing: are nodes if it is neither high capacity
nor failing.
4) Failing: are nodes that frequently join and leave
the network, or that are queried but found to be
always unavailable.
Although there is an additional node classification called
“Well Integrated, which means that a node “integration
calculation” is above average, there is no explicit
information about what that really means. Since I2P is a
decentralized and distributed system, with a large number
frequent joins and departures of end-user nodes that form
the majority of nodes in the system, then there is no way of
determining exact node statistics similar to a centralized
system as Tor. As a result, node information and
categorization is usually kept at every node in the system
with the help of Kademlia’s node traversal and NetDB data
querying. Hence, two nodes that are not well-integrated in
the network or with network problems may have varied
answers about a particular node in the network.
F. Peer Selection and Tunnel Creation
When a new user wishes to join the I2P anonymous
network, the user downloads and installs the I2P software
from the official website after performing a checksum on
the software itself (to ensure data integrity and that the
software has not been tampered with). The I2P software is a
Java based client that enables users to look for an available
I2P node and connect to that node and therefore join the I2P
anonymous system. However, one might wonder how is this
done when I2P itself is a distributed and decentralized
anonymous network that is hard to keep track of, and
connect to, especially when a new node tries to connect for
the very first time. As a solution, the I2P developers have
introduced a set of hosts’ IPs that have a good uptime (Fast
or High Capacity) and which are considered reliable hosts -
once the I2P software launches it bootstraps using a
randomly selected I2P host IP from the set of preconfigured
(Fast or High Capacity) IPs and logs on the I2P network. If
bootstrapping is unsuccessful then the client software can
choose another IP until a connection occurs. Once
connected, a series of node investigations is carried out by
the newly joined node using a second type of tunneling used
only to traverse the I2P network looking for available nodes.
Node traversal begins taking place gradually as the new
node starts building tunnels with random nodes in the
system (Kademlia DHT algorithm). At every tunnel creation
the new node will query existing I2P nodes for available
nodes for which it can connect to, and since tunnels do not
usually last long, the rate of discovery becomes high and the
list becomes larger with a considerable uptime.
NetDB stores two sets of data: RouterInfo and LeaseSets.
RouterInfo gives users or nodes in the system the set of
information to contact a specific router in the network.
LeaseSets gives nodes in the system information for
contacting a particular destination node where data will be
delivered, also composed of destination tunnel address(s),
public keys, and the des tination’s tunnel uptime for path
reliability. While RouterInfo information may not change
frequently since users connect to dedicated gateways,
LeaseSets for nodes do change frequently since users often
change tunnels every 10 minutes and hence reachability is
changed too. End user nodes usually choose first Fast or
High Capacity I2P nodes so that tunnel creation is reliable
for sending and receiving data, then the nodes establish
another set of inbound and outbound tunnels called the
exploratory tunnels with less capacity (Not Failing) nodes
to query the network about other available nodes and to
obtain the NetDB information carrying encryption
specifications about how to connect and how to reach other
G. System Encryptions Standards for Communication
I2P uses four different types of cryptographic algorithms
for ensuring communication reliability, anonymity, and data
integrity during data transmission through multiple paths.
As a result, symmetric, asymmetric, signing and hashing
algorithms have been used all together to strengthen the
security on communication. Any established tunnel uses
2048 bit ElGamal/Session Tags with 256 bit AES in CBC
mode encryption. Signatures use a 1024bit DSA algorithm
with a 320 bit seed. TCP connections operate using a 2048
Diffie-Hellman implementation at the moment. Jrandom [5]
contains an illustration of the components used in a single
tunnel, which happens to be Alice’s outbound tunnel and
Bob’s inbound tunnel for one way communication where
Alice is sending a message to Bob.
H. Exit Policy for Internet Communication
I2P can only assure end-to-end privacy and integrity if
the two peers involved in communication have joined the
I2P network. I2P was never meant to be used for Internet
communication. However, some nodes in the network are
running exit proxies that enable users to reach destinations
located on the Internet.
