Article

Salvia Divinorum: Exposures Reported to a Statewide Poison Control System Over 10 Years

Department of Emergency Medicine, Olive View-UCLA Medical Center, Los Angeles, California, USA.
Journal of Emergency Medicine (Impact Factor: 0.97). 09/2009; 40(6):643-50. DOI: 10.1016/j.jemermed.2009.05.019
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT

Salvia divinorum, a hallucinogenic herb, has in recent years become popular among teenagers and young adults. Salvia is presently marketed as a "legal" alternative to other drugs of abuse, but little is known about the clinical toxicity of this substance.
The purpose of this study is to describe the clinical and demographic features of this emerging substance of recreational abuse using data obtained from the records of a poison control center.
We performed retrospective review of exposures to the herbal hallucinogen Salvia divinorum as reported to the California Poison Control System (CPCS) over the last 10 years. Demographic and clinical data were collected and compiled from the computerized records of the CPCS for the search terms "salvia" and "sage."
There were 37 exposures to S. divinorum and 96 exposures to non-hallucinogenic Salvia species. Eighteen (49%) of the exposures were to S. divinorum alone. Intentional Salvia exposures resulted in a variety of neurologic, cardiovascular, and gastrointestinal effects. Notably, the use of concomitant substances of abuse was associated with a high rate of complications and psychomotor disturbances.
Intentional use of S. divinorum, whether alone or in combination with alcoholic beverages and other drugs, causes neurologic, cardiovascular, and gastrointestinal effects. This poison-center-based review helps to characterize the clinical toxicity of S. divinorum, but more clinical and pharmacologic research is warranted for this rapidly emerging substance of abuse.

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    • "However, prior personal and family psychiatric and drug use history, purity and potency of SD used, and long-term outcomes in these cases are under-reported. A review of the California Poison Control System (CPCS) found 37 cases where the CPCS had been contacted regarding patient exposure to SD in a 10-year period (Vohra et al., 2011). The most commonly reported symptoms were alteration in mental state (e.g. "
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    ABSTRACT: This study examined the overall psychological effects of inebriation facilitated by the naturally-occurring plant hallucinogen Salvia divinorum using a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Thirty healthy individuals self-administered Salvia divinorum via combustion and inhalation in a quiet, comfortable research setting. Experimental sessions, post-session interviews, and 8-week follow-up meetings were audio recorded and transcribed to provide the primary qualitative material analyzed here. Additionally, post-session responses to the Hallucinogen Rating Scale provided a quantitative groundwork for mixed-methods discussion. Qualitative data underwent thematic content analysis, being coded independently by three researchers before being collaboratively integrated to provide the final results. Three main themes and 10 subthemes of acute intoxication emerged, encompassing the qualities of the experience, perceptual alterations, and cognitive-affective shifts. The experience was described as having rapid onset and being intense and unique. Participants reported marked changes in auditory, visual, and interoceptive sensory input; losing normal awareness of themselves and their surroundings; and an assortment of delusional phenomena. Additionally, the abuse potential of Salvia divinorum was examined post hoc. These findings are discussed in light of previous research, and provide an initial framework for greater understanding of the subjective effects of Salvia divinorum, an emerging drug of abuse. © The Author(s) 2015.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2015 · Journal of Psychopharmacology
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    • "Although extended psychotic-type reactions are uncommon they are not unknown, with several reported in published case studies (Singh, 2007;Przekop and Lee, 2009;Breton et al., 2010). Dose-response relationships have not been established as laboratories are seldom equipped to detect Salvinorin A and historical accounts are often unreliable due to the distribution of Salvia in concentrations (5×, 10×, 50×) subjectively determined by manufacturers without listed milligramme equivilants (Vohra et al., 2011). Products containing S. divinorum or salvinorin A meet the definition of natural health products in Canada, are not licenced for sale, and subject to enforcement under the Food and Drugs Act (Health Canada, 2011a). "
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Salvia divinorum is a potent, naturally occurring hallucinogen gaining popularity as a recreational drug in North America. To date, detailed epidemiologic information about the use of this substance among adolescents living outside the United States has been limited. This study provides information on the prevalence and correlates of Salvia divinorum use among adolesecents in Canada using a nationally representative sample. Methods: Data were obtained from a representative sample of 42,179 Canadian adolescents aged 12-17 years living across all 10 provinces who completed the Youth Smoking Survey in 2008-09. Results: Overall, 3.8% of adolescents reported using Salvia in the past year and 6.2% had used the substance in their lifetime. A conservative estimate suggests 23.2% of youth were repeat users. Salvia use was highest among youth in British Columbia and Quebec. Comparatively, the prevalence of 12-month Salvia use was higher than 12-month cocaine and amphetamine use but lower than 12-month ecstasy, cannabis, and other hallucinogen use. Correlates of Salvia use included older age, male gender, high available spending money, binge drinking, illicit drug use and smoking in fully adjusted models. Findings suggest low self-esteem may be an important correlate specific to the use of this substance among youth. Conclusions: Salvia divinorum use is prevalent among Canadian adolescents. Salvia may be a significant public health issue in Canada given it is readily available, under limited regulation, and little is known about the abuse liability of the substance, interactions with other substances, and potential complications from use.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2012 · Drug and alcohol dependence
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    • "The pharmaceutical delivery method may also impact the potency delivered to the patient. The dosage form is particularly pertinent in the case of the current patient who was smoking the herb and inhaling it [12]. The half-life of Salvia has been reported to range from 40 minutes to 1.5 hours [3]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction. This is the first reported case of gastrointestinal symptoms associated with withdrawal after chronic use of this substance. Case Presentation. A 51-year-old Caucasian woman was referred to a hospital with a 3-day history of nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and abdominal discomfort. She reported no sick family members or contact with anyone who was ill. She did report smoking 3-5 cigarettes of the herb "Salvia" consistently for 3-4 months and quit approximately 48 hours before symptoms appeared. Her use of the herb had been consistent; she smoked several cigarettes each day. Laboratory results were essentially normal including the white blood cell count. She received symptomatic treatment and was released after one day. Discussion. Salvinorin A, a kappa-opioid receptor agonist, is the major active ingredient of S. divinorum. The unique opioid properties of this herb may explain its ability to cause changes in intestinal transit time. Conclusion. A 51-year-old woman possibly developed gastrointestinal manifestations suggestive of withdrawal from Salvia divinorum after smoking the substance consistently for 3 to 4 months. The widespread use of this herb will make the potential for withdrawal syndromes more commonplace.
    Full-text · Article · May 2012 · Case Reports in Medicine
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