Article

Effect of Citrullus Colocynthis Schrad fruits on testosterone-induced alopecia

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  • Drugs testing laboratory avam anusandhan kendra
Article

Effect of Citrullus Colocynthis Schrad fruits on testosterone-induced alopecia

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Abstract

Alopecia is a psychologically distressing phenomenon. Androgenetic alopecia (AGA) is the most common form of alopecia, which affects millions of men and women worldwide, and is an androgen driven disorder. Here, the Citrullus colocynthis Schrad fruit is evaluated for hair growth activity in androgen-induced alopecia. Petroleum ether extract of C. colocynthis was applied topically for its hair growth-promoting activity. Alopecia was induced in albino mice by testosterone administration intramuscularly for 21 days. Its inhibition by simultaneous administration of extract was evaluated using follicular density, anagen/telogen (A/T) ratio and microscopic observation of skin sections. Finasteride (5α-reductase inhibitor) solution was applied topically and served as positive control. Petroleum ether extract of C. colocynthis exhibited promising hair growth-promoting activity, as reflected from follicular density, A/T ratio and skin sections. The treatment was also successful in bringing a greater number of hair follicles in anagenic phase than the standard finasteride. The result of treatment with 2 and 5% petroleum ether extracts were comparable to the positive control finasteride. The petroleum ether extract of C. colocynthis and its isolate is useful in the treatment of androgen-induced alopecia.

