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Garlic (Allium sativum L. fam. Alliaceae) is one of the best-researched, best-selling herbal remedies and is also commonly used for treating various health problems. Garlic is widely known for its biological properties and plays an important role as an antioxidant. The purpose of this review is to gather and summarize all dermatologic-oriented in vitro and in-vivo experiments and clinical trials on garlic preparations. Extensive literatures search was carried out and twenty three studies were included. The results suggest that oral administration of garlic is effective on immunologic properties, cutaneous microcirculation, protection against UVB and cancer treatment. Additionally, topical application of garlic extract can potentially be effective on psoriasis, alopecia areata, keloid scar, wound healing, cutaneous corn, viral and fungal infection, leishmaniasis, skin aging and rejuvenation. Clinical effectiveness of oral and topical garlic extract is not sufficiently and meticulously explored as so far.
[Dermatology Reports 2011; 3:e4] [page 5]
Garlic in dermatology
ader Pazyar, Amir Feily
Jundishapur University of Medical
Sciences, Department of Dermatology,
hvaz, Iran
Garlic (Allium sativum L. fam. Alliaceae) is
one of the best-researched, best-selling herbal
remedies and is also commonly used for treat-
ing various health problems. Garlic is widely
known for its biological properties and plays an
important role as an antioxidant. The purpose
of this review is to gather and summarize all
dermatologic-oriented in vitro and in-vivo
experiments and clinical trials on garlic prepa-
rations. Extensive literatures search was car-
ried out and twenty three studies were includ-
ed. The results suggest that oral administra-
tion of garlic is effective on immunologic prop-
erties, cutaneous microcirculation, protection
against UVB and cancer treatment. Additio -
nally, topical application of garlic extract can
potentially be effective on psoriasis, alopecia
areata, keloid scar, wound healing, cutaneous
corn, viral and fungal infection, leishmaniasis,
skin aging and rejuvenation. Clinical effective-
ness of oral and topical garlic extract is not suf-
ficiently and meticulously explored as so far.
Garlic (Allium sativum) is one of the best-
researched, best-selling herbal remedies and
has been commonly used for treating various
health problems for centuries.
Garlic is a
genus of some 500 species belonging to the
family Liliaceae and Allium class of bulb-
shaped plants.
Its constituents include
enzymes (for example, alliinase), sulfur-con-
taining compounds such as alliin, and com-
pounds produced enzymatically from alliin (for
example, allicin).
Other constituents such as
arginine, oligosaccharides, flavonoids, and
selenium are available in garlic.
Four garlic preparations including, raw gar-
lic juice (RGJ), heated garlic juice (HGJ),
dehydrated garlic powder (DGP) and aged gar-
lic extract (AGE) are available. Different types
of garlic preparations have different pharma-
cologic properties, and among the four garlic
preparations, AGE is the most useful of them.
Garlic extract is made from whole or sliced gar-
lic cloves that are soaked in an alcohol solution
for different amounts of time.
Aged garlic extract (AGE) is a complex mix-
ture. Its components include allin, cycloalliin,
S-allyl-L-cysteine, S-methyl-L-cysteine, S-eth-
ylcysteine, S-1-proponyl-L-cysteine, S-allylmer-
capto-L-cysteine, fructosyl-arginine, and beta-
chlorogenin. It also consists of L-arginine, L-
cysteine, and L-methionine.
The compounds involved in the biological
mechanisms such as flavenols, sulphur and
seleno compounds have been identified.
is also characterized by more polar compounds
f phenolic and steroidal origin showing inter-
esting pharmacological properties.
Aged garlic
extract stimulate immune functions such as
proliferation of lymphocyte, cytokine release,
NK activity and phagocytosis.
Adverse reactions
Adverse reactions, related to garlic are poten-
tially consist of irritant contact dermatitis, aller-
gic contact dermatitis, protein contact dermati-
tis, zosteriform dermatitis,contact urtica ria and
induction of pemphigus.
The purpose of this
review is to gather and summarize all in vitro
and in vivo and clinical trials on garlic prepara-
tions and their uses in dermatology.
