Book

Biomass Resource Assessment Handbook

Authors:
  • BTG Biomass Technology Group B.V.

Abstract

Biomass resource assessments indicate the availability of biomass for energy production. This handbook provides best practices for determination of biomass resource potentials and gives guidance for transparent presentation of results. Methods are provided for forest biomass, energy crops, agricultural residues and organic waste. For each biomass type, a distinction is made between statistical methods, spatially explicit methods, cost-supply methods and more advanced modelling methods. Furthermore, the handbook provides a detailed overview of sustainability aspects that can be implemented in future biomass resource assessments. The Biomass Resource Assessment Handbook is a product of the European 'Biomass Energy Europe' project, in which 16 renowned universities, institutes and companies worked on harmonisation of biomass resource assessments. The project has been supported by the European Commission under the 7th Framework Programme.
... The most common wind speed and direction sensors are cup anemometers and wind vanes. The Wind Resource Assessment Handbook (Baily, 1997) provides a detailed description of many aspects of the site assessment process, especially a method of evaluating the wind resource at a site. ...
... Wind resource measurement campaigns are almost always carried for at least one year; this is uniformly recommended in reputable site assessment manuals (Baily, 1997, Gardner et al., 2004. This practice is accepted primarily because of seasonal variations in the wind resource. ...
... (Baily, 1997); Long-term Resource Estimation Uncertainty (Gardner et al., 2004, McCaa, 2006, Oliver, 2006, Moon and Miler, 2005); Wind Resource Variability Uncertainty(McCaa, 2006, Moon and Miler, 2005); Site Assessment Uncertainty (Feuquay et al., 2005, Livingston and Anderson, 2004, Oliver, 2006, Brower, 2006); Topographic Effects(Oliver, 2006 andBrower, 2006) and Wind Shear Model Uncertainty(Livingston and Anderson, 2004). ...
... 324 I.4 Process WST Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 333 I.5 Stage- [1][2] Hydrognomon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 351 xii I.10 WST & WSO comparison . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ...
... Their mathematical formulation is as follows Turbulence intensity is defined as the ratio of standard deviation of wind speed to the mean value of wind speed. It is expressed mathematically as [2] ...
... The input to this function is wind speed data and the output is shape and scale factor. Matlab program that plots wind speed distribution and Weibull probability distribution function from a vector of wind speed values is given in Section I. 2. ...
Technical Report
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This report concerns documentation of the anemometer installations and analysis of wind data acquired from the Chalmers wind turbine station located north-west of Goteborg,in an island Hono,within the Ockero archipelago.
... The most reliable and typical WRA methods are based on on-site and reference wind data. These methods can provide a good estimate of the wind resource with one year of onsite measurements, but the assessment can be extended to two or three years to increase the accuracy of the WRA [1] [5]. However, extending the WRA results in additional costs related to land lease and the assessment procedure, and there is no guarantee that the WRA will improve if extended. ...
... The cost of buying and installing each turbine is $1688·10 3 [25]. The WPP is planned based on the maximisation of the project's NPV and the following assumptions: 1) the discount factor is 10%, 2) the electricity price is $0.05/kWh, 3) the land lease costs are $57782/year, 4) the initial and periodic costs of the WRA are $8000 and $24000/year respectively [5], and 5) the useful lifetime of the project is 20 years. ...
... The input parameters were selected considering land costs are proportional to the annual kWh generation potential of each site [25], standard deviations and correlations correspond to those reported in the United States [18], the turbine curves are approximated based on the cut-in, rated, and cut-out wind speeds [20], the prices of electricity correspond to the costs ranges of WPPs [1], and conventional discount factor values. The WPPs are planned in accordance to the NPV criterion and assuming the wind sites are square with an area of 1km 2 , the initial and periodic costs of the WRA are $8000 and $24000/year respectively [5], and the useful life time of the WPPs is 20 years. Each case study addresses one site, one turbine model with a fixed hub height, and one combination of parameters taken from Table IV. ...
Article
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Investments in wind power projects (WPPs) have increased in the last few years. This trend is partially due to the availability of support schemes, which increase the economic attractiveness of WPPs. Alternatively, the value of WPPs can be enhanced by improving available techniques used for their planning and design. After reviewing WPP literature, it was concluded that available tools for the planning and design of WPP could be improved by addressing the uncertainty of the wind resource assessment (WRA), and this source of uncertainty could be used to enhance the value of WPPs with real options (ROs) theory. ROs theory is known for its potential to increase the expected worth of projects by exploiting the value of flexibility within the projects' investment decisions and designs. Nevertheless, ROs literature has to be extended to properly address the design of WPPs. Based on the gaps in ROs theory and WPPs planning, this paper proposes a methodology that relies on ROs theory to incorporate WRA uncertainty in the planning and design process of WPPs. The methodology is illustrated with a small case study and its potential to increase the value of WPPs under different conditions is analyzed for a wide range of case studies. The results illustrate the circumstances and assumptions that can improve and weaken the effectiveness of the methodology. It is concluded that the application of the proposed ROs methodology results in increased value for WPPs in most scenarios.
... To understand to what extent forests can supply raw materials to produce materials and renewable energy in the future, many assessments have been carried out that attempted to quantify biomass potentials from forests at sub-national to the global level (Smeets and Faaij 2007;de Wit and Faaij 2010;UNECE-FAO 2011;Verkerk et al. 2011;Díaz-Yáñez et al. 2013;Tum et al. 2013;Lauri et al. 2014;Lundmark et al. 2015;Daioglou et al. 2016;Di Fulvio et al. 2016;Mansuy et al. 2017;Mola-Yudego et al. 2017;Burg et al. 2018;Jonsson et al. 2018). These studies typically estimate a maximum, theoretical amount of biomass that could potentially be available and then consider constraints that may reduce the potential availability (Vis and Dees 2011). In general, these assessments indicate that under the premise of a maximum, sustained harvest level, more woody biomass could be mobilised from forests as compared to current utilisation levels. ...
... We extended their analysis from 27 to 39 European countries and compiled an updated dataset on forest resource information to estimate the theoretical potential of forest biomass supply, i.e. the overall, maximum amount of forest biomass that could be harvested annually within fundamental bio-physical limits. This theoretical potential relates to the maximum productivity under theoretically optimal management taking into account limitations that result from soil, temperature, solar radiation and rainfall (Vis and Dees 2011). Our estimated biomass potentials include stemwood, logging residues (i.e. ...
... EFISCEN could not be applied for Cyprus, Greece, Montenegro, Macedonia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Kosovo, Malta and Serbia due to absence of the required forest inventory data. Instead, we assumed that the theoretical potential of forest biomass supply equals the net annual increment corrected for harvesting losses (Vis and Dees 2011). We used aggregated data on forest area, growing stock and net annual increment, for conifers and non-conifers separately, from Forest Europe et al. (2011), Forest Europe (2015. ...
