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Three Roads to Quantum Gravity

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... In the Atomic Spacetime model, spacetime is 'emerging' in interaction zones between quanta as This supports the physical idea of 'emergence of space' expressed by some Loop Quantum Gravity theorists [18,19] notably L. Smolin [37]. ...
... In GR, spacetime is continuous creating some "stumbling blocks" noted by Einstein [1] related to dealing "…exclusively with continuous functions of space" making it difficult to incorporate energy quantization even with continuous quantum mechanical functions [1,39]. Loop Quantum Gravity [18,19,37], or with a length of a string in string theories [17]. ...
... 10) Quantum Mechanics (QM) [39] and Quantum Gravity (QG) [18,19,37] seem to interpret spacetime as 'quantum in nature', so AF ( ) may express an elementary 'quantum fluctuation' capable to compose different fields, like in QFT [40,41]. However, Einstein was knowingly uneasy [1,16] about probabilistic QM interpretations: "I attach only a transitory importance to this interpretation. ...
Preprint
Following Einstein's 1933 paper predicting a new "atomic theory", the novel theory of spacetime and fields quantization/atomization based on Atomic Solitons and Atomic and AString Functions is offered. Formulated Atomic Quantization Theorems allow representing polynomials, analytic functions, and solutions of field equations including General Relativity via superposition of solitonic atoms which can be associated with flexible spacetime quantum, metriants, or elementary distortions. Spacetime is conceptualized as a network of flexible solitonic atoms adjusting their locations to reproduce different metrics and fields shaped by gravity. It opens the prospects of unified field theory based on Atomic Solitons where, like in string theory, fields become interconnected having a common mathematical ancestor.
... String theory is one of candidates of the final theory of the universe, which assumes that, from the starting point of the universe to 10 −43 seconds after the Big Bang of the universe, the four basic forces are unified as a basic force, and thinks that, at its most microscopic Planck length, every particle is made up from the corresponding combinations of preferred vibrating strings [3][4][5][6]. Furthermore, string theory shows that, via these specific oscillatory patterns of strings, every particle with unique charge and mass is created [7][8][9][10]. ...
... Some useful physics tools are variational principle, analytical mechanics [29] and quantum mechanics [30], four basic interaction theories, and string theory etc. [3][4][5][6][7][8][9][10]; using them, people can further do many meaningful studies; e.g., [31] shows the analysis of the very inner Milky Way's dark matter distribution and gamma-ray signals, and [32] gives "on the dark matter distribution in the Milky Way." Symmetry in mathematics has a general definition that any object is invariant under various transformations, e.g., scaling, rotation, or reflection. Symmetry in physics is generalized to invariance under various transformations, e.g., any coordinate transformations [33]. ...
... Up to now, all publically admitted physics laws have difficulties in keeping their effectiveness below Planck-scopic scale [3][4][5][6]. Therefore, for now, people usually do not discuss the Planck-scopic scale below. ...
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This paper shows anthropic principle’s predicting symmetric distribution matter strata, their physics laws, and verifications, concretely deduces characteristic time, energy, and temperature expressions at different scales, discovers four interesting invariant quantities, shows homeomorphic theorem of space map, and naturally presents a supersymmetric scale energy. We further discover that any infinitesimal space has the same proportional structure space; namely, they have renormalization group invariance. Consequently, this paper shows that the region of any nth level Plank-scope is from the nth level Planck scale to the (n+1) th level Planck scale, where the different matters of the nth level Planck scale build up the (n+1)th level Planck scale matter. The branches of physics science for this region include the nth level Planck scale matter dynamics and the nth level Planck scale matter group dynamics. The nth level Planck scale matter group dynamics describe how the nth level Planck scale matter constructs the (n+1)th level Planck scale matter and how the different matters of the nth level Planck scale evolve in the group system. This paper discovers that the different matters below Planck scale can exist with our matter world at the same time and same place and may be some candidates for dark matter; furthermore, this paper shows a relative theorem of matter scale: for the world of any nth level, the matters’ sizes are relative, not absolute. Evidently, the discoveries of both the symmetrical distribution scales and the relations among the corresponding different physics laws from infinitesimal to infinitely large scales give a scientific solid development platform for formation of new scientific branches and deeper development of old scientific branches, because we can precisely construct many kinds of scientific theories relevant to all the corresponding matter strata. All the branch sciences of different matter strata up to now naturally need to be included in the framework of the new scientific system of physics.
... However, something moving with the speed of light c or at other metrical null cone speed c k do not serve as a frame of reference, for it appears moving at speed c, c k for all inertial observers, respectively, then eqs. (7), (15),(26) deserve an interpretation. ...
... Wheeler proposed pregeometry (see box 44.5 of [14]), the logic of propositions, as the basic building reasoning of space-time at Planck's length scale. Smolin [15] considers that our finest partition of space is a very tiny volume given by L 3 P and the finest time interval is t P " L P {c, the Planck time; instead of points he considers tiny volumes or order L 3 P . Taking into account these ideas, present work considers that points associated to space-time measures given by eqs.(9),(10), or of their inverses given by eqs. ...
... Eqs. (15),(26), enable us to extend this reasoning to any structure moving with speed c k , for any k ě 1, in their linear approach. Thus, r " pc k t`λ k φ k qê, (38) is the position of any element of the structure which propagates with speed c k , where the real number 0 ď φ k ď 1 specifies the element. ...
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We propose a generalisation of the local causality principle of space-time, asserting that it holds for all regimes of motion, including superluminal motions. It assumes the existence of a countably infinite set of metrical null cone speeds, c k , where the first one, c 1 " c, corresponds to the speed of light in vacuum. Our associated space-time measures do not diverge at the maximum speed of each interval of speeds and implies a generalisation of Einstein's rule for velocities addition. We construct a causal structure for each regime of motion. After introducing a simple dynamical measure, we derive an expression for the energy of material particles, which approaches the relativistic one when v ă c. An experiment to energise photons in an 1-1 process is proposed as a test of our interpretation of the non divergence at the speed of light of present space-time measures. We discuss also the possible transition of a material particle from the subluminal regime v ă c to the first superluminal regime and vice versa, making discrete changes in v 2 {c 2 around the unit in terms of a very tiny constant, 2 , which we introduce to prevent the divergence of the Lorentz γ factor at the speed of light in vacuum.
... The graph does not exist in space; rather, the graph itself is space. 2 Physical Justification: The existence of fundamental constants 'Planck distance' and 'Planck time', combined with the fact that most of the physical quantities in a bound system on a quantum scale, such as energy, momentum, etc., come in discrete units (quants) suggest that space and time may likewise be discrete. This concept is supported by multiple researchers in the field of quantum gravity, such as Roger Penrose and Lee Smolin. ...
... This concept is supported by multiple researchers in the field of quantum gravity, such as Roger Penrose and Lee Smolin. [2][3][4] I assume that all of the graph's edges are on the order of one Plank length in size. 3 Postulate 2. (Emergence of space): Space, as we know it, is an emergent phenomenon that resulted from the underlying elementary units connecting together in a graph with certain geometric and topological structure and properties. ...
... As argued by Lee Smolin and Roger Penrose, it is not sufficient to merely assume spacetime as a background, like most physics theories do. [2,4] It appears likely that the spatial structure and properties inside a black hole are different from the spatial structure and properties 2 When speaking about dimensionality, I need to mention that there are several alternative ways to define dimensionality on a graph. It is also useful to make a distinction between local and global dimensionality, and between graph dimensionality and continuous space dimensionality. ...