Dermatologic applications
of systemic garlic
Antioxidant effects
Importantly, S-allylcysteine (SAC) and S-
allylmercaptocysteine (SAMC) are the major
organosulfur compounds in aged garlic extract
which prevent oxidant damage. AGE exerts
antioxidant action by scavenging reactive oxy-
gen species (ROS), enhancing the cellular
antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dis-
mutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase and
increasing glutathione in the cells. AGE pro-
tects DNA against free radicals and defends
against UV-induced damage. It also protects
against some forms of UV-induced immuno-
Cutaneous microcirculation
A randomized placebo-controlled double-
blinded study show that 5 h after the adminis-
tration of garlic powder a significant increase
in capillary skin perfusion occurs by 55% in the
healthy volunteers. The increased erythrocyte
velocity results from vasodilation of precapil-
lary arterioles which increases diameter of
erythrocyte column by an average of 8.6%.
Immunomodulatory effect
The major immunomodulatory proteins
have been identified are known as garlic
lectins. Aged garlic extract has more potent
immunomodulatory effects than raw garlic.
Garlic extract potentially induces the lympho-
cytes proliferation and macrophage phagocyto-
sis, stimulates the infiltration of macrophages
and lymphocytes in transplanted tumors,
induces splenic hypertrophy, stimulates
release of interleukin-2, tumor necrosis factor-
alpha and interferon-gamma and enhances
natural killer cell and lymphokine-activated
killer cell activity. These activities reflex effec-
tive stimulation of the immune response.
Anti cancer
Two garlic-derived organosulfur compounds
such as Se-methyl selenocysteine and gamma-
glutamyl-Se-methyl selenocysteine show anti-
cancer activity.
These include the effect on
drug metabolizing enzymes, antioxidant proper-
ties, tumor growth inhibition, apoptosis, angio-
genesis and increasing of natural killer
A molecular study displays that
diallyl trisulfide (DATS) is a potential anticancer
compound for skin cancer.
Studies show that
diallyl disulfide (DADS) induces caspase-
dependent apoptosis through a mitochondria-
mediated by intrinsic pathway in melanoma
and appears to be a good candidate as an
antitumor agent against melanoma.
UVB protection
Garlic stimulates the proliferation of
macrophages and lymphocytes and protects
against the suppression of immunity by ultra-
violet radiation.
Aged garlic extract contains
ingredients that protects from UVB-induced
suppression of contact hypersensitivity and
suggest that the mechanism of protection is by
antagonism of the cis-urocanic acid mediation
of this form of immunosuppression.
Dermatologic applications of topi-
cal garlic extract
The activation of nuclear transcription fac-
Dermatology Reports 2011; volume 3:e4
Correspondence: Amir Feily, Jundishapur
University of Medical Sciences, Department of
Dermatology, Ahvaz, Iran.
Key words: garlic, dermatology, review.
Conflict of interest: the authors report no con-
flicts of interest.
Received for publication: 29 March 2011.
Accepted for publication: 30 March 2011.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons
Attribution 3.0 License (by-nc 3.0).
©Copyright N. Pazyar and A. Feily et al., 2011
Licensee PAGEPress, Italy
Dermatology Reports 2011; 3:e4
[page 6] [Dermatology Reports 2011; 3:e4]
or kappaB has now been linked with psoriasis.
Extensive researches in the last few years have
hown this pathway. This transcription factor
can be interrupted by garlic (diallyl sulfide, S-
allylmercaptocysteine, ajoene).
Alopecia areata
A double-blinded randomized controlled trial
shows that the use of garlic gel significantly
adds to the therapeutic efficacy of topical
betamethasone valerate in alopecia areata and
it can be an effective adjunctive topical thera-
py for alopecia areata.
eloid scar
Keloid scar is a chronic fibro-proliferative
disease. It is hypothesized that garlic extract is
able to inhibit nuclear factor-k B (NF-kB),
nitric oxide (NO), matrix metalloproteinase
(MMP)-2, Interleukin-6 (IL-6) and angiotensin
converting enzyme (ACE); therefore, it can be
potentially an effective treartment for keloid
Wound healing
According to a study conducted by Bojs et al.,
contact allergy to garlic can be effective on
wound healing.
Investigation on chicken skin
wounds exposed to aged garlic extract show an
increase in the re-epithelialization and pro-
fuse dose-dependent neovascularization.
Viral infection
Components of garlic have been shown to
have antiviral effect and inhibit cellular prolif-
eration of virally infected cells. One placebo-
controlled trial demonstrates that the applica-
tion of chloroform extracts of garlic result in
the complete resolution of cutaneous warts
without recurrence after 3-4 months.
