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Simulation tools are an essential component of any emerging technology. In this paper we present SGsim, a framework to simulate different applications in the context of smart grid. The framework supports real time simulation. Therefore it is possible to evaluate time-critical applications such as real time monitoring and control. The framework combines two main simulators (1) OMNeT++, a discrete event simulator that is used mainly to simulate data communication systems and (2) OpenDSS, a tool to calculate the power flow in power grids. Moreover, the framework supports smart grid related standards such as IEEE C37.118. This way it is possible to integrate standard smart grid tools such as openPDC. Furthermore, an optimization toolbox is integrated in the simulator in addition to the capability to communicate with other tools such as MATLAB and R. We performed a set of case studies to show the capabilities of the simulator.
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... - Awad et al. (2014) [49] proposed SGsim, a co-simulation framework using OMNeT++ and OpenDSS. ...
... - Awad et al. (2014) [49] proposed SGsim, a co-simulation framework using OMNeT++ and OpenDSS. ...
Article
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The Smart Grid (SG) is a Cyber-Physical System (CPS) considered a critical infrastructure divided into cyber (software) and physical (hardware) counterparts that complement each other. It is responsible for timely power provision wrapped by Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) for handling bi-directional energy flows in electric power grids. Enacting control and performance over the massive infrastructure of the SG requires convenient analysis methods. Modelling and simulation (M&S) is a performance evaluation technique used to study virtually any system by testing designs and artificially creating 'what-if' scenarios for system reasoning and advanced analysis. M&S preserves stressing the actual physical infrastructure and systems in production by addressing the problem in a computational perspective. Present work compiles a non-exhaustive list of tools for M&S of interest when tackling SG capabilities. Our contribution is to delineate available options for modellers when modelling power systems in combination with ICT. We also show the auxiliary tools and details of most relevant solutions pointing out major features and combinations over the years.
... - Awad et al. (2014) [49] proposed SGsim, a co-simulation framework using OMNeT++ and OpenDSS. ...
... - Awad et al. (2014) [49] proposed SGsim, a co-simulation framework using OMNeT++ and OpenDSS. ...
Preprint
Full-text available
The Smart Grid (SG) is a Cyber-Physical System (CPS) considered a critical infrastructure divided into cyber (software) and physical (hardware) counterparts that complement each other. It is responsible for timely power provision wrapped by Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) for handling bi-directional energy flows in electric power grids. Enacting control and performance over the massive infrastructure of the SG requires convenient analysis methods. Modelling and simulation (M&S) is a performance evaluation technique used to study virtually any system by testing designs and artificially creating 'what-if' scenarios for system reasoning and advanced analysis. M&S preserves stressing the actual physical infrastructure and systems in production by addressing the problem in a computational perspective. Present work compiles a non-exhaustive list of tools for M&S of interest when tackling SG capabilities. Our contribution is to delineate available options for modellers when modelling power systems in combination with ICT. We also show the auxiliary tools and details of most relevant solutions pointing out major features and combinations over the years.
... ICS is transitioning to cloud computing and IoT to improve supervisory and control processes by sharing real-time information among machines, manufacturing chains, suppliers, and customers. SCADA systems feature unique cyber and physical interaction and were originally built as air-gapped or isolated systems, connecting them to the internet potentially creates a security problem (Awad et al., AlGhazo, Davis, et al., and Handa et al.) [1]- [4]. ...
Preprint
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Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) networks are used across the globe to manage commercial and industrial control systems connected to energy, water, and telecommunications infrastructures. The connectivity provides immense benefits such as reliability, scalability, and remote connectivity, but at the same time exposes an otherwise isolated and secure system, to global cybersecurity threats. This inevitable transformation to highly connected systems thus necessitates effective security safeguards to be in place as any compromise or downtime of SCADA systems can have severe economic, safety, and security ramifications. To enhance the reliability and resilience of power grid networks there is a paradigm shift from legacy networks to smart grid networks. The Zambian power grid operator and mining companies in tandem with global players are transitioning from legacy-based protocols to Internet Protocol-based (IP-based) communications. Therefore, estimating possible cyberattack impacts and identifying system vulnerabilities are a concern in SCADA management and operations. However, it is quite difficult to plan, execute and review vulnerability analysis in critical infrastructure systems as well as in industrial control systems (such as SCADA systems) due to the complexity, and heterogeneity of these systems. A consistent domain-specific conceptual model is required to consequently establish a generic framework for cybersecurity analysis to examine and investigate security threats on smart grid systems. This paper proposes the use of Petri nets to model a framework for cyberattack response for smart grid infrastructure.
... Network communications. Co-simulations were deployed to analyze communication networks performance in the integration within the SG infrastructure, real-time communication, evaluation of wireless and wired communication networks, communication between grid components and control systems (Bian et al., 2015;Garau et al., 2017;Gurusinghe et al., 2016;Lau et al., 2012;Liberatore & Al-Hammouri, 2011;Schloegl et al., 2016;Awad et al., 2014). ...
Preprint
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The integration of renewable sources, communication and power networks with information and communication technologies is one of the main challenges in Smart Grids (SG) large-scale testing. For this reason, the coupling of simulators is commonly used to dynamically simulate several aspects of the SG infrastructure, in the so-called co-simulations. In this paper, we provide a scoping review of research of co-simulations in the context of Smart Grids: i) research areas and research problems addressed by co-simulations, ii) specific co-simulation aspects focus of research, iii) typical coupling of simulators in co-simulation studies. Based on the results, we discuss research directions of future SG co-simulation research in each of the identified areas.