Article
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Background European forests are considered a crucial resource for supplying biomass to a growing bio-economy in Europe. This study aimed to assess the potential availability of forest biomass from European forests and its spatial distribution. We tried to answer the questions (i) how is the potential forest biomass availability spatially distributed across Europe and (ii) where are hotspots of potential forest biomass availability located? Methods The spatial distribution of woody biomass potentials was assessed for 2020 for stemwood, residues (branches and harvest losses) and stumps for 39 European countries. Using the European Forest Information SCENario (EFISCEN) model and international forest statistics, we estimated the theoretical amount of biomass that could be available based on the current and future development of the forest age-structure, growing stock and increment and forest management regimes. We combined these estimates with a set of environmental (site productivity, soil and water protection and biodiversity protection) and technical (recovery rate, soil bearing capacity) constraints, which reduced the amount of woody biomass that could potentially be available. We mapped the potential biomass availability at the level of administrative units and at the 10 km × 10 km grid level to gain insight into the spatial distribution of the woody biomass potentials. Results According to our results, the total availability of forest biomass ranges between 357 and 551 Tg dry matter per year. The largest potential supply of woody biomass per unit of land can be found in northern Europe (southern Finland and Sweden, Estonia and Latvia), central Europe (Austria, Czech Republic, and southern Germany), Slovenia, southwest France and Portugal. However, large parts of these potentials are already used to produce materials and energy. The distribution of biomass potentials that are currently unused only partially coincides with regions that currently have high levels of wood production. Conclusions Our study shows how the forest biomass potentials are spatially distributed across the European continent, thereby providing insight into where policies could focus on an increase of the supply of woody biomass from forests. Future research on potential biomass availability from European forests should also consider to what extent forest owners would be willing to mobilise additional biomass from their forests and at what costs the estimated potentials could be mobilised.<br/
... Indeed, this company is the first plant in Tunisia which plans to erect its own wind farm in order to reduce its energy consumption and make additional profits. Thus, three monitoring stations were installed, and they were equipped according to the international guidelines for wind resource assessment [5] . Within this framework, this paper aims to investigate the prospects of operating a commercial wind farm in the El- Kef region. ...
... In this study, the power law was used to model the vertical profile of wind speed. Its basic form is given by [4,5]: ...
... It depends essentially on pressure and temperature. The air density of the site was determined using the ideal gas law [4,5]: ...
Article
The aim of this study is to investigate the prospects of wind energy development in the El-Kef governorate, a north-western region of Tunisia. This work falls within the framework of a 15 MW wind farm project, undertaken by the local cement factory in order to cover a part of its energy needs. The collected data were analyzed and processed using the Weibull statistical method. The results of these analyses are used to estimate the wind power potential in the region and select the best fitted wind turbines to the site characteristics. Then, a wind farm micro-siting is proposed using the Windstation and 3DEM softwares. Finally, annual energy production of the wind farm was calculated and the project economic feasibility was evaluated. The economic analysis is based on the life-cycle costing methodology and it aims to estimate wind projects viability and profitability in the region.
... where P r is the output rotor power,  is the air density, A is the rotor swept area, U is the horizontal wind speed that is perpendicular to the turbine plane, C P is the non-dimensional power coefficient that represents the fraction of the wind power that is extracted by the rotor, and η mech is the mechanical efficiency of the drivetrain. The rotor swept area is constant and the air density can be calculated as a function of elevation and temperature [13]: ...
... 2.2 is used to show the impact of using the VEG in the NM-72 wind turbine to expand the operational range and capture more wind power at low wind speeds. Wind speeds at different heights can be obtained by the power law [13]: ...
... The wind shear component is usually assigned a value of 0.143, known as the 1/7 th power law, to predict the wind profile in a well-mixed atmosphere, over a flat and open terrain. However, higher exponent values are usually observed either in the low to medium wind speed (lower than 7 m/s or 16 mph) range or on vegetated surfaces [13]. ...
Conference Paper
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A question that usually arises is whether an existing wind turbine with a specified rotor can be modified to expand its operational range and improve the power generation. There are various methods to achieve this goal and one of them can be a modified generator referred to as a variable electromotive-force generator (VEG), where the overlap between the rotor and the stator is made to be adjustable. In this work the possibility of harnessing more wind power via a VEG in areas with large changes in the wind speed from very low to high values throughout a year is investigated theoretically. Aerodynamic and mathematical techniques are used to estimate the generated power of a wind turbine in the low wind speed region, and a combination of electromagnetic and aerodynamics principles are employed to obtain the mathematical model of the VEG with an adjustable overlap between the rotor and the stator. The Neg-Micon wind turbine (NM-72) specifications for a certain site in Thailand are used for the numerical analysis. The results show the possibility of expanding the operational range and increasing the power generation of the studied wind turbine.
... This frequently covers the energy consumption of small health centers. When the energy requirements exceed 5kWh/day, hybrid systems are likely to be the most economical option [9]. ...
... For instance, when a surface receives 6 peak-sun hours a day it receives 6 hours at 1000 W/m2. Thus, solar irradiance can be measured in two ways: by daily peak sun hours (PSH) or kilowatt-hours per square meter per day (kWh/m2/day) [9]. ...
... Other resources could be useful for extensive data on solar irradiation, such as PVGIS. The PVGIS is a EU portal containing data and links on metrological data from different sites around the world [9]. http://re.jrc.ec.europa.eu/pvgis/ ...
Technical Report
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This report outlines a technical overview towards deployment of PV systems for rural health facilities in developing areas. The demand and supply of energy in health facilities is analysed, and international standards are presented. Technical and economic aspects of different power generation options are discussed. Experience of international development organizations is widely elaborated, main conducive factors of PV supply are outlined and lessons learned from fields are concluded, with an aim towards enhancing PV systems sustainability for rural health facilities.
... Assessments of biomass potentials are often difficult to compare, because there are many different aspects considered. Fig. 6.1 shows one way of separating biomass potentials into (1) theoretical potential, (2) technical potential, (3) economic potential, and (4) implementation potential (Vis and Dees, 2011). The theoretical potential is the overall maximum amount of terrestrial biomass, which can be considered theoretically available within fundamental biophysical limits. ...
... Due to absence of the required forest inventory data, EFISCEN could not be applied for Cyprus, Greece, Montenegro, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia (FYROM), Bosnia and Herzegovina, Kosovo, Malta, and Serbia. Instead, woody biomass potentials for these countries (except for Malta) were estimated as described in the biomass handbook developed in Biomass (Vis and Dees, 2011); this approach assumes that the theoretical stemwood harvest potential was based on the net annual increment corrected for harvesting losses. We used aggregated data on forest area and net annual increment from Forest Europe (2015) or-in case of missing data-on Forest Europe (2011). ...
... For the estimation of the potentials of secondary forestry residues, methodological approaches were developed within the project BEE (Vis and Dees, 2011) and the EUwood project (Saal, 2010a,b). The method adopted in S2Biom builds on the latter methodological concepts. ...
Chapter
For this chapter, we reviewed the way demand sectors were modeled in the past decade, and how demand and supply were assessed in integrated modeling tools. For this, we took ECN's BioTrans/RESolve-Biomass model as a case. The review indicates that this modeling framework is relatively flexible, both in terms of the questions that can be addressed by it and in terms of demand and supply data. A concern is that the modeling framework focuses on least-costs energy mixes, while optimization on least-cost CO2 emission reduction seems to become more and more important. Particularly on the feedstock data side we see changes in model input data over time, illustrating the progress that has been made in assessing feedstock potentials and costs. A crucial factor in the relevance of model outcomes is the shaping of scenarios and policy cases: their setup and translation into model parameters is a critical part of the research work. Finally, we provide some recommendations for further improvement of the modeling: more details on bio-based chemicals and on biorefineries, expanding the time horizon beyond 2030, and better interaction with other renewable supply options.