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This article proposes a unified theory framework encompassing a discrete topological interpretation of physical forces, wave functions, and the nature of space and time. It provides novel explanations for the collapse of wave functions, quantum entanglement, and offers insights into the origins of quantum probabilities. This article also explains the nature of mass, Higgs field, and suggests a path for unifying quantum mechanics and gravity. Elementary particles are represented as defects in discrete topological spaces. Entangled particles are directly connected to each other through a puncture in discrete space, separated by a distance of one Planck length. Wave functions are explained as mechanical stress waves within elastic discrete space. The results of the double-slit experiment are interpreted as wave functions maximizing the probability of rupture in high-stress areas of discrete space with obvious analogies to solid state mechanics. Wave-particle duality is explained as discrete topological defects causing extended distributed stress within space lattice.
... Time is a unique characteristic for all three-dimensional geometric mass (Smolin, 2017). It is the parameter that describes the change of all materials through-S. ...
... The four-dimensional space-time is a notion within the three-dimensional Universe, and to study the Essence of the Universe, it is necessary to eliminate the factor of time because time is not absolute (Smolin, 2017). The theory of relativity, although a great theory in itself that explains the three-dimensional Universe and connects the three-dimensional Universe with the zero-dimensional Universe, is not the theory that explains the Truth of the Universe, because it can only adapt to particles with a mass. ...
... When scrutinized, the theory of relativity cannot unify with quantum mechanics in certain aspect (Greene, 2018;Hawking, 2011). The theory of relativity is the scientific theory that links the three-dimensional Universe with mass, whereas quantum mechanics is the science that links materials to the Essence of the Universe, and physics to the multi-dimensional Universe (Penrose, 2013;Smolin, 2017;Xu, 2010). Furthermore, the theory on the Essence of the Universe in quantum mechanics involved not only scientific questions, but religious question as well, and not the theory on the Essence of any specific religion, but the theory to all religions (Hawking, 2011). ...
... For another angle on consistent histories, loop quantum gravity theorist Lee Smolin [11] brings up the fundamental point that QT must include continuity of observer experiences. Decoherence emphasizes the spatial context, the environment, in which quantum objects narrow down to classical physical objects. ...
... Considering further the OR interpretation, it seems appropriate to bring up a model by anesthesiologist Stuart Hameroff and mathematician/cosmologist Sir Roger Penrose [11]. Called the 'Orch-OR' model (Orchestrated Objective Reduction), it combines neurobiology and quantum physics in an attempt to address how consciousness 'emerges' in nature. ...
... When a 'quantum system' is isolated from decohering environmental effects and remains coherent until a threshold is reached, it is theorized to 'self-reduce' or 'collapse' in a non-random 'objective' fashion, due to a special interpretation of gravitational processes to account for this particular model of 'collapse' (Diosi-Penrose model). Hameroff and Penrose further posit [11] that this event somehow and for some reason "…creates an instantaneous 'now' conscious event… (p. 187)." ...
... My goal here is not turning out another review of this nearly one-hundred-year-old book. Instead my purpose is to provide some general remarks on the overall philosophical scope of such quite unusual work in the history of ideas, especially in regard to its possible connection with the still ongoing problem of finding a general working theory of quantum gravity [2][3][4][5]. Indeed, the completion of modern quantum theory in 1927 coincided with the publication of this work. ...
... In fact, there is a strong evidence that the later Leibniz began to move into this direction in his mature philosophy, as can be sensed after reading some of his correspondence, especially with Arnauld [44]. But of course the theme of "emerging spacetime" has become quite popular in recent decades due to the increasing volume of researches conducted by some mainstream programs of quantum gravity such as noncommutative geometry, loop quantum gravity, causal net theories, string theory, Penrose spin foams and networks [2][3][4][45][46][47][48][49]. While the technical contents of each of these competing research diagrams differ significantly from each other, what somehow unifies most of them is the belief that quantizing gravity implies quantizing spacetime itself, and hence forces classical spacetime to become an emergent structure, while a kind of "quantum spacetime," e.g., spacetime governed by a quantized metric field operator, is more fundamental. ...
Article
The goal of this note is to bring into wider attention the often neglected important work by Bertrand Russell on the foundations of physics published in the late 1920s. In particular, we emphasize how the book \textit{The Analysis of Matter} can be considered the earliest systematic attempt to unify the modern quantum theory, just emerging by that time, with general relativity. More importantly, it is argued that the idea of what I call \textit{Russell space}, introduced in Part III of that book, is more fundamental than quantum theory, general relativity, and quantum gravity since since the topological ordinal space proposed by Russell would naturally incorporate into its very fabric the emergent nature of spacetime by deploying event assemblages, and not spacetime or particles, as the fundamental building blocks of the world.
... Consequently, the passive reflection correspondence between human epistemological constructs (i.e., Big History narrative) and the ontological nature of reality (i.e., physical evolution of universe) becomes simply untenable in relation to the future of the present moment. For example, in contemporary science the inadequacy of passive epistemological reflection becomes unavoidable when reflecting on the future of conscious and technological evolution (Kurzweil 2005), the connections between physics and computation (Lloyd 2006), and a future physics dependent on observation (Smolin 2001). ...
... Could it be that what is reflected in this Other/Background is some fundamental absence (Deacon 2011)? Thus, in the same way that solutions to quantum gravity may require physicists to remove their dependence on an absolute background existing independently of observation (Smolin 2001), could it be that understanding the immanence of Threshold 9 requires Big Historians to play with the consequences of background independence? In the same way that we start the contemporary Big History with a void that is filled in with all substance (i.e., "'In the beginning…' there was nothing [an empty substanceless void], and from this nothing, there emerged not just a positive substantial something, but everything") can we say that all forms of historical subjectivity are desiring voids that freely fill in this absence with the necessarily missing substantial content? ...
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Big History is a theoretical field attempting to ground a historical evolutionary view of the physical universe. However, in this paper the author argues that such a view by necessity can only remain on the first order of discourse. In the first order of discourse the observer remains external to the system objectively under reflective observation. This approach has proven effective and useful but remains limited in terms of understanding the evolution of the symbolic order. Internal to the symbolic order networks of observers produce and maintain their identities via mechanics of reflection that are independent of any external systemic objectivity. Consequently, in this work the author explores the potential for Big History to approach the problematics of a higher order framework inclusive of observers. The main goal of this approach is to understand the ways in which symbolic orders evolve across time reflectively transforming visions of past and future.
... In this theory, space is generated from topological relationships in a dynamically evolving network of intersecting loops, referred to as a spin network. Smolin (2001) explains further: ...
... Also, core aspects of the observer, including consciousness, are left out. Smolin (2001) further points out: ...
... Bohm and Hiley generalized the twistor idea to Clifford algebra as a possible basis for describing Bohm's "implicit order" (Bohm, 1984). Recently various spin foams have been formulated as extensions to Penrose's spin networks for the purpose of constructing a consistent theory of quantum gravity (Smolin, 2002). In recent years there has been much progress in understanding the topological phases of matter. ...
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A unified theory is proposed of gravity and quantum mechanics, based on a multiconnected toroidal space connected with a monopole topology, in which each state of the ordinary quantum system encodes the information about the state of the higher-dimensional system. Space-time is created out of quantum processes themselves at the subatomic level and emerges like a hologram out of information stored in the entangled quantum states of elementary particles. Einstein's equation links matter to gravity and his formula E = mc 2 links matter to energy. It is proposed that the nature of quantum gravity is a manifestation of quantum entanglement, has a local and non-local nature and is mediated by wave-functions of bosonic and fermionic elementary particles supported by a vacuum field. The gravitational waves are in the open strings at the top and bottom of the toroidal geometry as left and right rotating vortices in a small curvature region. The mathematics can be described by two quantum wave equations: one for the coherent quantum states and a second for the incoherent quantum states. The proposed quantum information has been calculated containing thirteen scalars and can be described by a Pythagorean like equation: how to distribute ratios of 3/2 into 2/1 and describes coherent ordered systems and emerged from non-gravitational entangled quantum systems. The theory makes use of twelve normalized Chern invariants in a o-minimal structure The validity of the gravity model has been substantiated by measurements of gravitational waves and shows a coherent distribution of energy according the distribution as found for Bosonic elementary particles and Bose Einstein condensates. The proposed quantum wave equation and calculated eigenfunctions are in line with the theory of David Bohm and Louis de Broglie and is a non-probabilistic formula and a way in which geometry encodes entanglement.