Cutaneous corn
A clinical trial reveals that the application of
garlic extract on the cutaneous corns causes
the complete removal of locations. The sur-
rounding fibrin tissue of the corn capsule is
lyzed and the capsule is separated from the
main tissue .It seems due to the fibrinolytic
effect of garlic extract.
Fungal infection
According to a study diallyl sulphide (DAS)
and diallyl disulphide (DADS) significantly
inhibit proteinase, phospholipase secretion
and dimorphism in candida albicans. These
compounds can, therefore, act as a potent anti-
fungal in the management of candidiasis.
the other hand, ajoene (allium-derived thiosul-
finate compound) has been shown to be effec-
tive in short-term treatment of tinea pedis.
One study shows the use of ajoene as a 0.4%
(w/w) cream results in complete clinical cure
of tinea pedis. Therefore, ajoene can be an
alternative, efficient and low-cost antimycotic
drug for short-term therapy of tinea pedis and
uperficial mycoses. The fact that ajoene can
be easily prepared from an alcoholic extract of
garlic may make it suitable for Third World
public health care.
Treatment of leishmaniasis potentially rele-
vant to Th1-type immune response. In vivo and
in vitro studies demonstrate that garlic extract
reduces footpad lesions in leishmania mexi-
cana-infected BALB/c mice by inducing IFN-
gamma production from T cells as a Th1
immunomodulator. In vitro, garlic extract
reduce macrophage infection through induc-
tion of nitric oxide (NO) production. It may
thus act on both T cells and macrophages to
stimulate IFN-gamma production and NO syn-
thesis for parasite killing.
On contrary, a dou-
ble blinded, placebo controlled study on 197
patients who received garlic cream 5% or
placebo demonstrated it is not effective treat-
ment for cutaneous leishmaniasis.
According to an investigation garlic shows
beneficial effects on the maximum prolifera-
tive capacity of fibroblasts on long-term, there-
fore, garlic can play a role as an anti-aging and
rejuvenative agent.
Garlic extract can inhibit photocarcinogene-
sis and garlic extract -containing sunscrens
may be valuable in Australasian countries and
in cancer-provoking conditions, such as
Gorlin’s syndrome and xeroderma pigmento-
sum. Additionally, it can be effective on maxi-
mum proliferative capacity on fibroblasts and
garlic extract -containing creams may be of
particular value in preventing of skin aging
and as a novel addition to rejuvenation. On the
other hand, garlic extract has been reported as
a Th1 immunomodulator and the pathogenesis
of psoriasis is relevant to Th1, therefore, it
maybe effective on psoriasis in combination
with topical steroid and emollient as a new
addition to psoriasis therapy.
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... Garlic has also severe antimicrobial, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anticancer and aging prevention effects [7,8]. Edible nature and antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of garlic make it appropriate burn and wound healing candidate [7][8][9][10]. Numerous recognized investigations described the high wound healing effects of different species of garlic [9,10]. ...
... Edible nature and antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of garlic make it appropriate burn and wound healing candidate [7][8][9][10]. Numerous recognized investigations described the high wound healing effects of different species of garlic [9,10]. ...
... However, the former is more economical, as the ingredients are natural and available everywhere [25] . Nevertheless, using garlic directly on the skin is not recommended since it has various side effects, some of which can cause skin irritations and a notably unpleasant odor [26] . ...
... The bulb of Allium sativum (garlic) poultice was applied in wound healing which is rich in allin 2, cycloalliin 3, S-allyl-L-cysteine 4, S-methyl-L-cysteine 5, S-ethylcysteine 6, S-1-proponyl-L-cysteine 7, S-allylmercapto-L-cysteine 8, fructosyl-arginine 9, and β-chlorogenin 10. It also consists of L-arginine 11, L-cysteine 12, and L-methionine 13 ( Figure 5) [121]. These compounds were tested to have wound healing activity. ...
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The archipelagic country of Indonesia is inhabited by 300 ethnic groups, including the indigenous people of Tengger. Based on the reported list of medicinal plants used by the Tengger community, we have reviewed each of them for their phytochemical constituents and pharmacological activities. Out of a total of 41 medicinal plants used by the Tengerrese people, 33 species were studied for their phytochemical and pharmacological properties. More than 554 phytochemicals with diverse molecular structures belonging to different chemical classes including flavonoids, terpenoids, saponins and volatiles were identified from these studied 34 medicinal plants. Many of these medicinal plants and their compounds have been tested for various pharmacological activities including anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, wound healing, headache, antimalarial and hypertension. Five popularly used medicinal plants by the healers were Garcinia mangostana, Apium graveolens, Cayratia clematidea, Drymocallis arguta and Elaeocarpus longifolius. Only A. graviolens were previously studied, with the outcomes supporting the pharmacological claims to treat hypertension. Few unexplored medicinal plants are Physalis lagascae, Piper amplum, Rosa tomentosa and Tagetes tenuifolia, and they present great potential for biodiscovery and drug lead identification.