... The field determined RPR values are within range of values reported by other researchers. As an example, RPR of maize stalks determined is 1.15 and falls within the ranges given by Esteban et al. (2008) and Maithel (2009) who reported RPR values of maize stalk as 1.2-1.7 and 1.2-2.5, respectively. The field determined RPR for maize husks of 0.23 compares well to 0.2 published by Maithel (2009). ...
... As an example, RPR of maize stalks determined is 1.15 and falls within the ranges given by Esteban et al. (2008) and Maithel (2009) who reported RPR values of maize stalk as 1.2-1.7 and 1.2-2.5, respectively. The field determined RPR for maize husks of 0.23 compares well to 0.2 published by Maithel (2009). The field determined RPR of maize cobs is 0.57 which is more than twice higher than Maithel (2009) reported with a range of RPR values of 0.18-0.27 ...
... The field determined RPR for maize husks of 0.23 compares well to 0.2 published by Maithel (2009). The field determined RPR of maize cobs is 0.57 which is more than twice higher than Maithel (2009) reported with a range of RPR values of 0.18-0.27 for maize cobs. ...
... In June and July the cattle, sheep (goat) and donkey dung is 1.85kg/head/day, 0.35 kg/head/day and 0.94 kg/head/day respectively. From September to November, it increases by 10% whereas from December to February it increases by 5% but from March to April it decreases by 5% and in August and May decreases by 10% [7]. This variation is due to the variation of availability of feed intake for these animals in the area. ...
... This variation is due to the variation of availability of feed intake for these animals in the area. Therefore, by considering the available livestock population and 50% dung collection efficiency [7], the total average biomass potential of the site is shown on table 1. ...
Article
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This paper presents the design of off-grid hybrid electric power generation system by utilizing both solar and biomass energy resources for a rural village of 420 households in Ethiopia. The work was begun by investigating biomass and solar energy potentials of the desired rural village. The data regarding biomass energy potential of the site is found from the available livestock population and its waste. However, the solar irradiation data is collected from the NASA surface meteorology and solar energy database. According to the results obtained, the site has abundant solar energy potential and there is considerable biomass energy potential that can be exploited for generating electric energy for the village. The design of a standalone solar PV-bio-generator hybrid power generating system has proceeded based on the promising findings of these two renewable energy resource potentials, biomass and solar. Electric load for the basic needs of the community such as lighting, water pumping, a radio receiver, flour mill, TV and refrigerator for the local health post has been suggested. The design and simulation has been carried out using the HOMER software. By running the simulation, the results, which are lists of power supply systems, have been generated and arranged in ascending order according to their net present cost.
... When the average daily wind speed is 3 to 20 m/s, the kinetic power can be called the effective wind power density (EWPD, unit: W/m 2 ). According to the "Wind resource assessment handbook" written by the United States Renewable Energy Laboratory [17] and the "Assessment methods of wind energy resources in wind farms of China" [18], EWPD can be calculated as follows: ...
... When the wind speed is between 3 and 20 m/s, the sustainable utilization for hours is called the wind available time (WAT, unit: h). According to the "Wind resource assessment handbook" written by the United States Renewable Energy Laboratory [17] and the "Assessment methods of wind energy resources in wind farms of China" [18], WAT is defined as: ...
... Traditionally, this process begins by measuring the wind resource with meteorological towers (met towers) equipped with cup anemometers and wind vanes. These measurement campaigns are typically at least 1 year in duration, so that the seasonal variations in the wind speed are captured in the measured data [1,2]. ...
... Met towers, which are the most common means of assessing the wind resource at a location, are typically between 40 and 60 m tall, with cup anemometers and wind vanes positioned at multiple heights on the tower [1]. Met towers are generally deployed at a site for at least a year, both to capture the seasonal variations in the wind resource and because of the difficult and lengthy installation process [2]. ...
Article
Portability is one of the many potential advantages of utilizing ground-based measurement devices such as SODARs and LIDARs instead of meteorological towers for wind resource assessment. This paper investigates the use of a monitoring strategy that leverages the portability of ground-based devices, dubbed the “round robin site assessment method.” The premise is to measure the wind resource at multiple sites in a single year using a single portable device, but to discontinuously distribute the measurement time at each site over the whole year, so that the total measurement period comprises smaller segments of measured data. This measured data set is then utilized in the measure-correlate-predict (MCP) process to predict the long-term wind resource at the site. This method aims to increase the number of sites assessed in a single year, without the sacrifice in accuracy and precision that usually accompanies shorter measurement periods. The performance of the round robin site assessment method was compared to the standard method, in which the measured data are continuous. The results demonstrate that the round robin site assessment method is an effective monitoring strategy that improves the accuracy and reduces the uncertainty of MCP predictions for measurement periods less than 1 year. In fact, the round robin site assessment method compares favorably to the accuracy and uncertainty of a full year of resource assessment. While there are some tradeoffs to be made by using the round robin site assessment method, it is potentially a very useful strategy for wind resource assessment.
... ROY/FAO/UNDP [4] noted that Yemen has considerable difficulties in allocating funds for the acquisition of reliable and timely geo-spatial data which is considered the first step for appropriate planning and implementation. These two factors among other natural and human induced factors have lead some researchers to conclude that by the year 2000, the total available woody biomass of Yemen would be exhausted [5,4]. There has not been any recent literature on regard of the NWV of Yemen since then, but a general perception among scientists that a persistent reduction continues. . ...
... Their supposition is supported by previous studies. Millington [5] indicated the negative impact of fuel-wood collection on the woody biomass and predicted that by the year 2000, the total available woody biomass in Yemen will have been exhausted. Another study estimated that the total fuel-wood consumption in Yemen was 5 million m3 (3 million tons) in 1982 and projected that fuelwood consumption would reach 8.5 million m3 by the year 2000, at which time the fuel-wood supplies will have disappeared [4]. ...
... All these aspects are covered by technical, environmental and economic studies, standards, regulations, researches all over the world, and represent after all, work done by human resources. However, the most important aspect, which represent the starting point of the wind turbine energy generation process is the wind resource assessment,[5], which allows to obtain important data about the wind potential, like mean annual wind speed, wind speed frequency distribution and mean annual wind power density. The wind power density,[W/m 2 ], which represent the power in the upstream wind, is defined by the relationship,[6]: ...
... After the general evaluation of the wind resource has been successfully completed and a potentially suitable wind turbine site has been selected, a more deeply analysis should be performed, this time on a small scale in order to obtain more precise information on the site-specific wind resource. The first approach is the analysis of the site topography looking after microscale effects such as ridges oriented perpendicular to the prevailing wind direction, highest elevations, and areas where local winds can funnel,[5]. However, the most important analysis is the on-site wind monitoring for at least one year, using specialized wind measurement systems. ...