... Indeed, most physicists now would likely view energy as the more fundamental concept. This shift from matter to energy changes the central conception of the universe from an "object view" to a "process view" (Smolin, 2001), meaning that the long view of physics focuses on change processes over time as a fundamental frame with which to view the universe. ...
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As evidenced by textbook definitions and descriptions, modern academic psychology emphasizes the empirical side of the field, that is the experimental and data driven analysis that allow one to generate knowledge claims. Although empirical methods and data are central to the scientific enterprise, so too is the broad conceptual system and vocabulary employed to understand the data and draw conclusions from the experimental enterprise. Indeed, a major and longstanding critique of psychology is that it does not have a conceptual system for defining its key terms (i.e., behavior, mind, and consciousness). This chapter advances theoretical psychology by introducing a continuum of analysis that stretches from the empirical through theoretical explanations into the major paradigms and then into meta-theoretical and finally metaphysical systems that provide the foundational concepts and categories. The argument made is that the field of psychology has struggled since its inception because it has lacked an effective metaphysical system to define its subject matter. The Tree of Knowledge System provides a framework that can serve as that metatheoretical system and be used to bridge the science of psychology to the practice of psychotherapy. As such, it offers a “Metaphysical Empirical” vision for the field.
... The Bekenstein (1973) Bound sets a limit to the information available about the other side of the horizon of a black hole. And Smolin (2001) argues that: "There is no way to reconcile this with the view that space is continuous for that implies that each finite volume can contain an infinite amount of information". A review, relevant to our discussion, appears in a paper by Amelino-Camelia (2002). ...
Article
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The essence of electric charge has been a mystery. So far, no theory has been able to derive the attributes of electric charge, which are: bivalency, stability, quantization, equality of the absolute values of the bivalent charges, the electric field it creates and the radii of the bivalent charges. Our model of the electric charge and its field (this paper) enables us (in additional papers), for the first time, to derive simple equations for the radii and masses of the electron/positron muon/anti-muon and quarks/anti-quarks. These equations contain only the constants G, c, ℏ and α (the fine structure constant). The calculated results based on these equations comply accurately with the experimental results. In this paper, which serves as a basis for the other papers, we define electric charge density, based on space density. This definition alone, without any phenomenology, yields the theory of Electrostatics. Electrostatics together with Lorentz Transformation is known to yield the entire Maxwell Electromagnetic theory.
... Conceiving space as the content, not the container, and time as no more than spatial change means adopting a view on the nature of nature as a relational manifold. Barad (2007) refers to interpretations of quantum mechanics based on relational ontologies which reject particularism (Mermin 1998, Rovelli 1996, Smolin 2001) in order to develop further her theoretical approach to social change: ...
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Full text available: https://www.research.manchester.ac.uk/portal/en/theses/food-that-matters-sustainability-and-the-materialdiscursive-boundaries-of-carnist-and-vegan-food-practices(770c7ed4-5279-4969-b165-0558dc9f635b).html - - - Acting upon Livestock's Long Shadow to mitigate climate change, mass extinction, and other social-ecological crises requires fundamental changes in food practices. Labelled as "ethical consumers", vegans, vegetarians, and meat-reducing carnists already attract considerable attention. However, food practices on the production side, which are just as much an ethical issue, also require reconfiguration in order to achieve sustainable development. In a critical assessment of tendencies that depict consumer demand as the only legitimate means of change and depoliticise absolute reductions of animal-sourced foods, this thesis extends the locus of vegan food practices to various productive processes drawing on cases such as stock-based and stockfree farms, retailers, and food-related advocacy networks. By exploring these foodscapes, it is examined how the material-discursive boundaries between vegan and carnist food practices are drawn, particularly in response to animal agriculture as a sustainability challenge. Inspired by practice and materialist turns, my research builds on debates on ethical consumption, responsibility, and sustainability within sociological and geographical food studies. Relational and posthumanist approaches are drawn upon to conceptualise practices and conduct material-discursive analyses. Qualitative methods are applied to outline relations within and between agricultural and retailing foodscapes in Greater Manchester, Derbyshire, and South West England, involving a mix of participant observation (incl. field notes and photography), in-depth interviews with stakeholders on site, and an interpretative examination of their sustainability-related websites and reports. The findings revolve around the marginal but emerging agricultural and culinary paradigm of "vegan organic" production. It excludes the use of manure, bone meal, or other animal derivatives for the replenishment of soil fertility and relies instead on nutrient-fixing plants and practices such as composting or mulching. Thus, veganism, rather than being a dietary identity, becomes a relationally grounded approach to how vegans and plant foods come into being performatively through material-discursive practices. Conventionally, however, the term "vegan" as applied in both food regulations and everyday life, is merely a label either for people who abjure from animal products or for vegetal products. This dematerialised consumption-based mainstream conception of veganism personalises food practices, confines ethics to a sentimental care for domesticated animals, and depoliticises social-ecological reasons for veganism. In order to maintain a safe operating space for all life on Earth, I suggest that performing vegan food practices as much as possible is an undogmatic responsibility of ethical producers and consumers alike, regardless of their personal identities as vegans, vegetarians or "meat eaters" (carnists).
... Thus, a relational paradigm is beyond the alternative of a naïve realism and positivism on the one hand or a radical constructivism and deconstructivism on the other hand. In accordance with the call for 'a dynamic and relational theory of religion' (Tweed 2006, 28), the study of religion should refer to approaches from general relational theory, emergence theory and the theory of complex systems as developed in theoretical physics (Barbour 1982;Smolin 2001), in philosophy (Cassirer 1957(Cassirer , 1923Humphreys [1997] 2008), and the social sciences (Emirbayer 1997;White [1992White [ ] 2012Sawyer 2005;Luhmann [2012Luhmann [ ] 2013. Whilst in the study of religion relational approaches are mostly influenced by the spatial turn (Knott 2005), relationality as such should be placed at the heart of empirical research and theorization and at the same time emphasize the complementarity of structure and process, as is the case with theories of physics which conceive space and time as abstractions of relations (for an adaption to the study of religion see Rezania 2010Rezania , 2017. ...
Article
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Religious traditions – although socially constructed – are distinguishable as distinct, practiced entities having pragmatic effects. Religion is not a purely scholarly invention. Correspondencies between empirical data and scientific concepts, or, between object language and metalanguage, have to be found beyond essentialism and reification. Consequently, there is a shift in parts of the study of religion towards approaches that counteract essentialism and reification by explaining subject-matters through relationality. A relational paradigm is beyond the alternative of a naïve realism and positivism on the one hand or a radical constructivism or deconstructivism on the other hand. Against this background, the article draws attention to relations in the study of religion, especially between cognition, experience, action, and materiality, between semantics and social structure, and between structure and process. The article argues for a synthesis of different approaches in the study of religion, namely cognitive and material approaches, and experience- and action-orientated theories and methodologies.
... The Unruh effect lies at the intersection of thermal physics, quantum physics and gravity. It's an important signpost in the search for the theory of quantum gravity [4,35]. Unfortunately, the effect is yet to be verified experimentally. ...