... Hasil studi menunjukkan ajoene dapat menjadi obat antimikotik alternatif, efisien dan murah untuk terapi jangka pendek mikosis upersifisial dengan cara menghambat sintesis RNA, DNA dan protein [20]. DNA, RNA dan protein memegang peranan yang sangat penting di dalam proses kehidupkan normal sel. ...
Antifungal drugs that already exist have several side effects, so it needs to be developed a new drug from natural ingredients. Garlic and black garlic are known to have organosulfur compounds that can be used as an antifungal. This study aimed to determine the effectiveness of garlic (A. sativum) and black garlic extract in inhibiting the growth of Candida albicans. This study used 3 groups, namely control group, the garlic (A. sativum) extract group and the black garlic extract group by using concentration 100%, 75%, 50%, and 25% with 3 times replication. Extraction using maceration method with 96% ethanol solvent, while the antifungal test using disk diffusion method. antifungal effect is determined by calculating the inhibition zone formed on Sabouraud Dextrosa Agar (SDA) media after incubating for 24 hours. The results of Kruskall-Wallis test showed a significance value (p <0.05) which means there were differences in all groups. In the Mann-Whitney test showed a significance value (p >0.05) which means there are no significant differences between treatment groups. In conclusion, garlic extract is more effective compared to black garlic extract but the difference is not significant.
... The cosmetic industry uses garlic extract in sunscreen production due to its potential for photocarcinogenesis inhibition, preventing cancer. Garlic extract can effectively maximize proliferative capacity on fibroblasts, and being added to creams and lotion can prevent skin aging (Pazyar and Feily 2011). It can also be used for spot baldness treatment. ...
Allium sativum (garlic) certainly is one of the oldest horticultural crops in the world and presents bioactive compounds that are related to the garlic’s effects on human health. Several authors have shown beneficial effects on diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia, obesity, and cardiovascular diseases (CVD), which are among the most relevant causes of mortality in the world. The aim of this systematic review was to evaluate the effects of garlic in the risk factors of CVD and evaluate its economic importance. MEDLINE–PubMed, COCHRANE, EMBASE, and Google Scholar databases were searched. The included studies showed that the use of garlic can reduce blood pressure, waist circumference, body mass index, LDL-c, non-HDL-c, total cholesterol, triglycerides, and inflammatory markers. It also can increase the levels of HDL-c and can improve cardiovascular parameters such as coronary artery calcium, microcirculation, epicardial and periaortic adipose tissue, post occlusive reactive hyperemia, low attenuation plaque, carotid intima-media thickness; and carotid intima-media thickness. Due to these reasons, garlic can be considered in the prevention and treatment of CVD risk factors.
... In this study, participants in the garlic group announced some mild complaints, such as itching, flushing, and acne. Some studies showed that garlic could induce allergic reactions and irritant dermatitis [61]. Also, heartburn, gastrointestinal irritation, and nausea can be potential side effects of garlic consumption [62]. ...
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Background: Premenstrual disorders involve physical, behavioral, and mood variations that affect women of childbearing age and interfere with family relationships, household responsibilities, professional duties, and social activities. Objectives: Considering the side effects of conventional medications, their use is not recommended except in severe cases of premenstrual disorders. Nowadays, there is a tendency to use traditional and complementary medicine that offers various treatments. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the impacts of garlic as a herbal medicine on the severity of premenstrual symptoms. Methods: This study was a double-blind, randomized, controlled trial. After identification of participants with moderate-to-severe PMS through the premenstrual symptoms screening tools questionnaire (PSST), they were randomly assigned to placebo (n = 64) or garlic (n = 65) groups. Each participant received one tablet daily for three consecutive cycles and logged the severity of their symptoms in the PSST questionnaire during the intervention period. Results: There was no significant difference between the two groups in the baseline level of premenstrual symptoms before the intervention. After treatment with garlic for three consecutive cycles, the total score of the severity of premenstrual symptoms significantly (P < 0.001) reduced from 34.09 ± 7.31 to 11.21 ± 7.17. In the placebo group, this score changed from 33.35 ± 7.96 to 24.28 ± 7.22. The difference between mean changes in the two groups was 13.78, with a 95% Confidence Interval (CI) of 11.23-16.33. No serious side effects were observed in either group. Conclusion: Our findings highlight the potential effect of garlic in reducing the severity of premenstrual symptoms; therefore, the use of garlic can be considered as an alternative therapy in the prevention and treatment of premenstrual disorders.