Article
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In order to estimate the wind potential of wind turbine sites, the wind resource maps can be used for mean annual wind speed, wind speed frequency distribution and mean annual wind power density determination. The general evaluation of the wind resource and the wind turbine ratings are based on the standard air density measured at sea level and at 15°C, ρs=1.225 kg/m3. Based on the experimental data obtained for a continental climate specific location, this study will present the relative error between the standard air density and the density of the dry and the moist air. Considering a cold day, for example on Friday 10th February 2017, on 1-second measurement rate and 10-minute measuring interval starting at 16:20, the mean relative errors obtained are 10.4145% for dry air, and 10.3634% for moist air. Based on these results, a correction for temperature, atmospheric air pressure and relative humidity should be always considered for wind resource assessment, as well as for the predicting the wind turbines performance.
... Primary forest-based bioenergy is an obvious source with large potentials, which is playing a central role in many National Renewable Energy Action Plans (Beurskens and Hekkenberg 2011, Tasios et al. 2013, van Stralen et al. 2013. Several studies on the amounts of available biomass from harvest residues, stumps and energy assortments have been carried out (Rettenmaier et al., 2010, Verkerk et al., 2011a. To give some perspective, according to Eurostat (2013) At the same time and despite these harvesting trends, concerns regarding the environmental effects of increased residue removal from the forests have sparked a discussion on sustainable harvesting levels (Lattimore et al., 2013, Stupak et al., 2011, Walmsley and Godbold, 2010. ...
Technical Report
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This literature review focuses on quantified or qualified impacts of forest biomass extraction with varying harvest intensity on environmental sustainability. The focus is on soil carbon, nutrient balances, water quality, biodiversity as well as on forest productivity in the following management cycle. Studies from Europe were selected with the purpose to analyse trends or critical values for which sites intensified harvesting is not recommended or leading to a noticeable reduction in environmental sustainability. However, mainly studies for the boreal region where available, which leaves the temperate and Mediterranean zones of Europe largely uncovered in this analysis. The results for most impact factors show that forest biomass extraction does not always have discernible effects and that especially short term responses are often dominated by other factors. The discussion analyses our current state of knowledge and how policy making could respond to the dilemma that long term experiments are not available yet for many current management practices. To ensure sustainable forest management targets different management strategies have been proposed. The current information does not allow yet to specify concrete sustainability thresholds for intensive forest biomass extraction.
... Electronic copy available at: https://ssrn.com/abstract=3734915 of crops residues which could not be sustainable for daily electricity generation [17]. Therefore, it was excluded in the different options. ...
... The hydraulic regulation, often more flexible and efficient than the electrical one (Carravetta et al. 2013), depends on the type of turbine: needle stroke for Pelton turbines, adjustable guide vanes for Francis turbine, fixed or adjustable guide vanes or adjustable runner blades for Diagonal or Kaplan turbine (Paish 2002; Singh 2009). Pelton turbines can have multiple needles, which can be set in on/off position according to the available discharge. ...
Article
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Cross-flow turbines are very efficient and cheap turbines that allow a very good cost/benefit ratio for energy production located at the end of conduits carrying water from a water source to a tank. In this paper, a new design procedure for a cross-flow turbine working with a variable flow rate is proposed. The regulation of the head immediately upstream the turbine is faced by adopting a shaped semicircular segment moving around the impeller. The maximum efficiency of the turbine is attained by setting the velocity of the particles entering the impeller at about 2× the velocity of the rotating system at the impeller inlet. If energy losses along the pipe are negligible, the semicircular segment allows always a constant hydraulic head and a constant velocity at the impeller inlet, even with variable flow rate. The decrease of the turbine efficiency along with the inlet surface reduction is first investigated; a design methodology, using also computational fluid dynamics simulations, is then proposed for both the cases of negligible and not negligible energy losses along the pipe.
... The importance of utilizing solar energy schemes in most parts of Limpopo Province has increased. Independently, increasing and promoting awareness on issues towards climate change and factors regarding the community is one of the major economic challenges [6] - [8]. This has been realized as the potential and important opportunity in directing the energy security and carrying out of one the research niche area within the environmental Millennium Development Goals (MDG) on energy [9]. ...
... In der Studie "Energie-Autark" (Streicher et al., 2010) Bei einem Vergleich von Literaturdaten zu Potenzialen erneuerbarer Energieträger muss zunächst zwischen den verschiedenen Arten von Potenzialen, wie "theoretischen", "technischen", oder "wirtschaftlichen" Potenzialen unterschieden werden (siehe z. B. Rettenmaier et al., 2010;Hoefnagels et al., 2011). Für das theoretische Biomassepotenzial sind ausschließlich die physikalisch-biologischen Restriktionen maßgeblich. ...
Chapter
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From 1990 to 2011, Energy related GHG emissions were the dominant source of Austrian GHG emissions, with a share of about 87 %. The transport sector showed the biggest increase in GHG emissions with 55 % over the last two decades (1990 to 2010). Energy related GHG emissions depend in principle on: the specific GHG-Emission factor of the primary energy used, the efficiency of the conversion technologies and the demand for energy services. From these impact parameters the following central mitigation measures can be derived: (i) the increased use of renewable energy sources in all sectors with respect to primary energy, which, according to different studies, can potentially increase from the current 450 PJ to between 600 and 1 000 PJ; (ii) the increased efficiency of conversion technologies, especially for room heating and process heat and for specific electric uses in all sectors and for all types of vehicles; and (iii) the reduction of energy intensive services in transport by switching to non-motorized and public transport, spatial planning and reduction of „useless“ electricity consumption (e. g. stand-by losses). The key policy instruments for a reduction of GHG emissions for the energy sector include: *) (A) fiscal instruments like GHG-based taxes; (B) tightening of the efficiency standards for buildings and electric appliances in general; (C) efficient and effective further (fiscal) promotion of renewable energy sources; and (D) technological innovation and awareness raising. *) The transport sector could benefit from a portfolio consisting of: (A) fiscal instruments; (B) spatial planning and legal measures; (C) technological innovations for conventional and new alternative powertrains; and (D) soft measures and awareness raising.
... WRAs can produce estimates of the expected long-term wind speed, wind speed PDFs for different directions, and mean annual wind speed fluctuations. The uncertainty associated to the WRA is a function of the characteristics of the wind site and its wind resource, available reference data, and WRA technique used [5], [6]. ...
Article
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Sustainable power systems of the future will be characterised by significant penetration of renewable energy sources. Planning and operation of these systems to ensure reliability and security of supply will require application of smart grid techniques and technologies in which demand response (DR) will play a key role. Planning and design of generation projects based on renewable energies, such as wind power projects (WPPs), should therefore be predicated on the assumption that they will operate in a smart grid environment taking into consideration the special characteristics of the generation technologies and the DR potential of the system.
... After applying this quality control stage, the percentage of remaining data compared with the full possible data in the measuring period shown in Table 3 was 97.12% for Campeche, 96.84% for Mérida and 98.67% for Chetumal. Thus, each measurement site fulfilled the requirement of having at least 90% of the data available during the measurement period for subsequent analysis [16]. ...