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... Citrullus colocynthis (C. colocynthis) Shrad (family Cucurbitaceae), known as Indrayan, is one of the numerous herbal drugs recommended by the traditional system of medicine for hair growth promotion in India [38,39]. It contains β-sitosterol, campesterol, stigmasterol, α-spinasterol, and cucurbitacin glycosides. ...
... It contains β-sitosterol, campesterol, stigmasterol, α-spinasterol, and cucurbitacin glycosides. It has several pharmacological effects such as immunostimulating, antiandrogenic, antibacterial, and hypoglycaemic in addition to hair-promoting effect [39]. There are few animal studies evaluating hair growth-promoting activities of the C. colocynthis. ...
... In another study, Dhanotia et al. evaluated the hair growth-promoting activities of the petroleum ether extract from the fruit of C. colocynthis on albino mice using a testosterone-induced alopecia model. As a result of both qualitative and quantitative studies on hair growth, they suggested to present the inhibition of androgenic activity and altered anagen/telogen ratio and follicular density [39]. Polyherbal formulation including C. colocynthis was also shown to present hair growthpromoting activity on rats. ...
... Some of these activities were confirmed in modern phytother- apy. 41 In the study of Dhanotia et al. 42 , petroleum ether extract of Citrullus colocynthis was applied topi- cally for its hair growth-promoting activity. Petroleum ether extract of Citrullus colocynthis exhibited promis- ing hair growth-promoting activity, as reflected from follicular density, A/T ratio, and skin sections. ...
... The treatment was also successful in bringing a greater number of hair follicles in anagenic phase than the standard Finasteride. 42 Formulations made by Citrullus colocynthis as well as Minoxidil (2%) solution were applied topically on the shaved skin of rats, and the time required for initi- ation and completion of hair growth cycle was recorded. 36 Hair growth initiation time was markedly reduced to one-third on treatment with the prepared formulation compared with control animals. ...
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Background: In androgenetic alopecia, a number of botanicals are available that can effectively slow or reduce hair loss and inflammation or stimulate partial hair regrowth. The aim of this study was to provide a descriptive overview of the impact and production of literature on botanicals used for androgenetic alopecia and to perform a citation analysis of the related research articles. Methods: We searched for "alopecia" OR "androgenetic alopecia" OR "hair loss" AND "Camelia sinensis" OR (and other 15 botanicals) in ARTICLE (Title/Abstract/Keyword) in Scopus database. Results: A total of 29 references, that is, research articles, were retrieved by SCOPUS search, and 93.1% had been published since 2000. The majority (48.3%) describe applications of hair grow stimulants, followed by inhibitors of 5-alpha-reductase applications (27.6%), and studies concerning inhibitors of inflammation (24.1%). The citation analysis revealed a growing interest for this topic and the papers on hair grow stimulants are most cited. Citation trend of inhibition of 5-alpha-reductase articles is growing in the last years. Conclusions: This study has highlighted three important aspects: (1) growing interest for this topic; (2) evidences mainly in hair grow stimulants and recently in the inhibition of 5-alpha-reductase, as demonstrated by article and citation counts across years; (3) in addition, all major studies have been focused on green tea epigallocatechin-3-gallate, Serenoa repens, Citrullus colocynthis and Cuscuta reflexa.
... Induction of Androgenic Alopecia and Dosing Schedule Alopecia in the animals was induced as per the procedure reported elsewhere by Noubarani et al. [25] and Dhanotia et al. [26] with some modification. Briefly, the procured Swiss albino mice were divided into four groups of 6 each. ...
... The testosterone based in vivo androgenic alopecia was induced as per the reported procedure [25,26] for the assessment of the anti-hair fall activity of the developed finasterideloaded nanoemulgel. ...
Article
PurposeThis investigation was aimed to develop and evaluate lipid nanoemulsion-based gel of finasteride for topical administration, to increase drug availability into the skin for a long duration and to improve the in vivo potential of finasteride against alopecia.Methods Nanoemulsion was prepared by a high-speed homogenization method using Vit E oil, cholesterol, and soya lecithin, characterized, and thickened using guar gum (nanoemulgel). Nanoemulgel was evaluated for pH, viscosity, drug release, skin permeability, and in vivo efficacy against alopecia.Results and DiscussionSize of the drug-loaded nanoemulsion droplets was observed to be 195.20 ± 9.43 nm with uniform size distribution (PDI; 0.25 ± 0.08) and negative zeta potential (− 7.61 ± 1.35 mV). The pH 5.37 ± 0.74 of the developed gel was found to be near to the skin pH. Gel showed slow release (94.77% in 24 h) and restricted permeation through the skin, i.e., 30.7% in 24 h. Macroscopic examination showed improved hair growth in the case of nanoemulgel. Hair diameter and length were observed to be increased significantly in the case of gel as compared with the testosterone treated group. The histological investigation supports the result of macroscopic examination where nanoemulgel restored the conditions (short length hair, necrotic cell appearance with miniaturized follicles) created by testosterone on the skin. Moreover, the developed formulation was observed to be safe and stable for at least 90 days.Conclusion The results prove the clinical pertinence of this stable gel as it ensured longer stay over the skin, slower permeation and higher efficacy against alopecia.
... A quantitative analysis of hair growth was performed. After shaving the long hair, the animal skin in the dorsal area was dissected and fixed in 10% formalin (Dhanotia et al., 2011). vertical sections of the skin were prepared after fixation and stained with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E). ...
Article
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Plant-derived 5 α-reductase inhibitors, such as β-sitosterol and phytosterol glycosides, have been used to treat androgenic alopecia, but their oral absolute bioavailability is poor. This study aimed to develop a transdermal drug delivery system of β-sitosterol (BS) using a nanostructured lipid carrier (NLC) incorporated into polymeric microneedles (MN). Using a high-speed homogenization method, NLC was formulated variables were optimized by Box-Behnken statistical design. The optimized formulation of BS-loaded NLCs was incorporated into the chitosan-based MNs to prepare NLC-loaded polymeric MNs (NLC-MNs) and evaluated using testosterone induced alopecia rats. The cumulative amount of β-sitosterol associated with NLC- MN which penetrated the rat skin in-vitro was 3612.27 ± 120.81 μg/cm2, while from the NLC preparation was 2402.35 ± 162.5 μg/cm2. The steady state flux (Jss) of NLC-MN was significantly higher than that of the optimized NLC formulation (P < 0.05). Anagen/telogen ratio was significantly affected by NLC and NLC-MN, which was 2.22 ± 0.34, 1.24 ± 0.18 respectively compared to 0.26 ± 0.08 for animal group treated with testosterone. The reversal of androgen-induced hair loss in animals treated with β-sitosterol was a sign of hair follicle dominance in the anagenic growth phase. However, NLC–MN delivery system has shown significant enhancement of hair growth in rats. From these experimental data, it can be concluded that NLC incorporated MN transdermal system have potential in effective treatment of androgenic alopecia.