... Hence, it is effective against all microorganisms. [25] Recommendation for Immunity Boosting Tips ...
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The 21st-century worldwide scourge is coronavirus disease or coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). It is influencing more than 120 nations universally. This is basically an infection sickness that is transmitting fundamentally by droplet technique. Incubation period fluctuates from 2 days to 14 days. There is no particular treatment or vaccine accessible till now. The aim of this study is to investigate different medicinal measures to improve the resistance of a person. In this study, we followed rules of the World Health Organization and Ministry Ayurveda, Yoga and Naturopathy, Unani, Siddha, and Homeopathy give measures to improve resistance and checked information from databases such as PubMed, Google researcher, Medline, and electronic web indexes that were propelled from January 2020 to March 2021. Evidence suggested that there is a lack of literacy regarding use of the herbal product to boost immunity. Strong compliance to these guideline helps in improving immunity which ultimately leads to strong immunity strong enough to fight off novel COVID-19 infection.
... Moreover, garlic extract is also a potent antioxidant what made it applicable in dermatology. Topical application of garlic extract is beneficial for the treatment of inflammatory skin diseases, keloids, wound healing, as well as skin aging and photoprotection [146]. The study on human keratinocytes exposed to UVB confirmed that some of these properties are mediated by SIRT1 pathway [57]. ...
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... One double-blind, randomized control study showed a significant increase in capillary skin perfusion by 55 percent in healthy volunteers. 24,25 Vasodilation of precapillary arterioles could explain therapeutic effects on hair growth by increasing blood circulation to the scalp. A randomized, double-blind, controlled clinical trial of the efficacy of 5% garlic gel in combination with betamethasone cream for three months in patients with alopecia areata showed that the use of garlic gel significantly added to the therapeutic efficacy of topical betamethasone valerate starting the second month of application as compared with in the control group. ...
BACKGROUND: Central centrifugal cicatricial alopecia (CCCA), a scarring alopecia that commonly affects women of African descent, can be challenging to manage, and there are limited treatment modalities available. The use of natural ingredients for nonscarring hair loss has gained popularity among patients, but has not been previously studied for CCCA. OBJECTIVE: We sought to review clinical studies evaluating the use of natural ingredients in the treatment of CCCA. METHODS: Systematic searches of the PubMed and SCOPUS databases were performed in March 2018 using various ingredient names and the terms alopecia, scarring alopecia, Central Centrifugal Cicatricial alopecia, and CCCA. Specific ingredients included azelaic acid, peppermint oil, pumpkin seed oil, garlic supplements/shampoo, Black castor oil, jojoba oil, argan oil, olive oil, horsetail plant oil, lavender oil, coconut oil, chamomile oil, thyme oil, tea tree oil, sulfur oil, menthol, and rosemary oil. Two reviewers independently screened titles, leading to the selection of eight clinical studies. RESULTS: A review of the literature revealed no clinical trials that evaluated the treatment of CCCA with natural ingredients. Despite limited evidence-based research for CCCA, several natural ingredients showed efficacy in alopecia areata, androgenetic alopecia, and psoriatic alopecia. CONCLUSION: Upon review of the literature, there were no randomized, controlled studies evaluating the use of natural ingredients or aromatherapy in the management of CCCA. Despite this, several botanical and natural ingredients do show promise in treating androgenetic alopecia and alopecia areata. More clinical studies need to be performed to evaluate treatment options as a whole, including natural modalities, to better serve these patients.