Article
Mexico's Yucatán Peninsula is one of the most promising areas for wind energy development within the Latin American region but no comprehensive assessment of wind resource has been previously published. This research presents a preliminary analysis of the meteorological parameters relevant to the wind resource in order to find patterns in their long-term behaviour and to establish a foundation for subsequent research into the wind power potential of the Yucatán Peninsula. Three meteorological stations with data measured for a period between 10 and 20 years were used in this study. The monthly trends of ambient temperature, atmospheric pressure and wind speed data were identified and are discussed. The directional behaviour of the winds, their frequency distributions and the related Weibull parameters are presented. Wind power densities for the study sites have been estimated and have been shown to be relatively low (wind power class 1), though a larger number of suitable sites needs to be studied before a definitive resource evaluation can be reported.
... Here, u z is the wind speed at a given height z and z o is the aerodynamic roughness length, which is approximately 1 -3 cm for eolian megaripples [35]. The average wind velocity (at 10 m above ground, which is the international standard height for meteorological wind measurement [36]) is at least 150 km•hr −1 , which is equivalent to a Category 1 hurricane. Reference [4] inferred that the parallel laminated siltstones in Delaware Mountain Group were deposited during seasonal storms. ...
Article
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Thinly laminated siltstone and sandy siltstone are major components of the Upper Permian Brushy Canyon Formation, west Texas and south New Mexico. These rocks have been variously interpreted as the deposits of low-density turbidity currents or as windblown sediment deposited over water. Nevertheless, all models agreed that this lithology was deposited without subsequent reworking by bottom currents or burrowing organisms. These siltstones, thus, are ideal test units for quantitatively estimating hydraulic properties of the flows that formed them. In particular, the Zr/Ti ratio was tested as a geochemical proxy for flow size and transport distance. In situ geo-chemical abundance and grain size of particles with contrasting susceptibility to erosion—Zr-and Ti-rich particles—were mapped and measured by X-ray fluorescence analytical microscopy, µXRF. Lamination thickness was measured from Fe fluorescence intensity, which increased sharply at the top of each layer. Within the same sample, zircon grains were systematically finer than ruti-lated quartz grains. Zr/Ti fluorescence ratio positively correlated with lamination thickness, not particle sizes. In other words, Zr/Ti fluorescence ratio fluctuations resulted from variations in mineral abundance. Therefore, variations of Zr/Ti fluorescence ratio in these siltstones are likely caused by fluctuations in the intensity of erosional events rather than transport distance. High Zr/Ti ratios and thick laminations reflect periods of enhanced erosion. The average wind velocity during typical events was estimated to be at least 150 km • hr −1 , or the equivalent of a Category 1 hurricane. The method used here could be applied to both outcrop and subsurface strata correlation .
... Figure 4.3. The height of the measurement mast is taken to be 10m [52]. A hub height of 65m is assumed for adjustment of wind speed in accordance with height. ...
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In distribution system operations, dispatchers at control center closely monitor system operating limits to ensure system reliability and adequacy. This reliability is partly due to the provision of remote controllable tie and sectionalizing switches. While the stochastic nature of wind generation can impact the level of wind energy penetration in the network, an estimate of the output from wind on hourly basis can be extremely useful. Under any operating conditions, the switching actions require human intervention and can be an extremely stressful task. Currently, handling a set of switching combinations with the uncertainty of distributed wind generation as part of the decision variables has been nonexistent. This thesis proposes a three-fold online management framework: (1) prediction of wind speed, (2) estimation of wind generation capacity, and (3) enumeration of feasible switching combinations. The proposed methodology is evaluated on 29-node test system with 8 remote controllable switches and two wind farms of 18MW and 9MW nameplate capacities respectively for generating the sequence of system reconfiguration states during normal and emergency conditions.
... So the study needs to construct the wind fields at 80 m, 100 m and 150 m heights. The power law model is usually used to estimate wind speed at different heights, which is shown as follows [17,54]: ...
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The assessment of wind resource is the basis of wind power utilization. An accurate and comprehensive characterization of wind resource is of vital importance to site planning, wind turbine selection, generation capacity estimation, back-up requirements estimation, and financial risks estimation, etc. The second Modern-Era Retrospective analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA-2) dataset from 1998 to 2017 is used to construct the wind profiles at 80 m, 100 m and 150 m heights in China. To ensure the reliability of the assessment, the wind speed obtained from MERRA-2 is compared with the observations collected from two wind farms and 213 meteorological stations. Then a series of metrics are employed to comprehensively characterize wind resource in China, including the theoretical potential, variability, intermittency and complementarity. Meanwhile, the variation pattern of each metric with height is analyzed. The characterization results contribute to a better and more comprehensive understanding of wind resource in China.
... In der Studie "Energie-Autark" (Streicher et al., 2010) Bei einem Vergleich von Literaturdaten zu Potenzialen erneuerbarer Energieträger muss zunächst zwischen den verschiedenen Arten von Potenzialen, wie "theoretischen", "technischen", oder "wirtschaftlichen" Potenzialen unterschieden werden (siehe z. B. Rettenmaier et al., 2010;Hoefnagels et al., 2011). Für das theoretische Biomassepotenzial sind ausschließlich die physikalisch-biologischen Restriktionen maßgeblich. ...
... PV generation depends directly on the solar radiation incident on the panel surface [7]. This incident power per unit area is called irradiance [8]. However, the intensity of this factor varies according the day time mainly because of cloud movement, displacement of the sun and precipitation that may occur along the day. ...
... The data for grain or product production was taken from Economic Survey of Maharashtra 2013-2014 (www.mahades.maharashtra.gov.in). The amount of agro-waste generation was calculated from the crop production data using an RPR values as per following formula given by Maithel (2009). ...
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Agricultural wastes are potential substrates for biofuel production due to their high cellulose content. The biofuel potential of different agro-wastes has been studied. However, assessment of biofuel potential of any particular area generating different kinds of agro-wastes requires scientific analysis. The biofuel production potential of agro-wastes in the state of Maharashtra India has been studied in the present investigation with an objective of formulating a comprehensive template which can be used for the assessment of biofuel potential of agro-wastes elsewhere. The results of the investigation revealed that there are 11 major crops (banana, sugarcane, oilseed, cotton, wheat, sorghum, pulses, maize, rice, soybean and groundnut) in the state of Maharashtra producing about 109.98 million tonnes of agro-wastes/year. Although the total quantity of agro-waste is high, considerable amount of it being utilised/wasted in other means such as cattle feeding (19.648%), farm wastage (4.156%), burning (19.994) and composting (4.085). Taking into consideration all the vital factors, the present investigation finds sugarcane and banana wastes as potential substrates for biofuel production with a gross production of 11, 531.12 × 10⁶ M year ’and 4, 802.49 × 10⁶ M year ’of methane and 15, 480 million litre year⁻1 & 5, 785.038 million litre year⁻1 of cellulosic ethanol. The biochemical analysis also indicated that both sugarcane and banana wastes are more suitable for biofuel production as the cellulose content (44.78% and 42.7%) of these wastes is high compared with others.
... The data for grain or product production was taken from Economic Survey of Maharashtra 2013-2014 (www.mahades.maharashtra.gov.in). The amount of agro-waste generation was calculated from the crop production data using an RPR values as per following formula given by Maithel (2009). ...