Preprint
We propose a method for simulating an Unruh-DeWitt detector, coupled to a 1+1-dimensional massless scalar field, with a suitably-engineered $\chi^{(2)}$ nonlinear interaction. In this simulation, the parameter playing the role of the detector acceleration is played by the relative inverse-group-velocity gradient inside the nonlinear material. We identify experimental parameters that tune the detector energy gap, acceleration, and switching function. This system can simulate time-dependent acceleration, time-dependent detector energy gaps, and non-vacuum initial detector-field states. Furthermore, for very short materials, the system can simulate the weak anti-Unruh effect, in which the response of the detector decreases with acceleration. While some Unruh-related phenomena have been investigated in nonlinear optics, this is the first proposal for simulating an Unruh-DeWitt detector in these systems.
... There are strong reasons why a theory of quantum gravity should exist, e.g. [80], and it is generally believed that such a theory exists. There are many difficulties with formulating a theory of quantum gravity, some of which are discussed in [48,49]. ...
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Any reasonable form of quantum gravity can explain (by phase interference) why, on a large scale, inertial frames seem not to rotate relative to the average matter distribution in the universe without the need for absolute space, finely tuned initial conditions, or without giving up independent degrees of freedom for the gravitational field. A simple saddlepoint approximation to a path-integral calculation for a perfect fluid cosmology shows that only cosmologies with an average present relative rotation rate smaller than about \(T^*H^2 \approx 10^{-71}\) radians per year could contribute significantly to a measurement of relative rotation rate in our universe, where \(T^*\approx 10^{-51}\) years is the Planck time and \(H \approx 10^{-10}\)\(\hbox {yr}^{-1}\) is the present value of the Hubble parameter. A more detailed calculation (taking into account that with vorticity flow lines are not normal to surfaces of constant global time, and approximating the action to second order in the mean square vorticity) shows that the saddlepoint at zero vorticity is isolated and that only cosmologies with an average present relative rotation rate smaller than about \(T^*H^2 a_1^{1/2} \approx 10^{-73}\) radians per year could contribute significantly to a measurement of relative rotation rate in our universe, where \(a_1 \approx 10^{-4}\) is the value of the cosmological scale factor at the time when matter became more significant than radiation in the cosmological expansion. Including inflation with 60 e-foldings in the calculation of the action further restricts relative rotation rate to be smaller than \(\approx 10^{-74}\) radians per year. These calculations are consistent with measurements indicating a present relative rotation rate less than about \(10^{-20}\) radians per year. The observed lack of relative rotation may be evidence for the existence of quantum gravity.
... Firstly, we deem it crucial to underscore that Wimsatt's goal is mostly descriptive here and that he somehow extends the taxonomy of levels he established in Wimsatt (1976). Another relevant point is that Wimsatt aligns himself with a current of thought for which the fundamental structure of the world is merely a rich network of causal processes, perhaps understood as informationtransmission processes (in the physical and mathematical sense of the term)- Wimsatt 2007: 200, andSalmon 1984;Smolin 2001;Ross and Spurrett 2004;Ladyman et al. 2007, for several formulations of the idea. Therefore, Wimsatt's conception is inherently dynamic, which immediately suggests that there is likely to be some clash between it and the essentially static view of realization defended by Aizawa and Gillett. ...
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It is widely assumed that functional and dispositional properties are not identical to their physical base, but that there is some kind of asymmetrical ontological dependence between them. In this regard, a popular idea is that the former are realized by the latter, which, under the non-identity assumption, is generally understood to be a non-causal, constitutive relation. In this paper we examine two of the most widely accepted approaches to realization, the so-called ‘flat view’ and the ‘dimensioned view’, and we analyze their explanatory relevance in the light of a number of examples from the life sciences, paying special attention to developmental phenomena. Our conclusion is that the emphasis placed by modern-day biology on such properties as variability, evolvability, and a whole collection of phenomena like modularity, robustness, and developmental constraint or developmental bias requires the adoption of a much more dynamic perspective than traditional realization frameworks are able to capture.
... The main difficulty in the development of the quantum gravity theory, as is known, resides in the fact that short-range and high energy gravity force is too strong. ( [9], [17], [18]). The system here is concealed from the observer beyond the event horizon ( [4], [14], [15], [16]). ...
Article
A simultaneous development of the fundamental research areas of the information theory is needed for efficient development in the information technologies. It is known that for the complicated macroscopic systems information evolution may be shaped on the basis of the principal thermodynamics laws (the second law of thermodynamics, etc). At the same time it is not known whether the fundamentals of the information theory for the macroscopic systems may be applicable to the microscopic systems. The study works out a mathematic model of the discrete phase space adapted to describing the evolution of information (entropy) of the microscopic systems. The discrete phase-space model rests on the indeterminacy principle and fundamental properties of the discrete continuous-time Markovian systems. The Kolmogorov equations represent the main mathematical tools technique. The suggested model refers to the smallest metric scale when the external macroscopic observation is possible. This scale can be viewed as a quasiclassical level. The research results are the following. The structure of the phase space of the elementary signal is revealed. It is demonstrated that the entropy of the microscopic systems increases, i.e. for the microscopic systems the second law of thermodynamics is true. There has been demonstrated transition from the microscopic model to the macroscopic one thus proving the former’s adequacy. The discrete phase-space model is promising in the aspect of further development. For example, it can be applied to the physical systems “particle – field”. The approach represented by the model will allow to study electromagnetic and gravity fields at the quasiclassical level. The above model of the discrete phase space and its application in the study of the evolution of the microscopic systems is a proprietary design of the authors.
... It goes without saying that Stachel is not the only who made this claim. As we noted, the idea of processes being at the heart of physics is agreed upon by other leading contemporary physicists-seeSmolin (2001),Smolin (2020),Hiley (2001),Hiley (2011), Rovelli (2019,Rovelli (2020),Rovelli & Vidotto (2014). Furthermore, within the field of the philosophy of physics that expands on some of the consequences of quantum physics, a vivacious debate exists on the idea of relations being on a par with (or even more primitive than) physical entities(French & Krause, 2006;French & Ladyman, 2003;Ladyman, 1998;Ladyman & Ross, 2007;Lam, 2014). ...
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What is it that determines the identity of an entity? Processualism is a theoretical perspective that offers a startling answer to this question. The identity of an entity—whether human or nonhuman, animate or inanimate—depends on the set of relations in which this entity is located. And as the sets of relations are several, so are the identities that an entity can take. This article discusses this conclusion by integrating processual accounts from different fields of inquiry, such as relativistic physics and actor-network theory. According to a processual interpretation of relativistic physics, speaking of states of things is but an abstraction. For states come from the introduction of arbitrary (physically meaningless) breakups of the spacetime continuum. Therefore, processes precede states, a process being a set of relations that confers identity on a physical state. According to a processual interpretation of actor-network theory, the same holds true for actors. Again, speaking of states of actors is but an abstraction. For what really acts is heterogeneous networks. When one describes actors in isolation, one is neglecting a whole array of relations with other actors whereby that actor can act or is made to act in such and such a way. These strands of processualism come to the same conclusion as to the identity of entities. These are not characterized by individuality but by individua(bi)lity: they can be differently individuated according to the set of relations one is able to take into account. The main methodological consequence is that, if one intends to describe what an entity is, knowledge of this entity—whether human or nonhuman, animate or inanimate—should be based on progressively less narrow localizations and mappings of the relations it has to other entities.
... Thus, our worldview encompasses both stances-'all is waves' [87] and 'all is corpuscles' [70]-albeit at different levels. Note that these train-waves, reminiscent of superstring theory [126], form loops, which are themselves reminiscent of quantum gravity loops [127,128]. ...
