Socioeconomic Position and the Tracking of Physical Activity and Cardiorespiratory Fitness From Childhood to Adulthood

Centre for Physical Activity and Nutrition Research, Deakin University, Burwood, Victoria 3125, Australia.
American journal of epidemiology (Impact Factor: 5.23). 09/2009; 170(9):1069-77. DOI: 10.1093/aje/kwp271
Source: PubMed


This study examined the influence of childhood socioeconomic position (SEP) and social mobility on activity and fitness tracking from childhood into adulthood. In a prospective cohort of 2,185 Australian adults (aged 26-36 years), first examined in 1985 (at ages 7-15 years), self-reported physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness (subsample only) were measured. SEP measures included retrospectively reported parental education (baseline) and own education (follow-up). There was little evidence of a relation between childhood SEP and activity tracking, but high childhood SEP (maternal education) was associated with a 59% increased likelihood of persistent fitness, and medium childhood SEP (paternal and parental education) was associated with a 33%-36% decreased likelihood of persistent fitness. Upward social mobility was associated with a greater likelihood of increasing activity (38%-49%) and fitness (90%), and persistently high SEP was associated with a greater likelihood of increasing activity (males: 58%) and fitness (males and females combined: 89%). In conclusion, persistently high SEP and upward social mobility were associated with increases in activity and fitness from childhood to adulthood. Findings highlight socioeconomic differentials in activity and fitness patterns and suggest that improvements in education may represent a pathway through which physical activity levels can be increased and health benefits achieved.

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    • "Nonetheless, crosssectional and longitudinal studies using objective indicators of social mobility suggest that downward social mobility relative to no change is associated with a higher likelihood of poor physical health and negative health behaviors (Hallqvist, Lynch, Bartley, Lang, & Blane, 2004; Harding, 2003; Hart, Smith, & Blane, 1998; Loucks et al., 2010; Nilsson, Nilsson, Ostergren, & Berglund, 2005; Rosvall, Chaix, Lynch, Lindstrom, & Merlo, 2006; Smith et al., 2011; Watt, Carson, Lawlor, Patel, & Ebrahim, 2009). In contrast, three longitudinal and two cross-sectional studies find upward social mobility decreases the likelihood of poor health outcomes (Chittleborough, Taylor, Baum, & Hiller, 2009; Cleland, Ball, Magnussen, Dwyer, & Venn, 2009; Colen, Geronimus, Bound, & James, 2006; Heller, McElduff, & Edwards, 2002; Otero-Rodriguez et al., 2010), while one cross-sectional and one longitudinal study find evidence of increased risk of poor health with upward social mobility (Colen et al., 2006; Heraclides & Brunner, 2010). Still other cross-sectional research does not find a significant main association between upward or downward social mobility and health (Broman, 1989; Pollitt, Rose, & Kaufman, 2005). "
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    ABSTRACT: Latino immigrants exhibit health declines with increasing duration in the United States, which some attribute to a loss in social status after migration or downward social mobility. Yet, research into the distribution of perceived social mobility and patterned associations to Latino health is sparse, despite extensive research to show that economic and social advancement is a key driver of voluntary migration. We investigated Latino immigrant sub-ethnic group variation in the distribution of perceived social mobility, defined as the difference between respondents' perceived social status of origin had they remained in their country of origin and their current social status in the U.S. We also examined the association between perceived social mobility and past-year major depressive episode (MDE) and self-rated fair/poor physical health, and whether Latino sub-ethnicity moderated these associations. We computed weighted logistic regression analyses using the Latino immigrant subsample (N=1561) of the National Latino and Asian American Study. Puerto Rican migrants were more likely to perceive downward social mobility relative to Mexican and Cuban immigrants who were more likely to perceive upward social mobility. Perceived downward social mobility was associated with increased odds of fair/poor physical health and MDE. Latino sub-ethnicity was a statistically significant moderator, such that perceived downward social mobility was associated with higher odds of MDE only among Puerto Rican and Other Latino immigrants. In contrast, perceived upward social mobility was not associated with self-rated fair/poor physical health. Our findings suggest that perceived downward social mobility might be an independent correlate of health among Latino immigrants, and might help explain Latino sub-ethnic group differences in mental health status. Future studies on Latino immigrant health should use prospective designs to examine the physiological and psychological costs associated with perceived changes in social status with integration into the U.S. mainland.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2014 · Social Science [?] Medicine
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    • "Please cite this article as: Laitinen TT, et al, Childhood lifestyle and clinical determinants of adult ideal cardiovascular health, Int J Cardiol (2013), occupational status was used as a marker of participants own socioeconomic status. However, the effect of parental education in childhood was attenuated when participant's own education was used as a marker of socioeconomic status, consistently with previous reports from the CDAH study [22] [23]. These data also support the recent AHA Scientific Statement [27], which encourages to implement community-wide interventions that are socially and culturally appropriate to reduce disparities and inequities in the cardiovascular health of socioeconomically disadvantaged subgroups. "
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    ABSTRACT: The American Heart Association recently defined ideal cardiovascular health by simultaneous presence of seven health behaviors and factors. The concept is associated with cardiovascular disease incidence, and cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality. To effectively promote ideal cardiovascular health already early in life, childhood factors predicting future ideal cardiovascular health should be investigated. Our aim was thus to comprehensively explore childhood determinants of adult ideal cardiovascular health in population based cohorts from three continents. The sample comprised a total of 4409 participants aged 3-19years at baseline from the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study (YFS; N=1883) from Finland, Childhood Determinants of Adult Health Study (CDAH; N=1803) from Australia and Princeton Follow-up Study (PFS; N=723) from the United States. Participants were re-examined 19-31years later when aged 30-48years. In multivariable analyses, independent childhood predictors of adult ideal cardiovascular health were family socioeconomic status (P<0.01; direct association) and BMI (P<0.001; inverse association) in all cohorts. In addition, blood pressure (P=0.007), LDL-cholesterol (P<0.001) and parental smoking (P=0.006) in the YFS, and own smoking (P=0.001) in CDAH were inversely associated with future ideal cardiovascular health. Among several lifestyle and clinical indicators studied, higher family socioeconomic status and non-smoking (parental/own) in childhood independently predict ideal cardiovascular health in adulthood. As atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases are rooted in childhood, our findings suggest that special attention could be paid to children who are from low socioeconomic status families, and who smoke or whose parents smoke, to prevent cardiovascular disease morbidity and mortality.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2013 · International journal of cardiology
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    • "influence adolescent BMI in the longitudinal model (Chivers et al., 2010). Others have shown positive associations between educational level and activity level, cardiovascular fitness (Cleland et al., 2009; Ferreira et al., 2007), and negative sedentary behaviours (Hesketh, Crawford, & Salmon, 2006). Traditionally, fathers are the primary income earners and as a result have less direct influence on their children's day-to-day eating patterns, sedentary behaviour, and physical activity opportunities. "
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    ABSTRACT: The influence of parental and early childhood factors on adolescent obesity was investigated using a longitudinal model of body mass index (BMI) from birth to 14 years.Trajectories of BMI using linear mixed model (LMM) analysis were used to investigate the influence of early parental and childhood factors on BMI at 14 years in the Raine birth cohort study over eight follow-ups (n = 1403).An inverse relationship between parental education attainment and BMI was found (mothers χ = 21.75, p = 0.016; LMM p = 0.043; fathers χ = 21.19, p= 0.020; LMM p > 0.05). More overweight adolescents had mothers who smoked during pregnancy (χ = 12.60, p = 0.002). Parental birth weight and BMI across years (p
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2012 · Early Child Development and Care
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