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Agricultural wastes are potential substrates for biofuel production due to their high cellulose content. The biofuel potential of different agro-wastes has been studied. However, assessment of biofuel potential of any particular area generating different kinds of agro-wastes requires scientific analysis. The biofuel production potential of agro-wastes in the state of Maharashtra India has been studied in the present investigation with an objective of formulating a comprehensive template which can be used for the assessment of biofuel potential of agro-wastes elsewhere. The results of the investigation revealed that there are 11 major crops (banana, sugarcane, oilseed, cotton, wheat, sorghum, pulses, maize, rice, soybean, ground nut) in the state of Maharashtra producing about 109.98million tonnes of agro-wastes/year. Although the total quantity of agro-waste is high, considerable amount of it being utilised/wasted in other means such as cattle feeding (19.648%), farm wastage (4.156 %), burning (19.994) and composting (4.085). Taking into consideration all the vital factors, the present investigation finds sugarcane and banana wastes as potential substrates for biofuel production with a gross production of 11531.12 ×106 M3 year-1 and 4802.49 ×106 M3 year-1 of methane and 15480 million litre year-1 &5785.038 million litre year-1 of cellulosic ethanol. The biochemical analysis also indicated that both sugarcane and banana wastes are more suitable for biofuel production as the cellulose content (44.78% and 42.7%) of these wastes is high compared with others.
... Biomass is mainly generated in rural (agriculture, forestry, and livestock), urban (sewage sludge and municipal solid wastes) and industrial (cellulose and agri-food industries) areas [7,8]. Each of these biomass generation areas are comprised of different types of biomass [9]. Figure 1 gives an overview about the different LB sources used for bioenergy production [7,10,11]. ...
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Lignocellulosic biomass, comprising of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin, is a difficult-to-degrade substrate when subjected to anaerobic digestion. Hydrothermal pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass could enhance the process performance by increasing the generation of methane, hydrogen, and bioethanol. The recalcitrants (furfurals, and 5-HMF) could be formed at high temperatures during hydrothermal pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass, which may hinder the process performance. However, the detoxification process involving the use of genetically engineered microbes may be a promising option to reduce the toxic effects of inhibitors. The key challenge lies in the scaleup of the hydrothermal process, mainly due to necessity of upholding high temperature in sizeable reactors, which may demand high capital and operational costs. Thus, more efforts should be towards the techno-economic feasibility of hydrothermal pre-treatment at full scale.
... Existing local historical meteorological wind data always as the reference for wind energy studies [12], [13]. Hence, the meteorological data in this study were obtained from the Malaysian Meteorological Department (MMD). ...
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The major issues on the wind measurement campaign are the data measured in a short period and the occurrence of missing data due to the failure of the measurement instrument. Meanwhile, Measure-Correlate-Predict (MCP) method had widely been used to predict the long-term condition and missing data at the measurement site based on nearest Malaysian Meteorological Department (MMD), Meteorological Aerodrome Report (METAR) and extended Climate Forecast System Reanalysis (ECFSR) data. In this research, the long-term wind data at selected potential sites in Malaysia were predicted by optimized Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs). The Genetic Algorithm (GA) was applied to optimize the ANN. Five different ANN MCP models had been designed based on different types of reference data and different temporal scales to predict wind data at three target sites. Weibull frequency distributions and RMSE examined predicted wind data. The prediction of ANN had been improved in between 20.562% to 113.573% by GA optimization. The best R-value obtained from optimization were affected the Weibull shape and scale of predicted data. At last, the result revealed that the optimized ANN model could predict the long-term data for the target site with better accuracy. Index Terms—Artificial Neural Network, Genetic Alg
... The hub height of the wind turbine is approximately 80 m. So the wind speed is extended to 80 m height according to the power law model [28,29]: ...
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Household consumption patterns and energy requirements are of interest from both research and industrial aspects due to the fact that households are one of the major energy consumer to the total energy use of the nation and they give a detailed picture of individual lifestyles especially for the developing countries. Cooking energy has a share about 90% of all household energy consumption in the underdeveloped countries. Turkey is one of the largest developing countries and biomass is intensively used in traditional stoves and ovens for cooking and heating, mostly in rural areas. This study gives a view about the traditional cooking fuels, stoves and ovens coming from Anatolian multiculture and Ottoman Empire culture, which are used today, too and the role of this topic is studied for the future of clean cooking fuels.
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The European Wind Atlas shows a very high wind energy capacity over the Aegean Sea and its coastal regions. Therefore, the western region of Turkey, which has a long coast along the Aegean Sea, appears to have high potential of wind energy. As a result of this fact, several studies have been performed to estimate the wind potential, especially, in western Turkey. However, due to the absence of a reliable and accurate Wind Atlas of Turkey, further studies on the assessment of wind energy in Turkey are necessary. In this study, the characteristics of wind on the campus of Izmir Institute of Technology, located in Cesme peninsula which has long coastline along the Aegean Sea, were studied over a period of one year. Measured data set and its evaluation showed that Izmir Institute of Technology campus area has a considerable wind energy potential. The study presented here is an attempt to promote wind energy in Turkey and to bridge the gap in order to create prospective Turkish Wind Atlas.
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Wind resource assessment at California Polytechnic State University shows there is potential for wind power generation on Cal Poly land. A computational fluid dynamics model based on wind data collected from a campus maintained meteorological tower on Escuela Ranch approximately 5 miles northwest of campus suggests there are areas of Cal Poly land with an IEC Class III wind resource at a height of 80 meters above ground. In addition during the daytime when the campus uses the most energy there are large portions of land with annual average daytime wind speeds above 6.9m/s. These areas have been identified by analyzing the wind speed and directional data collected at the meteorological tower and using it to create the boundary conditions and turbulence parameters for the computer model. The model boundary conditions and turbulence parameters have been verified through comparison between data collected at Askervein hill in Scotland during the 1980’s and the results of a simulation of Askervein hill using the same model. Before constructing a wind farm for power generation, additional meteorological towers should be constructed in Poly Canyon to further confirm the wind resource prediction.
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We use two series of eight-month UHF radar observations collected during the dry and wet seasons of AMMA field campaign. The ultimate goal is to do preliminary work to know whether the lowest layers are suitable for wind energy applications. Surface wind is usually weak in West Africa, but the regular occurrence of a nocturnal low level jet (NLLJ) could provide interesting conditions for wind energy. This work is two-fold: it first aims at improving our knowledge about the NLLJ in West Africa regarding its structure and its variability during the year. Then, special attention is paid to the first 200 m agl, to study the possibility to use the sub-jet wind as a source of energy. A set of enhanced radio-soundings is taken to help to understand the dynamics and thermodynamics and to find a way to extrapolate the wind at low level, where the UHF radars do not provide data.