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The strange behavior of subatomic particles is described by quantum theory, whose standard interpretation rejected some fundamental principles of classical physics such as causality, objectivity, locality, realism and determinism. Recently, a granular relativistic electrodynamical model of the electron could capture the measured values of its observables and predict its mass from the stability of its substructure. The model involves numerous subparticles that constitute some tight nucleus and loosely bound envelope allegedly forming real waves. The present study examines whether such a substructure and associated dynamics allow fundamentally realist interpretations of emblematic quantum phenomena, properties and principles, such as wave-particle duality, loss of objectivity, quantization, simultaneous multipath exploration, collapse of wavepacket, measurement problem, and entanglement. Drawing inspiration from non-linear dynamical systems, subparticles would involve realist hidden variables while high-level observables would not generally be determined, as particles would generally be in unstable states before measurements. Quantum mechanics would constitute a high-level probabilistic description emerging from an underlying causal, objective, local, albeit contextual and unpredictable reality. Altogether, by conceiving particles as granular systems composed of numerous extremely sensitive fluctuating subcorpuscles, this study proposes the possible existence of a local fundamentally realist interpretation of quantum mechanics.
... For instance, consider the contemporary physics community's stance on the question "Do superstrings exist?". Based on the sheer number of publications on the topic (Dine, 2016;Smolin, 2017), we can safely assume that the question is accepted. However, it is also clear that physicists believe that we do not currently possess the technological means required for detecting some of the phenomena predicted by the theory, such as micro black holes or SUSI particles (Lazanu, Lazanu, & Pârvu, 2020). ...
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The paper presents a new scientonomic account of question dynamics. To explain the process of question acceptance and rejection, we begin by introducing the notion of epistemic presupposition and show how it’s different from the notion of logical presupposition. With the notion of epistemic presupposition at hand, we formulate the law of question acceptance, a new scientonomic axiom, which states that a question becomes accepted only if all of its epistemic presuppositions are accepted, and it is accepted that the question is answerable. We then show how the process of question rejection can be explained by means of the question rejection theorem, which states that a question becomes rejected when other elements that are incompatible with the question become accepted. To deduce this theorem in the usual scientonomic fashion (from the first law and the compatibility corollary), we first ascertain that the notion of compatibility/incompatibility is applicable to questions and show that one can legitimately speak of both question-theory and question-question incompatibility. We conclude by providing a quick illustration of the historical applicability of this new framework and suggest a number of questions for future research. Suggested Modifications [Sciento-2021-0001]: Accept the following definitions of logical presupposition and epistemic presupposition: • Logical Presupposition ≡ a theory is said to be a logical presupposition of a question, iff the theory is logically entailed by any direct answer to the question. • Epistemic Presupposition ≡ a theory is said to be an epistemic presupposition of a question for some agent, iff the agent accepts that accepting any direct answer to the question will necessitate accepting the theory. [Sciento-2021-0002]: Accept the law of question acceptance as a new scientonomic axiom: • The Law of Question Acceptance: a question becomes accepted only if all of its epistemic presuppositions are accepted, and it is accepted that the question is answerable. Accept the question rejection theorem as a deductive consequence of the first law and the compatibility corollary: • Question Rejection Theorem: a question become rejected when other elements that are incompatible with the question become accepted. Also accept the following questions as legitimate topics of scientonomic inquiry: • Role of sociocultural factors in question acceptance: what is the role of sociocultural factors, such as economics or politics, in the process of question acceptance? • Role of employed methods in question acceptance: is the process of question acceptance affected by employed methods?
... This framework suggests a formal basis for models seeking to construct geometric structures starting from purely pregeometric notions. This can be potentially useful for formally justifying choices of underlying spacetime discretizations adopted by contemporary models of quantum gravity [61], [44], [62], [37], [87], [88]. More specifically, and to different degrees, most models of quantum gravity presume that a well-defined continuum limit exists, where one might retrieve smooth classical spaces [76], [80], [69]. ...
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How do spaces emerge from pregeometric discrete building blocks governed by computational rules? To address this, we investigate non-deterministic rewriting systems (multiway systems) of the Wolfram model. We formalize these rewriting systems as homotopy types. Using this new formulation, we outline how spatial structures can be functorially inherited from pregeometric type-theoretic constructions. We show how higher homotopy types are constructed from rewriting rules. These correspond to morphisms of an $n$-fold category. Subsequently, the $n \to \infty$ limit of the Wolfram model rulial multiway system is identified as an $\infty$-groupoid, with the latter being relevant given Grothendieck's homotopy hypothesis. We then go on to show how this construction extends to the classifying space of rulial multiway systems, which forms a multiverse of multiway systems and carries the formal structure of an ${\left(\infty, 1\right)}$-topos. This correspondence to higher categorical structures offers a new way to understand how spaces relevant to physics may result from pregeometric combinatorial models. The key issue we have addressed here is to formally relate abstract non-deterministic rewriting systems to higher homotopy spaces. A consequence of constructing spaces and geometry synthetically is that it removes ad hoc assumptions about geometric attributes of a model such as an a priori background or pre-assigned geometric data. Instead, geometry is inherited functorially from globular structures. This is relevant for formally justifying different choices of underlying spacetime discretization adopted by various models of quantum gravity. Finally, we end with comments on how the framework of higher category-theoretic combinatorial constructions developed here, corroborates with other approaches investigating higher categorical structures relevant to the foundations of physics.
... Теория петлевой квантовой гравитации предполагает существование дискретного пространства-времени. В рамках данной теории, гравитоны -кванты смещений пространства-времени [10]. Квантование гравитации описывается при помощи спиновых сетей Пенроуза таким образом, чтобы пространствовремя было представлено в виде отдельных частей, соединённых друг с другом, как точки, соединённые с помощью соединительных линий. ...
Thesis
Ключевые слова: основания физики, квантовая механика, общая теория относительности, замкнутая времениподобная кривая, квантовая информация, квантовое состояние, многомировая интерпретация квантовой механики, сверхсветовой телеграф. Предмет исследования — математический формализм квантовых состояний. Цель работы — изучить влияние выбора трактовки квантового состояния в квантовых моделях замкнутых времениподобных кривых в рамках теории квантовых вычислений. Работа состоит из условных обозначений (глава 1), шести основных глав, благодарностей (глава 8), списка литературы и приложения. Глава 2 (введение): определение проблемы формализма квантовых состояний, постановка цели и задачи работы. Глава 3 (обзор литературы): обзор литературы, содержащей инструменты и контекст исследования, определяющей возможность «сталкивать» физические теории (квантовые модели замкнутых времениподобных кривых) для извлечения слабых и неоднозначных мест в этих теориях. Глава 4 (методология): определение физико-теоретического и математического инструментария для дальнейшей работы. Глава 5 (основная часть): сравнение квантовых моделей времениподобных кривых в контексте добавления акта измерения и совместного эксперимента с запутанными квантовыми объектами (сравнивались вероятности исходов и выходные состояния, выполнялась проверка на сепарабельность выходного состояния). Глава 6 (результаты): анализ и обобщение полученных результатов, вывод общих правил, определяющих зависимость многомировой интерпретации квантовой механики и замкнутых времениподобных кривых. Глава 7 (заключение): подведение итогов и формулировка дальнейших перспектив исследований. Результаты исследования показывают, что независимо от трактовки квантового состояния, добавляя акт измерения в квантовые модели квантовых времениподобных кривых, возникает необходимость введения многомировой интерпретации квантовой механики. Предлагается три альтернативы для согласования рассматриваемых физических теорий: 1) ни одна из текущих трактовок квантового состояния не верна — поиск других вариантов; 2) модификация общей теории относительности для недопустимости метрик, реализующих замкнутые времениподобные кривые; 3) серьёзное рассмотрение многомировой интерпретации в качестве более полной квантовой теории. В ходе выполнения дипломной работы была написана научная статья, проведено два выступления на конференциях. Работа включает: 68 страниц, 15 изображений, 11 листингов кода, 62 ссылки на литературные источники.