Similar to Tor, end-to-end encryption with nodes outside
the anonymous system are released from the exit nodes
without any encryption to reach the destination. Once a
reply from the destination sent back to the original sender,
the exit node will re-encrypt and repackage garlic cloves to
be sent back to the sender. I2P is not meant for anonymous
Internet browsing, but for anonymous P2P communication
whereby end-users are able to send and receive data
anonymous ly. I2P also supports services similar to Tor’s
hidden services to users in the system. An example of a
hidden service is websites that are posted anonymously,
whereby their IP and ID are not revealed to visitors.
Websites are given the extension (*.i2p). Although hidden
services are not purely the focus of this research; however, a
few remarks are commented on in the critique section for
H. Threat model
I2P protects against a number of attacks such as: Brute
force attacks, Timing attacks, Intersection attacks, Denial of
service attacks, Tagging attacks, Partitioning attacks,
Predecessor attacks, Harvesting attacks, Sybil attacks,
Cryptographic attacks, Development attacks, and
Implementation attacks.
I. Critique
I2P is by far the most complicated and most promising
anonymous P2P system for many aforementioned reasons.
I2P is the product of years of continuous development by a
number of dedicated developers that have conducted enough
research on existing anonymous systems to come up with a
new decentralized system that offers better anonymity to
users. Nevertheless, I2P was never meant to be used outside
the participating nodes in the system itself. Hence, users
connecting to I2P and wishing to browse the Internet or
carry out other Internet tasks like chatting, sending emails,
and talking using VoIP are not advised to do so. The reason
behind this is simply because I2P was never designed for
communication between an anonymous system and the
Internet. Although there have been some assigned nodes
with gateways to the Internet, the nodes are limited in
number and are well-known to I2P users.
Just like any anonymous system, I2P has its strengths
and weaknesses. The advantages of I2P are:
1) Message-based instead of Circuit-based: I2P is a
message-based system whereby data packets
generated be senders and receivers are encrypted
and then wrapped randomly together (using the
garlic protocol) and then sent across the I2P
network whereby cloves bounce through random
hops before reaching their final destination. In
comparison with circuit-based, messages no longer
need wait for a peer to establish a tunnel through
other peers before proceeding with data delivery.
Messages simply traverse pre-created tunnels
through available nodes on the system. This
immensely reduces the overhead of creating
tunnels and adds randomness in the system while
allowing hops (or router nodes) to control data
delivery and add variable latency as well as
padding to messages.
2) Various Protocols Support: While other
anonymous systems restrict Internet
communication to a number of protocols like
HTTP, and hidden publishing services, I2P offers a
wide range of internal services like P2P services
(BitTorrent clone), anonymous hidden services like
web publishing, anonymous SMTP, file sharing,
and anonymous chatting. These protocols have
been developed by enthusiasts as plug-ins on top
the I2P system that enable a user logged in to I2P
to communicate with other users anonymously.
3) New P2P Infrastructure over the Internet: The
previous point may give an insight on the future of
P2P file sharing and communication on the
Internet. During these times, the P2P file sharing
activities on the Internet have been criticized for
housing and transferring illegal and copyrighted
content amongst peers in the community.
BitTorrent, eMule, Gnutella, and many others are
now considered gateways to tremendous amounts
of illegal (and legal) content that is being tracked,
along with P2P participants, by copyright entities
such as the RIAA, DMCA, Interpol, and other
similar organizations. Anirban Banerjee, Michali
Falouts os , Laxmi N. Bhuyan’s study [15] of P2P
file sharing and communication tracking, has
shown that file sharing communities now form
block-nets in order to block certain known legal
entities that have been identified using various
methods. Block-nets are composed of a list of
suspected IPs, circulated amongst different P2P
systems and regularly updated, for which users
trying to communicate from this list of IPs are
blocked from participating and joining P2P
systems due to their activities in locating and
tracking P2P end users. There have been some
documented incidents where a number of users
have been tracked down and sued over a number of
copyright violation using commonly used P2P
systems. By introducing I2P as an infrastructure for
P2P protocols for anonymous communication, P2P
activities would therefore become anonymous to
all participating parties. With header and payload
encryption, as well as resource hiding, multi-packet
routing, and content distribution, entities wishing
to track communication will be find it difficult to
do so and will be spotted and hence blocked (based
on block-nets). An example of such a system is
Freenet [9]. The aim of course is not to allow
illegal content to be freely distributed over the
Internet; however, to anonymize communication
for users on the system. This idea is not bullet
proof, as P2P trackers may login to the system
anonymously using another set of IPs and conduct
various types of attacks, irrelative of time and cost,
to pinpoint and breach the system, if need be.