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Forests provide many benefits to society and it is important to understand if, and how, policies affect the provisioning of ecosystem services. The objective of this dissertation was to analyze and evaluate impacts of intensified biomass production and biodiversity protection on ecosystem services provided by European forests. Article I assessed to what extent forests are protected and how felling restrictions affect the potential annual wood supply. Felling restrictions applied to currently protected forest areas reduce the longterm potential supply of wood by 35 million m3 yr-1. Despite these restrictions, wood harvesting is allowed to a fair extent in these protected forests. Articles II-V assessed the future woody biomass potentials and impacts of different scenarios on forests using the European Forest Information SCENario model (EFISCEN). In article II, the realisable woody biomass potential was estimated at 741 million m3 yr-1 in 2010, including woody biomass from stems, residues, stumps and other biomass, ranging from 620 to 891 million m3 yr-1 in 2030. Mobilising these potentials would imply drastic changes in the management of European forests. According to articles III-V intensified biomass removals could involve trade-offs with other forest ecosystem services. Carbon storage in forest biomass, as well as the amount of deadwood, was projected to decline due to measures to intensify the use of forests. An economic valuation showed that intensifying biomass removals could lead to a net economic benefit measured by the aggregated value of five ecosystem services, as compared to projections without measures to intensify use of forest biomass. Larger social benefits could potentially be obtained if biodiversity protection is enhanced in European forests. The results presented in this dissertation illustrate that careful planning is required to accommodate the need for protection of biodiversity, the expected growing demand for wood, as well as the provisioning of forest ecosystem services.
Chapter
This chapter gives an overview on the chemical and physical characteristics of agricultural residues, the estimation of the availability of agricultural residues and various technical conversion routes as well as management measures for biomass resources. Among the different areas for utilization of agricultural biomass, energy conversion technology is the most promising. With the increase in bioenergy demand, concerns about the sustainability of bioenergy supply in general and agricultural biomass in particular will also increase. The chapter discusses the three main categories of sustainability of agricultural biomass supply, namely environmental, social and economic concerns. Agricultural biomass can be classified into wet lingo-cellulosic feedstock and dry lingo-cellulosic feedstock. Lingo-cellulosic biomass is by far the most significant agricultural biomass because of its abundant availability and non-competitive characteristic with other resources, such as food, material or ecological service.
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Biomass fuel burning leads to high levels of suspended particulate matter and hazardous chemicals in the indoor environment in countries where it is in common use, contributing significantly to indoor air pollution (IAP). A situational analysis of household energy and biomass use and associated health effects of IAP was conducted by reviewing published and un-published literature about the situation in Pakistan. In addition to attempt to quantify the burden of ill health due to IAP, this paper also appraises the mitigation measures undertaken to avert the problem in Pakistan. Unfortunately, IAP is still not a recognized environmental hazard in Pakistan and there are no policies and standards to control it at the household level. Only a few original studies related to health effects of IAP have been conducted, mainly on women's health and birth outcome, and only a few governmental, non-governmental and academic institutions are working to improve the IAP situation by introducing improved stoves and renewable energy technology at a small scale. Control of IAP health hazards in Pakistan requires an initial meeting of the stakeholders to define a policy and an action agenda. Simultaneously, studies gathering evidence of impact of intervention through available technologies such as improved stoves would have favorable impact on the health, especially of women and children in Pakistan.
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In light of the increasing use of unused forest residues, the knowledge about the amount and sites takes#on special relevance in regard to the planning of bioenergy projects. The volume and its spatial dispersion can be derived from the WEHAM-Data. Therefore, in Baden-Württemberg approximately 1.5 mio. Mg DM/a of forest residues and an additional 0.8 mio Mg DM/a of other wood assortments (e.g. small dimensioned wood) can be supplied for energetic use until 2017. Considering the amount of forest residues which is used as firewood (0.5 mio. Mg DM/a) as well as an expected mobilisation rate under favourable conditions, the available volume amounts to approximately 1.2 mio. Mg DM/a. However, only half of this amount is easily accessible. Pertaining to the spatial dispersion of these 1.2 mio. Mg DM available volume, the Black Forest displays areas of particularly high volumes. On the other hand, these areas are difficult to access so that it is necessary to analyse the situation in its entirety.
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Table 1 summarizes the forecasts for the Finnish forestry industry production and wood consumption for 2015 and 2020. The pulp and paper industry production has been forecasted to decrease by up to a third and the wood processing production by just a fifth from 2007 to 2020. The declining trend is mainly due to the weakening of Finland's main exports markets and also the weakening competitiveness of the Finnish production relative to major competing countries e.g. in West Europe, Asia and Sweden. The weakening of export markets are basically a result of three factors. First, the global economic slump is affecting negatively the demand and prices of the pulp and paper products. Secondly, the structural change in the communication paper (printing and writing papers and newsprint) markets is continuing. That is, the electronic media is increasingly replacing print media, which results to lower paper demand level, and also negatively affects the price prospects. The paper companies are no more competing only against the other paper companies, but also against the electronic media companies. As a result, the pricing power of paper companies is weakened. It is anticipated that the economic slump is likely to speed up this structural change. Thirdly, the increasing competition and supply of paper products from Asia (particularly China) to Western markets increases the competition in export markets. Given the above development, the prospects of the paper production in Finland rests on its ability to compete in increasingly tight and declining export markets. The analysis in this report indicates that a part of the Finnish production capacity will not be competitive enough, and there will be further capacity shut downs. The outlook anticipates that Finland's market share in the export markets is going to decline.
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Biological control has become an attractive alternative strategy for the control of plant diseases to reduce the excessive use of agrochemicals and its health hazards. There are various naturally occurring soil microbes that aggressively attack on plant pathogens and benefit plants by disease suppression and hence referred to as biocontrol agents. Besides this, biocontrol agents also help in controlling insect pests and weeds. Among the variety of biological control agents available for use, screening of potent biocontrol agents is necessary for their further development and commercialization. Biocontrol agents comprise of multiple beneficial characters such as rhizosphere competence, antagonistic potential, and ability to produce antibiotics, lytic enzymes and toxins. These biological control activities are exerted either directly through antagonism of soil-borne pathogens or indirectly by eliciting a plant-mediated resistance response. The mechanisms of biocontrol involve antibiosis, parasitism, competition for nutrients and space, cell wall degradation by lytic enzymes and induced disease resistance. Many researches have been conducted on various aspects of biological control but we need to look still forward to carry out new researches to facilitate new biocontrol technologies and applications by improving the efficacy of biocontrol agents and their biocontrol potential. The present article focuses on an overview of biological control including its history, screening, modes of actions, enhancement of biocontrol potential and application under field conditions to manage important diseases of crops.