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Diallyl disulfide (DADS) is a major organo-sulfur compound derived from garlic (Allium sativum), which inhibits the proliferation of various types of cancer cells. In this study we investigated the effect of DADS on the induction of apoptosis, as well as its regulatory effect on the activation of transcription factors in B16F-10 melanoma cells. Treatment of B16F-10 cells with nontoxic concentrations of DADS resulted in the presence of apoptotic bodies and induced DNA fragmentation in a dose-dependent manner. Cell-cycle analysis revealed that the occurrence of the sub-G1 peak was significantly elevated in DADS-treated cells. DADS treatment also down-reguated Bcl-2 expression and up-regulated p53, caspase-9, and caspase-3 expression in B16F-10 melanoma cells. The study also reveals that DADS inhibited the activation and nuclear translocation of p65, p50, and c-Rel subunits of nuclear factor (NF)-B and other transcription factors, such as c-fos, activated transcription factor-2, and cyclic adenosine monophosphate response element-binding protein, in B16F-10 melanoma cells The pro-inflammatory cytokine production and gene expression of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) were down-regulated in DADS-treated cells compared with control B16F-10 metastatic melanoma cells. DADS induces caspase-dependent apoptosis through a mitochondria-mediated intrinsic pathway in B16F-10 melanoma cells by activating p53 and caspase-3 gene expression and suppressing pro-inflammatory cytokines and NF-B-mediated Bcl-2 activation.
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Garlic (Allium sativum L. fam. Alliaceae) is one of the best-researched, best-selling herbal remedies and is also commonly used as a food and a spice. Garlic constituents include enzymes (for example, alliinase) and sulfur-containing compounds, including alliin, and compounds produced enzymatically from alliin (for example, allicin). Traditionally, it has been employed to treat infections, wounds, diarrhea, rheumatism, heart disease, diabetes, and many other disorders. Experimentally, it has been shown to exert antilipidemic, antihypertensive, antineoplastic, antibacterial, immunostimulant and hypoglycemic actions. Clinically, garlic has been evaluated for a number of conditions, including hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, intermittent claudication, diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis, common cold, as an insect repellent, and for the prevention of arteriosclerosis and cancer. Systematic reviews are available for the possible antilipidemic, antihypertensive, antithrombotic and chemopreventive effects. However, the clinical evidence is far from compelling. Garlic appears to be generally safe although allergic reactions may occur.
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Garlic is an herb which has been used by many cultures for treating various health problems for centuries. Uncontrolled use of herbal remedies, known as alternative treatment methods, may lead to side effects and serious treatment complications. This study aimed to draw attention to complications related to alternative treatment methods and to review the literature in the light of this case. A female patient who had been treated for trigeminal neuralgia was admitted to our clinic complaining of severe pain on the left side of her face. In anamnesis, the patient reported that she had applied garlic topically to this region. Extraoral examination revealed a broad cutaneous burn on the same region. According to a dermatology consultation, a treatment for cutaneous burns was applied and severe trigeminal neuralgia pain was eliminated with glycerol injection by an oral and maxillofacial surgeon.
Evidence continues to point to the anticancer properties of fresh garlic extracts, aged garlic, garlic oil, and a number of specific organosulfur compounds generated by processing garlic. These anticarcinogenic and antitumorigenic characteristics appear to arise through both dose- and temporal-related changes in a number of cellular events involved with the cancer process, including those involving drug metabolism, immunocompetence, cell cycle regulation, apoptosis, and angiogenesis. The ability of garlic and related allyl sulfur compounds to block tumors in the colon, lung, breast, and liver suggests general mechanisms that are not tissue specific. Whereas relatively few studies have compared the relative efficacy of water- and lipid-soluble allyl sulfur compounds, those that have when using chemically induced carcinogen models suggest little difference in response, whereas tumor proliferation/apoptosis is highly dependent on the species provided. A shift in sulfhydryl groups, alterations in glutathione:oxidized glutathione ratios, and resultant changes in cellular redox status may be involved in some of the phenotypic changes caused by allyl sulfur compounds. Such changes in thiols by allyl sulfurs may also account for the observed hyperphosphorylation of specific cell cycle proteins and the histone hyperacetylation that has been correlated with suppressed tumor cell proliferation. Whereas the anticarcinogenic and antitumorigenic data to date are impressive, additional studies are needed with more modest exposure to allyl sulfur compounds over prolonged periods. Likewise, additional studies are needed that incorporate transgenic and knockout models to assist in the identification of molecular targets for garlic and its associated allyl sulfur components.