4) Open Design, Open Source Code: The developers
of I2P, led by jrandom, have kept their identities
anonymous for many reasons one of which to
indicate that the system is anonymous not only in
its functionality but in its development also. The
system has an open design whereby as enthusiast
may login to the I2P website and check the recent
and previous developments of I2P and participate
in forums while remaining anonymous. The Java
source code for the I2P client and server software
are freely available for users to inspect and audit if
need be. This adds more trust in the system and for
adopting the system especially that the system is
not sponsored by any government agency as in Tor.
5) Different Encryption Techniques: I2P employs a
good set of algorithms ranging from symmetric,
asymmetric, singing and hashing algorithms that
have been used primarily to hide the identity of
users in the system and to ensure the integrity of
data delivered to peers along the communications
paths. With 2048 bit encryptions keys and newly
introduced session tags to identify communication
amongst peers, as well as defend against replays,
I2P stands out to be one of the few anonymous
system encompassing such a large number of
encryption technologies.
6) Distributed and Decentralized System: By
making use of a DHT implementation based on
Kademlia, as well as removing centralized entities
for managing the nodes on the network, the I2P
system is protected against attacks on its directory
servers. The I2P system is a self-healing and self-
organizing anonymous system that is able to keep
track of nodes in the system while part of the
network is under attack. Moreover, attacking
random/specific nodes in the system appears
useless as there is no single entity handling I2P
system management. Additionally, if global
adversaries are able to block known I2P nodes for
users to connect to, then it will only require another
(unknown to global adversaries) user node to join
the I2P network and then announce, through
different means, that it was capable of joining the
network and that node itself will become a gateway
for new nodes wishing to join the I2P network.
7) Different Types of Unidirectional Tunnels:
Almost every type of anonymous system that was
designed and implemented uses a single tunnel for
moving data back and forth from sender to
receiver, and hence encrypted tunnels where multi-
directional carrying not only encrypted data
payloads, but also instructions to other nodes in the
system. I2P designers have decided to separate and
segregate the role of tunnels by introducing a new
set of tunnels such as one for sending data (along
with some instructions), one for receiving data
(along with some instructions), and another for
exploring the network. The latter uses nodes with
less bandwidth on less reliable/slower connection
nodes. The significance of this segregation is to
enhance the amount of peers participating in
communication and therefore increase the number
of hops along the path of data being transmitted
and received. This modification adds a minimum
of twice the number of participating nodes in any
communication as compared to Tor, which utilizes
a single tunnel for sending and receiving data
streams as well as instructions to other nodes.
8) End User Node Participation in
Communication: The new design for I2P
encourages that every node joining the I2P needs to
use part of its bandwidth as a relay node and pass
data to other peers in the system. This approach not
only makes use of the end users, who are usually
the majority of the nodes in the system using the
system, but also adds more hops to any
communications that allows more randomness
when choosing hops.
The disadvantages of I2P are:
1) Vulnerability to Partitioning Attacks: Since I2P
utilizes Kademlia for maintaining the distributed
system and keeping nodes in contact (using
NetDB). Kademlia is susceptible to partitioning
attacks that may disconnect targets in the system
and therefore reveal the identities of all parties
involved in a communication stream. A
partitioning attack is an attack that aims at
directing end users in the system to connect to a
smaller set of malicious nodes only (smaller
relative to the complete set of nodes in the system),
whereby the malicious nodes are able to simulate
the functionality of the anonymous system to the
target node, and whereby a user is still able to
establish a number of tunnels and select multiple
hops. However, all identities for the sender and
receiver are actually compromised along the
pathways as the nodes participating in
communication are malicious nodes. Strong
adversaries are also capable of deliberately
blocking certain destinations. Hence, other
legitimate nodes in the system; and therefore,
disconnecting the target at once from the rest of the
nodes in the system and then introducing malicious
alternative nodes with another set of NetDB options
and routes. This attack coupled with other types of
attacks such as Sybil and Time attacks may fully
exploit the identities of the senders and receivers in
the system, as well as the data content, especially if
one of the malicious nodes is used as an exit node
to the Internet.