... Einstein's and Newton's theories of gravity both predict that if mass is shrunk to a subatomic space, its gravity will become nearly infinite. Quantum physics tells us that a mass in spaces the size of the Planck length, coupled with the corresponding Planck energy (10 19 GeV), will form a singularity with gravitational forces which are so incredibly powerful (Eisberg & Resnick 1985;Smolin, 2002) that holes are created in space time. ...
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A "Big Bang" creation event which begins as a subatomic singularity leads to the question: where did the singularity come from? As detailed here, the evidence indicates that this (observable) "universe" recycles itself by expanding outward and collapsing back into a singularity which explodes outward again. The cosmos, however, may be infinite, and consist of innumerable "universes" all of which eventually collapse into a singularity which then mushrooms outward giving rise to new universes (including our own) and thus explaining why our universe behaves and is organized contrary to Big Bang theory. These theories of cyclic, oscillating universes and of repeated episodes of expansion, contraction, and colliding universes, have failed to generate widespread support, and are based on the beliefs that: A) this universe is expanding-when, it may already be accelerating toward a collapse-and that B) a singularity explodes outward. Quantum physics and relativity, however, predict that a singularity-which has shrunk to smaller than a Planck Length (1.61619926 x 10-33 cm), will blow an imploding hole through the fabric of the space-time quantum continuum, forming an Einstein-Rosen bridge and creating a mirror universe on the other side. The mirror of a positive-matter universe, is an antimatter universe. If cycles of creation alternate from antimatter to matter, and if a collapsing/imploding antimatter universe gave birth to our own, there is no violation of the second law of thermodynamics, entropy ceases to be a limiting factor, and the conservation laws of energy and mass are maintained. As predicted by Einstein's theory of relativity, and when coupled with quantum physics, it appears we may be dwelling in a Mirror Universe which formed from the remnants of a collapsing antimatter universe which upon shrinking to a singularity smaller than a Planck length, blew a hole in the quantum continuum thereby leading to the creation of this universe on the other side. Further, our Mirror Universe is not be expanding, but already collapsing and accelerating to its doom. If so, this collapse may account for the clumping and formation of great galactic walls separated by vast voids, colliding galaxies, and phenomenon attributed to the purely hypothetical "dark energy" which may not exist at all.
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Whereas most of the cosmos is comprised of rather simple large-scale structures, on Earth, we find breathtaking complexity, down to microscopic scales. Indeed, it appears as though the universe is driven by a propensity to assemble ever more complex structures around us, guided by self-organized and emergent behavior. Naively one would expect complexity to be complicated to comprehend. Luckily, in the universe we inhabit, complex systems are encoded by simple rules of interaction. Like Volume I of the Book of Nature being written in the language of mathematics, Volume II, addressing complexity, is composed of simple algorithms decoding reality. Complex systems theory has a long history and raises philosophical questions. One of its most successful formal tools are networks. In fact, complex networks are ubiquitous in the domains of living and non-living complexity. One particular organizational property in complex systems is akin to a “law of nature,” giving rise to universal behavior. These patterns, known as scaling laws, are to be found everywhere.
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Observed from a distance, the edifice of science appears impressive—a robust and coherent body of knowledge. However, tiny cracks become visible if one looks closer. Unexpectedly, and drastically, these cracks become chasms. The whole monumental structure of knowledge falls apart like a house of cards. These fault-lines appear as soon as one inquires about the true nature of reality. Space, time, and matter emerge as alien concepts, incomprehensible to the mind. Of the many open questions in physics, perhaps the most pressing deficiency can be attributed to quantum field theory. Specifically, what it has to say about the vacuum. Then, the most obvious shortcoming is the incompatibility of quantum theory and general relativity. No testable theory of quantum gravity exists. String/M-theory and loop quantum gravity may be elegant and powerful mathematical frameworks, but their relationship to reality is dubious. Moreover, our universe, accommodating life and consciousnesses, appears as the result of delicate fine-tuning at many levels. Inexplicably, nearly the entire energy-matter content of the universe is unknown to us. But most astonishingly, the fundamental quantum level of reality, discovered by chance, tells us outlandish stories about the nature of the universe. All our cherished intuitions about reality are under attack: determinism, causality, and an objective and mind-independent world. Indeed, at the core of reality, a bizarre, holistic structural connectivity appears to emerge. To tackle these enigmas, physicists have conjured up fantastic ontologies: higher-dimensional space-time or the multiverse, in which our universe is just one instance out of an infinitude. Other physicists have resorted to mysticism. By analyzing the actual ontology of reality, one is forced to ask the following questions. Does matter exists? Is time an illusion? Tentative answers suggest: no and yes.
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We address a recent proposal concerning 'surplus structure' due to Nguyen et al. ['Why Surplus Structure is Not Superfluous.' Br. J. Phi. Sci. Forthcoming.] We argue that the sense of 'surplus structure' captured by their formal criterion is importantly different from---and in a sense, opposite to---another sense of 'surplus structure' used by philosophers. We argue that minimizing structure in one sense is generally incompatible with minimizing structure in the other sense. We then show how these distinctions bear on Nguyen et al.'s arguments about Yang-Mills theory and on the hole argument.
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In the course of modern history, science and magic have gradually become separated into a pair of binary opposites. While acknowledging what the “pure reason” of modernity considered to be a supernatural action, science nevertheless attempted to explain the latter in terms of a regular method of a direct cause-effect connection as a method in natural science, promptly arriving at a conclusion of either anomalous effect (as in magic) or anomalous cause (as in mantic). But can what is called magic still be considered a science—a science of hidden relations that are nevertheless, and in accord with Charles S. Peirce’s pragmatic maxim, capable of producing real effects? Surely John Deely (2001) acknowledged Peirce’s vision as rooted in science rather than mysticism. This chapter uses one of the Tarot cards called the Magician as an index of overcoming a schism between the dual opposites when positioned in the conceptual framework of semiotics that allows us to elucidate the meaning of this sign (Fig. 12.1).
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The introduction of a new kind of symmetry ushered in a golden era for theoretical physics. The marriage of this novel gauge theory with quantum field theory culminated in the standard model of particle physics. This is the unified description of all three non-gravitational forces in the universe, a momentous milestone in human knowledge generation. Inspired by this success, physicists hoped for a “theory of everything,” uniting the standard model with general relativity, the theory of gravity. These attempts uncovered five ten-dimensional superstring theories, unified within an overarching eleven-dimensional framework called M-Theory. To this day, the theory of everything remains an elusive dream. Albert Einstein, arguably the most insightful physicists, played a rather tragic role in the history of unification and quantum theory.
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We address a recent proposal concerning 'surplus structure' due to Nguyen et al. ['Why Surplus Structure is Not Superfluous.' Br. J. Phi. Sci. Forthcoming.] We argue that the sense of 'surplus structure' captured by their formal criterion is importantly different from---and in a sense, opposite to---another sense of 'surplus structure' used by philosophers. We argue that minimizing structure in one sense is generally incompatible with minimizing structure in the other sense. We then show how these distinctions bear on Nguyen et al.'s arguments about Yang-Mills theory and on the hole argument.