According to the recent pharmacological findings, garlic is a preventive rather than therapeutic. Epidemiological studies in China, Italy and USA showed the inverse relationship between stomach and colon cancer incidences and dietary garlic intake. Anti-carcinogenic activities of garlic and its constituents including sulfides and S-allyl cysteine, have been demonstrated using several animal models. Garlic preparations has been also shown to lower serum cholesterol and triglyceride levels, which are major risk factors of cardiovascular diseases, through inhibition of their bio-synthesis in the liver, and to inhibit oxidation of low density lipoprotein. Furthermore, in vitro and in vivo studies have revealed that aged garlic extract stimulated immune functions, such as proliferation of lymphocyte, cytokine release, NK activity and phagocytosis. More recently, aged garlic extract has been demonstrated to prolong life span of senescence accelerated mice and prevent brain atrophy. Manufacturing processes significantly affect chemical constituents in garlic preparations. Different forms contain different phytochemicals and may have different effects and toxicities. For example, aged garlic extract inhibited t-BuOOH-induced oxidation, whereas raw garlic stimulated the oxidation. Although garlic has been used as a condiment and folklore for a long time, it has been noted to cause adverse reactions, such as stomach ulcer and anemia. Among the garlic preparations, only aged garlic extract has been proven to be safe through toxicological studies. Thus, aged garlic extract could be the most promising garlic preparation for disease prevention.
The effect of diallyl sulphide (DAS) and diallyl disulphide (DADS) on secretion of hydrolytic enzymes and dimorphism has been investigated in two strains of Candida albicans. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of DADS and DAS was determined to be 500 µg/ml and 40 µg/ml, respectively for a clinical isolate (accession #3043) and 450 µg/ml and 50 µg/ml, respectively, for a reference strain (ATCC 90028). At one-half of the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), DAS and DADS inhibited proteinase secretion by 24% and 35%, respectively, in the clinical strain, and 28% and 44%, respectively, in the reference strain. Inhibition of phospholipase secretion at one-half MIC of DAS and DADS was 27% and 60%, respectively, in the clinical strain and 31% and 64%, respectively, for the reference strain. Hyphal induction at 300 min in the reference strain was 15% (at one-half MIC of DAS) and 5% (at one-half the MIC of DADS) as compared to control (90% hyphal formation). Hyphal induction in the clinical strain was 16% (one-half the MIC of DAS) and 8% (one-half the MIC of DADS) compared to 95% in the control. To conclude, both DAS and DADS significantly inhibit proteinase, phospholipase secretion and dimorphism in C. albicans. These compounds can therefore be explored for their therapeutic potential against C. albicans.
Diallyl sulfide (DAS), diallyl disulfide (DADS), and diallyl trisulfide (DATS), extracted from crushed garlic by steam-distillation, have been reported to provide the anticancer activity in several cancer types. However, their mechanisms of effects on skin cancer cells remain unclear. Therefore, we used human melanoma A375 cells and basal cell carcinoma cells as the models to elucidate the effects of these three allyl sulfides. Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is known to be the most prevalent type of skin cancer, and melanoma is the most lethal form. We found that DATS revealed better growth inhibition of A375 and BCC cells than DADS and DAS did. We further demonstrated that DATS increased intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, induced cytosolic Ca(2+) mobilization, and decreased mitochondrial membrane potential (DeltaPsim). Western blot results showed the concordance for the expression of molecules involved in G(2)/M arrest and apoptosis observed by cell cycle and cell viability analysis. Moreover, we detected the activation of p53 pathway in response to the oxidative DNA damage. DATS also displayed selective target of growth inhibition between skin cancer cells and normal keratinocyte HaCaT cells. Taken together, these results suggest that DATS is a potential anticancer compound for skin cancer.
Cutaneous cancers are among the most common forms of cancer. Melanoma is an aggressive malignancy which is poor in prognosis. Despite of many years of researches, the treatment of melanoma is still a problem. Historically, plants have been main resources in traditional medicine and natural products are considered as important sources of antitumor drugs. Meanwhile, garlic for a long time has been used in man's food as a medicinal plant. In this study, the garlic extract was prepared and fractionated by ultra-filtration method with Amicon system. Garlic extract and its fractions including residue (R) 100, R50, R30, R10, R5, and filtrate (F) 5 were investigated for their cytotoxic activities on Sk-mel3 cell line of melanoma. The results show that garlic extract induced a significant cytotoxic activity on Sk-mel3 cell line. Among fractions R100 and R10 have more potential in cytotoxic activities against Sk-mel3 melanoma cells. In conclusion, garlic appears to be a good candidate as an antitumor agent against melanoma. To clarify the effective molecules and their mechanisms more studies should be applied on animal models and humans.