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Bioenergy Economics and Policy: Introduction and Overview.- Are Biofuels the Best Use of Sunlight?.- Perennial Grasses as Second-Generation Sustainable Feedstocks Without Conflict with Food Production.- Present and Future Possibilities for the Deconstruction and Utilization of Lignocellulosic Biomass.- Interactions Between Biofuels, Agricultural Markets and Trade.- Price Transmission in the US Ethanol Market.- Biofuels and Agricultural Growth: Challenges for Developing Agricultural Economies and Opportunities for Investment.- Prospects for Ethanol and Biodiesel, 2008 to 2017 and Impacts on Agriculture and Food.- The Global Bioenergy Expansion: How Large Are the Food?Fuel Trade-Offs?.- Demand Behavior and Commodity Price Volatility Under Evolving Biofuel Markets and Policies.- Designing the Infrastructure for Biofuels.- Optimizing the Biofuels Infrastructure: Transportation Networks and Biorefinery Locations in Illinois.- The Capital Efficiency Challenge of Bioenergy Models: The Case of Flex Mills in Brazil.- Environmental Effects of Biofuels and Biofuel Policies.- Could Bioenergy Be Used to Harvest the Greenhouse: An Economic Investigation of Bioenergy and Climate Change?.- A Simple Framework for Regulation of Biofuels.- Market and Social Welfare Effects of the Renewable Fuels Standard.- US-Brazil Trade in Biofuels: Determinants, Constraints, and Implications for Trade Policy.- Food and Biofuel in a Global Environment.- Meeting Biofuels Targets: Implications for Land Use, Greenhouse Gas Emissions, and Nitrogen Use in Illinois.- Corn Stover Harvesting: Potential Supply and Water Quality Implications.- Economic Effects of Bioenergy Policies.- International Trade Patterns and Policy for Ethanol in the United States.- The Welfare Economics of Biofuel Tax Credits and Mandates.- Biofuels, Policy Options, and Their Implications: Analyses Using Partial and General Equilibrium Approaches.- Welfare and Equity Implications of Commercial Biofuel.- European Biofuel Policy: How Far Will Public Support Go?.- Conclusions.
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Laitila, J. 2006. Cost and sensitive analysis tools for forest energy procure-ment chains. – Forestry Studies|Metsanduslikud Uurimused 45, 5–10. ISSN 1406-9954. Abstract. The primary aim of Excel based cost calculators is to familiarize the user with the various ways that different factors affect the cost of forest chip production within each working stage of the procurement system. The calculator enables the user to investigate how changes in processed material or in the productivity and hourly cost of machines influence the procurement cost of the whole system. Procurement chains are based on chipping at the roadside landing, in the terrain, at the terminal or at the end use facility. Pro-curement cost at end use facility is expressed as either €/m³ (solid cubic meter) or €/MWh. The herein reported Excel based cost calculator programmes were originally developed to serve research needs, but they are also suitable for energy wood procurement companies, contractors and teaching purposes.
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Parties to the Kyoto Protocol and/or the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) are required to account for their direct human-induced carbon emissions and removals including those from forestry and other land use related activities. In most European countries, the forestry related greenhouse gas inventories are largely or exclusively based on converting tree volume data from national forest inventories to biomass using biomass conversion and expansion factors (BCEFs). However, country specific data for many species are often lacking, which considerably increases the uncertainties of the greenhouse gas inventories. The focus of this research was to develop, using internationally published datasets that cover a large geographical area, an extended set of generalized curves of such biomass expansion factors for several species or species groups by age, growing stock and site index.
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Pilot Analysis of Global Ecosystems (PAGE): Coastal Ecosystems analyzes quantitative and qualitative information and develops selected indicators of the condition of the world's coastal ecosystems and marine fisheries. Specifically the study looks at measures that show the degree of human modification of coastal zone and what we know concerning five important goods and services provided by coastal ecosystems: filtering water, food, biodiversity, shoreline stabilization, and tourism. Results from the PAGE analysis show that human activities have extensively altered coastal ecosystems worldwide. Nearly 30 percent of the land area in the world's coastal ecosystems had already been extensively altered or destroyed by growing demand for housing, industry, and recreation. Globally, the number of people living within 100 km of the coast increased from roughly 2 billion in 1990 to 2.2 billion in 1995—four out of every ten people in the world. As coastal and inland populations continue to grow, their impacts—in terms of pollutant loads and the development and conversion of coastal habitats—can be expected to grow as well. Nutrient pollution has increased dramatically this century due to greater use of fertilizers, growth in quantities of domestic and industrial sewage, and increased aquaculture, which releases considerable amounts of waste directly into the water. Increasing fishing pressure have left many major fish stocks depleted or in decline. Global climate change may compound other pressures on coastal ecosystems through the additional effects of warmer ocean temperatures, altered ocean circulation patterns, changing storm frequency, and rising sea levels.
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Currently, information on forest biomass is available from a mixture of sources, including in-situ measurements, national forest inventories, administrative-level statistics, model outputs and regional satellite products. These data tend to be regional or national, based on different methodologies and not easily accessible. One of the few maps available is the Global Forest Resources Assessment (FRA) produced by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO 2005) which contains aggregated country-level information about the growing stock, biomass and carbon stock in forests for 229 countries and territories. This paper presents a technique to downscale the aggregated results of the FRA2005 from the country level to a half degree global spatial dataset containing forest growing stock; above/belowground biomass, dead wood and total forest biomass; and above-ground, below-ground, dead wood, litter and soil carbon. In all cases, the number of countries providing data is incomplete. For those countries with missing data, values were estimated using regression equations based on a downscaling model. The downscaling method is derived using a relationship between net primary productivity (NPP) and biomass and the relationship between human impact and biomass assuming a decrease in biomass with an increased level of human activity. The results, presented here, represent one of the first attempts to produce a consistent global spatial database at half degree resolution containing forest growing stock, biomass and carbon stock values. All results from the methodology described in this paper are available online at www.iiasa.ac.at/Research/FOR/.
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Tree stumps are expected to be increasingly used for energy production in Fennoscandia, thus environmental consequences of stump removal from forest land must be assessed. Aim of this work was to compile available data on the efficacy of stump removal in eradication of root rot fungi (Heterobasidion, Armillaria, and Phellinus), and to review its potential impacts on establishment and productivity of next forest generation. Site disturbance and some technical and economical aspects are discussed, and needs for future research outlined in northern European context. The review demonstrates that stump removal from clear-felled forest areas in most cases results in, a) reduction of root rot in the next forest generation, b) improved seedling establishment, and c) increased tree growth and stand productivity. Observed disturbances caused to a site by stumping operations are normally acceptable. The available data strongly suggests that possibly many (if achievable, all) rot-containing stumps must be removed during harvesting of stumps. Provided equal availability, the priority should be given for stump removal from root rot-infested forest areas, instead of healthy ones. As most studies were done in North America and Britain, several questions must be yet answered under Fennoscandian conditions: a) if and to which extent the conventional stump removal for biofuel on clear-felled sites could reduce the occurrence of Heterobasidion and Armillaria in the next forest generation, b) what impact is it likely to have on survival of replanted tree seedlings, and c) what consequences will there be for growth and productivity of next forest generation.
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The productivity of harvesting stump and root wood was studied in Norway spruce (Picea abies) stands. The objective was to create productivity models (m3/E0h) for stump wood ex- traction, stump wood forwarding, and site preparation, in addi- tion to identifying work phases and improvement opportuni- ties in the extraction and forwarding chain. Productivity mod- els were based on time studies with professional operators. The independent variables in stump wood extraction were stump diameter (cm) and the number of stumps per hectare. For for- warding, the independent variables were volume of stump wood removed (m3/ha) and forwarding distance (m). When re- moving 350 stumps per ha with an average diameter of 40 cm, productivity was estimated at 7.9 m3/E0h. Increasing the num- ber of stumps removed from 350 to 800 stumps per ha, in- creased productivity to 10.8 m3/E0h. Forwarding productivity was 7.8 m3/E0 hw ith af orwarding distance of 250 ma nd al oad size of 7.0 m3 when removing 60 m3 of stumps per ha.
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