2) Possible Intersection Attacks: An intersection
attack is an attack that monitors a certain target and
then watches the amount of nodes present and
connected to the system constantly. Due to tunnel
rotation and variation in target reachability, the
attacker may eliminate nodes that have not
participated in communication with the target until
the target’s paths are narrowed down. This will
also leave a set of nodes that form these paths
exposed for monitoring - seeing as a message
traverses the paths from source to destination and
vice versa the node is detected. Intersection attacks
are strengthened immensely when coupled with
other types of attacks such as Sybil and Timing
3) Lack of Node and Bandwidth Monitoring: I2P is
a decentralized and distributed system that does not
keep track of overall network bandwidth usage and
monitoring except for client and router nodes that
self-monitor themselves. I2P nodes are capable of
storing and graphing their own connection as well
as downloading NetDB information that are offered
by other nodes in the system. One might question
the possibility for having an overview of system
performance, network bottlenecks on certain nodes,
and total bandwidth as well as the number of
participating entities in an I2P network (or a graph
representation of the connected nodes). Some I2P
security enthusiasts argue that revealing such
information might risk anonymity as well as reveal
weak points in the system. Moreover, as certain
peers and routers in the network can variably
change their relay capabilities (bandwidth options
offered to other peers in the system for relaying
their traffic), and as random joins and departures of
nodes occur, it might be tough to graph the
network or reveal overall relay information without
having a centralized polling system to keep track of
such frequent change in information. Given that
I2P is a decentralized system then the possibility
becomes hardly possible, and hence per-node
resource and network performance is kept in each
I2P node’s NetDB information that have decided to
participate in the system. On the other hand, when
a wide distributed attack is carried out on most of
the nodes, and when nodes become unreachable,
then would one (or the system) analyze this type of
misbehavior and consequently categorize the
incident as a false positive, false negative, a single
or multiple nodes experiencing connection
problems or failure, a DoS attack, a partitioning
attack, or any type of network related attack? How
would developers in the system realize that router
nodes have been flooded with tunnel connections
by a large number of peers in a resource
consumption attack, whereby fake packet
generation (gradually to camouflage the attack and
can usually span days and even weeks) can flood
the entire network and hence leave the attack to
appear as normal network congestion due to a large
number of joining parties while in fact it would be
a variant of a Sybil Attack?
4) NetDB Conflicts and Resolution: The previous
point mentions that NetDB stores node information
relayed to different clients and routers in the
system whereby it contains information about
tunnel, node reachability, and encryption
information. Now consider the case where a client
node connects to the I2P network. During its
network investigation for available nodes.
5) DoS Attacks: The I2P team identified three types
of attacks that the system can suffer from, and for
which the solutions are questionable. The
following briefly explains the attacks:
a. Greedy User Attacks: This is actually is not a
form of malicious attack on the system, but
more associated with a depletion of available
relaying bandwidth.
b. Starvation Attacks: The attack is similar to a
Sybil Attack whereby nodes joining the I2P
network offer connections to other non-
malicious nodes in the system. However, after
tunnel creation the malicious nodes drop all
incoming and outgoing packets to the newly
connected nodes. This will cause the nodes to
experience frequent network failures as they
will not be able to send and receive data using
these tunnels. Additionally, this will cause
more tunnels to be established with other non-
malicious I2P routers due to the lack of
connectivity with current malicious nodes.
c. Flooding Attacks: Is an attack that allows a
malicious user to introduce a node or a set of
node that inject huge amounts of
meaningless/meaningful traffic with
destinations to inbound and outbound nodes of
different peers in the system. Similar to a
network DoS attack, nodes in the I2P network
receiving such traffic can do nothing to stop
this traffic since any node on any network
cannot control the amount of traffic it is
receiving. I2P developers argue that if nodes
detect that huge amounts of traffic are
detected, then they can disconnect their
tunnels and reestablish new tunnels with other
This paper presented the I2P anonymous-related systems,
and their corresponding details that have made them such a
success. The paper also commented on the pros and cons of
I2P’s implementation.