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Quantum entanglement and relativistic causality are key concepts in theoretical works seeking to unify quantum mechanics and gravity. In this article, a gedanken experiment that couples the spin to spacetime is proposed, and is then analyzed in the context of quantum information by using different approaches to quantum gravity. Both classical gravity theory and certain quantum theories predict that around a spin‐half particle, the spherical symmetry of spacetime is broken by its magnetic field or merely by its intrinsic angular momentum. It is asserted that any spin‐related deviation from spherical symmetry, upon appropriate measurement, can violate relativistic causality and quantum no‐cloning. To avoid these violations, the measurable spacetime around the particle's rest frame shall typically remain spherically symmetric, potentially as a back‐action by the act of a covariant measurement, or due to a quantized spin‐dependence of the magnetic field. This way, this gedanken experiment suggests a censorship mechanism preventing the possibility of spacetime‐based spin detection, which can shed light on the interface between quantum mechanics and gravity. Since this proposed gedanken experiment is independent of any specific theory, it is suitable for testing the coupling of quantum matter and spacetime in present and future candidate theories of quantum gravity. A new gedanken experiment challenges conventional thinking about how spin‐half particles couple to spacetime. Classical gravity and several quantum gravity theories predict that spin breaks the spherical‐symmetry of spacetime around it. Quantum information arguments show that this break must remain hidden, “censored” from any measurement (e.g., using clocks). Various quantum gravity theories are tested using this new gedanken experiment.
Thesis
Notre thèse explore deux anomalies quant aux théories sur les interactions hydriques transfrontalières. Le lac Victoria, où toutes les conditions matérielles, économiques et environnementales sont données pour les conflits, et pourtant la coopération s’impose. Et le fleuve Uruguay, où un régime institutionnel solide existait et les conditions environnementales étaient optimales, et pourtant la coopération fût brisée et le conflit éclata. Pour élucider l’énigme de ces cas, au lieu de sonder les aspects politiques et institutionnels des bassins, comme font certaines approches, ou ceux physiques, comme en font d’autres, nous proposons une autre voie. Notre démarche consiste à porter le regard vers ce qui donne naissance aux actions des agents en interaction avec leur milieu, à savoir la nature humaine et le fonctionnement du cerveau. Afin de conduire cette enquête, nous nous appuyions sur trois axes. Le premier est celui des entretiens que nous avons réalisés dans les bassins étudiés. Le deuxième est la sociologie de Gabriel Tarde, laquelle invite à une continuation actualisée d’un projet de recherche du social permettant l’intégration des développements scientifiques biologiques, évolutifs et cognitifs. Le troisième axe est celui des neurosciences, lesquelles confirment plusieurs intuitions tardiennes, et permettent de mieux cerner les aspects référant à la nature humaine dans son interaction avec la société et l’environnement. Notre enquête montre alors comment les dynamiques du conflit et de la coopération convergent dans la conscience, en tant que la clé qui, par-delà toute situation environnementale donnée, permet aux humains d’actualiser d’innombrables potentialités.
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Since the late 1950s a growing number of composers have engaged with scientific research and have tried to incorporate their understanding of various models and theories into their musical works. Among them, Hèctor Parra (b. 1976) has been particularly impressed by recent developments in gravitational physics and astrophysics, namely the part of astronomy dealing with gravity rather than light. Black holes, gravitational waves, cosmology, or quantum gravity models belong to such fields of intensive research, bringing surprising new concepts such as the coarse-graining of space–time, the multiverse or the holographic principle. In this framework, we have collaborated on the conception of a large piece for ensemble, orchestra and live electronics, which tries to transpose gravitational phenomena into a new form of contemporary music.
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In the 1980s, Bohm would spend more and more time dealing with a pressing challenge. The persistent quest to understand the quantum theory would lead him to look for a compatibility between his old causal interpretation and the recent wholeness approach. The pressure rose when some of his and Hiley’s students began to produce computerized graphs of the paths derived from the causal interpretation as well as diagrams of its quantum potential. In addition, the continuity of experiments related to Bell’s theorem, particularly those by the French physicist Alain Aspect, and the attention they aroused, brought to the foreground two distinct consequences. Experimental results were confirming quantum nonlocality but these results also show that Bohm’s hidden variables were compatible with these results. Bohm’s attempts were consolidated in the book The Undivided Universe.
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Dupr�e and Nicholson (2018) defend the metaphysical thesis that the `living world' is not composed of things or substances, as traditionally believed, but of processes. They advocate a process - as opposed to a substance - metaphysics and ontology, which results to be more empirically adequate to what contemporary biology suggests. Their ultimate view, however, is that there are compelling reasons to believe that contemporary physics, too, strongly suggests an analogous process-based conception as to the "physical world". Consequently, they argue that if this were the case, then the whole nature should be understood as consisting of "processes all the way down". The aim of this paper is to provide some further reasons supporting the correctness of this view in the framework of contemporary fundamental physics. To this end, I examine the metaphysical and ontological underpinnings of Rovelli's view of loop quantum gravity. I show that it consists of a timeless yet dynamical, radically relationalist, conception ultimately based on an event and process metaphysics and ontology according to which the "physical world" is, fundamentally, a network of interacting quantum dynamical processes. Therefore, this suggests that at least "all the way down" to the Planck scale, nature appears indeed to be composed of processes rather than things or substances.
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This article begins by addressing a critique of my book Immaterialism by the archaeologists Þóra Pétursdóttirr and Bjørnar Olsen in their 2018 article “Theory Adrift.” As they see it, I restrict myself in Immaterialism to available historical documentation on the Dutch East India Company (VOC), and they wonder how my account might have changed if I had discussed more typical archaeological examples instead: wrecked and sunken ships, released ballast, deserted harbors, distributed goods, and derelict fortresses. In response, I argue that my account was not therefore non-archaeological, since ruins are the topic of archaeology only by accident: the real subject of the discipline is what Marshall McLuhan describes as “cold media,” in the sense that they are low in information. McLuhan’s distinction between hot and cold media is shown to be surprisingly analogous to Aristotle’s difference between continua and discrete substances, and some consequences are drawn from this analogy.
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Finite SU2 gauge group hypothesis (Platonic Solids as basic states) breaks nucleon isotropy yielding Gravity as a perturbation of Electromagnetism, as a crude analysis of the quark fractional charges suggests. The resulting fine split of nuclear states energy can in principle be controlled, as predicted and tested with some preliminary encouraging results by physicist Frederick Alzofon in the 1980s.
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In our approach we have combined knowledge of Old Masters (working in this field before the year 1905), New Masters (working in this field after the year 1905) and Dissidents under the guidance of Louis de Broglie and David Bohm. Based on the great works of Julian Schwinger and John Archibald Wheeler we will study properties of geons formed by fusion of two soft x-ray particles (dyons) in the Schwarzschild gravitation core in our Sun at temperature 16 * 106 K. There are now several Teams that are able to achieve this fusion temperature in their special instruments (Tokamak, HL-2M Tokamak, Wendelstein 7-X, NIF, etc.) and to study properties of those formed geons. Thermal geons are with us all the time but they are very deeply hidden in our experiments. We have newly introduced Mareš - Šesták constant as the ratio of geon momentum to heat quantum of geon. The key information to enter into the World of geons was the empirical formula of David Bohm - the very well-known Bohm diffusion. From this formula we have extracted the amplitude, wavelength, frequency, quantum of the geon action, displacement law for geons, etc. It was found that geons are highly sensitive to the magnetic field strength. At a low magnetic field strength, the “inflation of geons” can occur. This effect could explain the Superheating of the Solar corona and the observed Heating of the Earth during two last centuries influenced by the changes in the Earth´s magnetic field. Geon engineering might modify the geon volume through the magnetic field strength. On the other hand, we were stimulated by the works of Mordehai Milgrom and Eric Verlinde and derived the Milgrom-Verlinde constant describing the gravitational field strength leading to the Newtonian gravitational constant on thermodynamic principles. The quantum of the geon momentum might open a new way how to understand gravitational phenomena. Can it be that Nature cleverly inserted geons into our experimental apparatuses and into our very-well known Old Formulae? We want to pass this concept into the hands of Readers of this Journal better educated in the Mathematics, Physics, and Thermodynamics.