... SGsim [26] is a simulation framework that can be used to simulate different smart grid applications in real-time. It consists of OMNET++, the backend for communication, and OpenDSS, a power simulation. ...
Thesis
The smart grid is a vital part of the Japanese initiative named “Society 5.0”. It is also one of the core technologies enabling sustainable economic and social developments. This next-generation electrical power system integrates the traditional electrical grid and computer technology to enhance the automation, connectivity, and communication of the different power network components. In recent years, various attacks have been made on the smart grid system, which lead to serious harmful consequences. The smart grid structure is complex and includes two essential parts: network communication and the power grid. Researchers need to consider the relationship between these components for further system investigation and improvement. Moreover, it is not a trivial activity to implement a real smart grid system for the cybersecurity experiment and validation process, since it entails high risk of destroying the electrical infrastructure and equipment, resulting in enormous economic consequences and even in danger regarding human lives. As a result, in this critical domain where testing on a real system is so hazardous, simulation and analysis techniques can be considered as an effective solution to make smart grid cybersecurity experimentation possible. The attack simulation and analysis tools are mainly applied to simulate attacks and emulate the actual circumstances in which these attacks occur, particularly system settings and network topologies. The application of real incident simulation tools to cybersecurity experimentation is a primary factor for enhancing the efficacy of the experimentation process. Due to its pioneering characteristics, not many research studies currently exist on practical cybersecurity experimentation for the smart grid. To the best of our knowledge, this is one of the first research works that thoroughly addresses this important issue. This dissertation identifies the need for realistic cybersecurity experimentation for the smart grid and formulates the corresponding system design requirements. A general architecture for smart grid cybersecurity experimentation, which fulfills these specifications, is also introduced. To deal with the great system complexity but still achieve our goal, we divided smart grid cybersecurity experimentation into two parts: the co-simulation approach and the analytical modeling approach. The specifications, general architectures and methodologies of both are determined and detailed herein. In the co-simulation approach, we introduced and implemented GridAttackSim. This novel co-simulation framework enables the simulation of smart grid infrastructure characteristics, allows various cybersecurity attacks to be simulated, and evaluates their consequences. A case study was performed with two different test feeders to validate the functionality of GridAttackSim. In the analytical modeling approach, we first provided a literature review on the current state-of-the-art for smart grid attack analysis. The most promising directions were then applied to design and implement GridAttackAnalyzer (Cyber Attack Analysis Framework for Smart Grids). A case study with various attack scenarios was conducted to validate this framework. This dissertation’s main contribution is a methodology that can effectively support realistic cybersecurity experimentation for the smart grid. This methodology was implemented in the form of the two frameworks mentioned above, GridAttackSim and GridAttackAnalyzer. Using these frameworks, researchers can determine the consequences of various attack types, thus making possible the early development and evaluation of new anomaly detection methods and mitigation even before their actual implementation. Moreover, the frameworks can also be used to define effective approaches for the implementation of smart grid technology, for instance, to determine efficient communication requirements for device operation. In addition, the systems can be used for cybersecurity training of IT experts and cybersecurity professionals. For example, based on evaluating various security metrics, IT experts and cybersecurity professionals can discover all the possible attack paths, and determine which vulnerable devices on those paths should be protected in advance to prevent the most significant damage. It also becomes possible to compare the effectiveness of specific device-level strategies deployed for different devices. For the network level, the performance of various defense strategies for smart grid systems can be assessed. Furthermore, our work can help system planners to estimate the attack damage cost on a smart grid system. Keywords: smart grid, cybersecurity experimentation, simulation, co-simulation, attack analysis.
... Especially for the simulation of smart grids, co-simulation has already been investigated from different perspectives [15], [16]. For example, SGsim [17] uses OpenDSS for the power flow simulation and combines it with OMNeT++ [18] to simulate the ICT network. ...
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The fundamental changes in power supply and increasing decentralization require more active grid operation and an increased integration of ICT at all power system actors. This trend raises complexity and increasingly leads to interactions between primary grid operation and ICT as well as different power system actors. For example, virtual power plants control various assets in the distribution grid via ICT to jointly market existing flexibilities. Failures of ICT or targeted attacks can thus have serious effects on security of supply and system stability. This paper presents a holistic approach to providing methods specifically for actors in the power system for prevention, detection, and reaction to ICT attacks and failures. The focus of our measures are solutions for ICT monitoring, systems for the detection of ICT attacks and intrusions in the process network, and the provision of actionable guidelines as well as a practice environment for the response to potential ICT security incidents.
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The integration of renewable sources, communication and power networks with information and communication technologies is one of the main challenges in Smart Grids (SG) large-scale testing. For this reason, the coupling of simulators is commonly used to dynamically simulate several aspects of the SG infrastructure, in the so-called co-simulations. In this paper, we provide a scoping review of research of co-simulations in the context of Smart Grids: i) research areas and research problems addressed by co-simulations, ii) specific co-simulation aspects focus of research, iii) typical coupling of simulators in co-simulation studies. Based on the results, we discuss research directions of future SG co-simulation research in each of the identified areas.
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