Avoiding traffic analysis and hiding the identities of
users is the aim of any anonymous system. However, since
most anonymous systems rely on aging encryption
technologies for which global adversaries are a capable of
compromising, then the integrity of data might be at stake.
This paper also introduced vital topics that need to be
further researched such as creating virtual interfaces for
making all types of traffic to traverse anonymous systems,
as opposed to socket proxies, in order to maximize securing
the identity of users on the system and support the widest
types of applications possible. Such virtual interfaces can
exist in order to ease selecting which types of traffic can
pass through the anonymous system and which can be
bypassed to leave the anonymous system’s utilization at
optimum levels.
One of the key elements that worry anonymous s ystems
researchers is QoS for the bandwidth utilized by peers on
the systems and the overall network performance. Although
this has been slightly commented on, more research in QoS
and a bandwidth-choking approach is required while
concentrating on security and functionality implications.
In the near future, we plan to focus our work on avoiding
traffic analysis and at the same time assuring data integrity
using a quorum-based approach. We plan to introduce this
work to different anonymous systems researchers and
communities for a possible implementation and real testing
on existing systems.
This work was funded by the Lebanese American
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... In this section, we provide some background information to explain our taxonomy and the attacks discussed in this paper. The Tor network [6], which is one of the most widely used anonymity networks today (along with other popular networks such as I2P [17] and Freenet [18]), has been using the concept of onion routing [19]. Tor is an overlay network based on Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) that builds circuits from a user to the destination server, which generally consists of three voluntary relays. 1 Figures 1 and 2 show the components of a Tor network for a standard circuit, and hidden services respectively. ...
... However, in [14], the authors have focused only on the de-anonymisation of users. They discuss such type of attacks on both Tor and I2P [17] networks. In [14], the authors explain de-anonymisation attacks under two categories: 1. Application-based attacks, and 2. Networkbased attacks. ...
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In an effort to prosecute P2P users, RIAA and MPAA have reportedly started to create decoy users: they participate in P2P networks in order to identify illegal sharing of content. This has reportedly scared some users who are afraid of being caught. The question we attempt to answer is how prevalent is this phenomenon: how likely is it that a user will run into such a "fake user" and thus run the risk of a lawsuit? The first challenge is identifying these "fake users". We collect this information from a number of free open source software projects which are trying to identify such IP address ranges by forming the so-called blocklists. The second challenge is running a large scale experiment in order to obtain reliable and diverse statistics. Using Planetlab, we conduct active measurements, spanning a period of 90 days, from January to March 2006, spread over 3 continents. Analyzing over a 100 GB of TCP header data, we quantify the probability of a P2P user of being contacted by such entities. We observe that 100% of our nodes run into entities in these lists. In fact, 12 to 17% of all distinct IPs contacted by any node were listed on blocklists. Interestingly, a little caution can have significant effect: the top five most prevalent blocklisted IP ranges contribute to nearly 94% of all blocklisted IPs and avoiding these can reduce the probability of encountering blocklisted IPs to about 1%. In addition, we examine other factors that affect the probability of encountering blocklisted IPs, such as the geographical location of the users. Finally, we find another surprising result: less than 0.5% of all unique blocklisted IPs contacted are owned explicitly by media companies.
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BitTorrent is an extremely effective and popular peer-to-peer file distribution application. It differs from tradi-tional peer-to-peer file-sharing applications in that large files are decomposed into blocks, and in order to download a file, a peer concurrently retrieves blocks from multiple peers. Measurement and simulation studies have suggested that although BitTorrent achieves excellent utilization of upload capacity, its fairness prop-erties are less impressive. In this paper, we seek to understand, primarily through simulation analysis, the fairness properties of the exchange mechanism that lies at the core of the BitTorrent protocol. We focus on a specific fairness metric, defined as the ratio of bytes uploaded to that downloaded by each individual peer. We propose three modifications to the protocol, and examine their impact on the fairness peers experience.
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