The anthropogenic role in the global warming phenomenon and its related harmful consequences is now well-documented. Various man-made emission sources of greenhouse gases (GHGs) are mainly related to transportation, energy generation, heating, waste treatment etc., but also to agricultural activities such as husbandry, rice production and others. Simultaneously, carbon sequestration by previously ... [Show full abstract] active sinks (oceans, forests, peat bogs) is declining due to human activities. Moreover, current agricultural management practices such as monoculture, inverting deep tillage, residues removal and chemical fertilization all lead to soil degradation and accelerated soil erosion, salinization, and gradual decrease in soil organic matter (SOM) and are leading to a decline in potential soil fertility. It is therefore clear that our civilization must make whatever possible efforts to mitigate GHG emission while strengthening carbon sinks. In this context, the following paper will review the potential contributions of the horticultural sector to carbon sequestration. In particular the potential role of soil amendment with composts, green manures, biochars and other organic amendments will be critically reviewed as to their potential to sustainably sequester carbon for the long run. It is our claim that advanced horticulture can, in addition to supplying enough food for the global population, provide various ecological services while restoring soil fertility, especially based on organic amendments. Two production systems will serve as test cases for enhanced carbon sequestration: Organic Agriculture and growing in soilless media.