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Research in Theoretical Quantum Gravity has continued expansively even as it has become detached from classic arbiters of research such as direct empirical falsification. This makes it an interesting test case for social-scientific theories of what motivates and mediates contemporary scientific research and the nature of scientific objectivity. For our empirical investigation, we conducted 50 semi-structured interviews with researchers in the rival camps of String Theory and Loop Quantum Gravity, coded a subset for reoccurring themes, and subjected the resulting data to statistical analysis. Theoretically, we mobilize aspects of Daston and Galison's depiction of the scientific self and its relation to epistemic virtues, Pierre Bourdieu's field-centered account of social space, and Kantian notions of aesthetics in order to delineate the subjective tastes and the related process of collective consensus-making in contemporary quantum gravity research. We make two key contributions. First, our analysis sheds light on the inner workings of the field by connecting its internal epistemic struggles with relevant social-scientific theories. For example, we are able to suggest an explanation for how one approach, String Theory, has become so dominant. Second, our application of theories of social reproduction to the substance of scientific inquiry merits some substantive generalizations to Daston and Galison's framework. Most significantly, we propose as an addendum to their progression the notion of objectivity through intersubjectivity: objectivity obtained not through the suppression of the self but by its (regulated) pluralistic expression and performance.
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It is standardly claimed in loop quantum gravity (LQG) that spacetime both disappears, fundamentally, and emerges from spin-networks in the low energy regime. In this paper, I critically explore these claims and develop a variety of substantival and relational interpretations of LQG for which these claims are false. According to most of the interpretations I consider, including the “received interpretation", it is in fact false that spacetime emerges from spin-networks. In the process of supporting these claims, I also explain why spacetime is thought to be missing from the theory’s fundamental ontology and demonstrate how this conclusion depends on our interpretation of the theory. In fact, I will argue that for a variety of interpretations spacetime survives quantization just as the electromagnetic field survives quantization. The upshot of the following analysis is a much needed clarification of the ontology of LQG and how it relates, or fails to relate, to the spacetime of general relativity.
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The dominant forms of thought today exist as either deconstructive or metalinguistic structures. Here we attempt to situate dialectical thinking as a constructive meta-mediation of this opposition between deconstruction and metalanguage. Dialectical thinking offers us a way to think about the processual nature of reason itself as a force of thought mediating being. In this mode of understanding, we attempt to think the possibility of articulating the meaning and importance of ‘metaontology’ defined as the ontology of epistemology. In a metaontology, we treat the structure of concepts not as reflecting external territory (map is a territory), nor as existing at a distance from external territory (map is not the territory), but as having their own territory (geometry) (i.e. maps as territory). We attempt to approach metaontology by reflectively observing the singularity of the author’s own internal territorial map, revealing a ‘quadratic twisted circularity’; and also the movement of the symbolic order itself, revealing a possible invariant unsymbolizable real. From these reflections we dive into the foundations of dialectical thinking, starting with Plato, and then exploring modifications introduced by Hegel and Lacan. Finally, we offer a dialectical structure of knowledge for the twenty-first century. This offering is meant only as an offer, a consideration, for how dialectics can be deployed at the location of key antagonisms in the contemporary field. The hope is that future dialecticians will be able to utilize this logic to engage in crucial intellectual interventions.
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Gravity and space-time are relative to each other because gravity or more precisely a gravitational wave is the only candidate responsible for empty-space around a mass and empty-space is the only candidate responsible for the mass of an object. It is true that a gravitational wave is a ripple in space-time but space-time is a result of a web of gravitational waves is also true and hence it is more appropriate to call space-time as gravitational-space-time and its known word to us is empty-space. Smallest unit of this web of gravitational waves is known as kaushal constant (K) [1]. Gravity is a result of the force of attraction in between two adjacent kaushal constants of the adjacent planes at a relative point in gravitational-space-time and hence this can be nicknamed as a web of gravity. The slower you move through space, the smaller your gravity web (or weaker the relative gravity) and hence the faster you move through time and vice versa. This paper is a solution to both mathematical and theoretical problem encountered in the field of quantum gravity [2] using theory of special connectivity [3].
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There is no "universal now." The distinctions between past present and future are illusions. As predicted by Einstein's field equations space-time may be a circle such that the future leads to the present and then the past which leads to the future, thereby creating multiple futures and pasts and which allows information from the future to effect the present. Causes may cause themselves. Coupled with evidence from entanglement where choices made in the future effect measurements made in the present and theoretical tachyons which travel at superluminal speeds from the future to the present and then the past, this may account for precognition, deja vu, and premonitions. In quantum mechanics, where reality and the quantum continuum are a unity, time is also a unity such that the future present past are a continuum which are linked and the same could be said of consciousness which exists in the future and in the present and past. If considered as a "world line" and in space-like instead of time-like intervals, then consciousness from birth to death would be linked as a basic unity extending not in time but in space and the same could be said of time. Time-space and consciousness are also linked and interact via the wave function and as demonstrated by entanglement and the Uncertainty Principle. Evidence from space-time contraction, atomic clocks and the twin paradox as functions of gravity and acceleration also demonstrate that the future already exists before it is experienced by consciousness in the present. Likewise, under conditions of accelerated consciousness (such as in reaction to terror) and dream states where various brain structures are in a heightened state of activity, space-time may also contract, such that time may slow down and consciousness may be given glimpses of the future in advance of other conscious minds thereby providing again for experiences such as precognition, premonitions, and deja vu. Closed time curves, conscious time, relative time, dream time, and quantum time are also discussed.
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Neutron star mergers are the canonical multimessenger events: they have been observed through photons for half a century, gravitational waves since 2017, and are likely to be sources of neutrinos and cosmic rays. Studies of these events enable unique insights into astrophysics, particles in the ultrarelativistic regime, the heavy element enrichment history through cosmic time, cosmology, dense matter, and fundamental physics. Uncovering this science requires vast observational resources, unparalleled coordination, and advancements in theory and simulation, which are constrained by our current understanding of nuclear, atomic, and astroparticle physics. This review begins with a summary of our current knowledge of these events, the expected observational signatures, and estimated detection rates for the next decade. I then present the key observations necessary to advance our understanding of these sources, followed by the broad science this enables. I close with a discussion on the necessary future capabilities to fully utilize these enigmatic sources to understand our universe.
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This chapter offers a minimal-jargon introduction to quantum physics, its development from Newtonian physics and the Old Quantum Theory, and key experiments. Important figures are introduced, including Albert Einstein, Niels Bohr, Werner Heisenberg, and Erwin Schrodinger. The three key concepts introduced in this chapter are the wave/particle duality, the observer effect, and quantum entanglement. The Copenhagen Interpretation of quantum mechanics is introduced, and the conclusion offers a brief discussion of the contested metaphysics of quantum mechanics.
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A popular-level discussion of the mutual significance of physics and philosophy over the ages.
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The singularity is often approached on the foundation of cosmic evolutionary philosophy. In this work, we do not negate or deconstruct the foundations of cosmic evolution but rather seek to approach the singularity from the perspective of the spiritual or ideational horizon of absolute reflectivity in-itself. From this theoretical perspective, we attempt to think the motion of general ideation attempting to actualize higher unity in good, true, and beautiful repetitive motion of a field of singularities. In this way, we approach singularity dialectically as an event caused by ideational transformations and mediated by an emergent intersubjective objectivity. From these speculations, a historically engaged perspective on the nature of human consciousness is articulated where the truth of reality as an emergent unity depends on the collective action of a multiplicity of human observers.
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