... A alopecia androgenética (AGA) é a condição mais frequente de alopecia e a forma mais comum de perda de cabelo, que atinge milhões de indivíduos, de ambos os sexos, com distribuição mundial e caracteriza-se por uma doença ocasionada por andrógenos (Dhanotia et al., 2011). No sexo masculino é a causa comum de perda de cabelo e acomete até 70% dos homens, especialmente os de faixa etária superior a 50 anos (Lee & Lee, 2012). ...
Article
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The use of medicinal plants in the prevention and therapeutics of diseases has been carried out for a long time. Phytotherapeutic treatment is also applied in androgenetic alopecia, which is a condition characterized by hair loss and affects individuals of both sexes, with a higher prevalence in men. The objective of the article is to present the results of a bibliographical research related to the effectiveness of phytotherapy in the treatment of androgenetic alopecia. It is a literature review of the integrative type, for the construction of the research, was used of articles available in the following databases: PUBMED and ScienceDirect. After selection and analysis of the data obtained through reading, it was observed the use of several types of phytotherapics in the treatment of androgenic alopecia. The researches showed results with a positive effect of the use of this treatment on the hair growth of the individuals studied, with better resistance and increase of hair of the anagen phase.
... Study of follicular density, skin sections and anagen to telogen (A/T) ratio showed significant antialopecial activity. Extracts showed greater number of hair follicles in anagenic phase as compared to finastride standard solution [111]. Hair growth promotion was studied in albino rats using ethanolic extracts of fruits. ...
... Different parts of the plant including seeds, fruit, root, stem, and leaves, used as either aqueous or oil extracts, dried or fresh. These parts are believed to have antidiabetic 1,2,3 , antihyperlipidemic 4,5 , laxative 6,7 , anti-inflammatory, analgesic 7 , vermifuge 2 , hair-growthpromoting 8 , antibacterial, antifungal 7 , and antioxidant properties 9 .In spite of multiple medical benefits, some of the most frequently reported complications such as colic, diarrhea, hematochezia, nephrosis, vomiting, and liver impairment 10,11 have placed C. colocynthis amongst the top 10 toxic plants 11 . ...
Article
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The present study was planned to clarify the cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of aqueous leave ' s extract of Citrullus colocynthis. Root tip meristems of Allium cepa was treated with different concentrations of aqueous leaves extract of C. colocynthis. Samples were taken out at regular intervals for each treatment and subjected to cytogenetic studies including chromosomal aberrations (CA) and micronuclei (MN) assessment, and molecular studies including DNA quantitation, Total soluble protein levels and RAPD-DNA. It was found that the extract has cytotoxic and genotoxic activities at highly concentrations. Mitotic index decreased as concentration or time of exposure increased. Frequency of (CA) and (MN) increased with increase in concentration or exposure time. Most (CA) were disturbance of chromosomes, C-metaphase and binucleate. Pyknotic nuclei cells were highly frequent at high concentration.DNA quantity and total soluble protein levels in seedlings decreased slightly at 23 gm/L of C. colocynthis, and inhibited substantially respectively compared with control along with the increase of C. colocynthis concentration at 46 and 92 gm/L following 24, 48 and 72h. of treatment. The RAPD results demonstrated a polymorphic numbers of genetic bands, which were the electrophoretic products of PCR for all treatments compared with the control. The obtained results strongly suggest that the leaves extract of Citrullus colocynthis is a clastogenic, mutagenic at high dose and anti-carcinogenic agent probably at small dose.
... Different parts of the plant including seeds, fruit, root, stem, and leaves, used as either aqueous or oil extracts, dried or fresh. These parts are believed to have antidiabetic 1,2,3 , antihyperlipidemic 4,5 , laxative 6,7 , anti-inflammatory, analgesic 7 , vermifuge 2 , hair-growthpromoting 8 , antibacterial, antifungal 7 , and antioxidant properties 9 .In spite of multiple medical benefits, some of the most frequently reported complications such as colic, diarrhea, hematochezia, nephrosis, vomiting, and liver impairment 10,11 have placed C. colocynthis amongst the top 10 toxic plants 11 . ...
Article
Full-text available
The present study was planned to clarify the cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of aqueous leave ' s extract of Citrullus colocynthis. Root tip meristems of Allium cepa was treated with different concentrations of aqueous leaves extract of C. colocynthis. Samples were taken out at regular intervals for each treatment and subjected to cytogenetic studies including chromosomal aberrations (CA) and micronuclei (MN) assessment, and molecular studies including DNA quantitation, Total soluble protein levels and RAPD-DNA. It was found that the extract has cytotoxic and genotoxic activities at highly concentrations. Mitotic index decreased as concentration or time of exposure increased. Frequency of (CA) and (MN) increased with increase in concentration or exposure time. Most (CA) were disturbance of chromosomes, C-metaphase and binucleate. Pyknotic nuclei cells were highly frequent at high concentration.DNA quantity and total soluble protein levels in seedlings decreased slightly at 23 gm/L of C. colocynthis, and inhibited substantially respectively compared with control along with the increase of C. colocynthis concentration at 46 and 92 gm/L following 24, 48 and 72h. of treatment. The RAPD results demonstrated a polymorphic numbers of genetic bands, which were the electrophoretic products of PCR for all treatments compared with the control. The obtained results strongly suggest that the leaves extract of Citrullus colocynthis is a clastogenic, mutagenic at high dose and anti-carcinogenic agent probably at small dose.
... Similarly, Wu et al. reported the anti-androgen property of Sinalbin and β-sitosterol of the Brassica alba seed extract on testosterone induced BPH model ( Wu et al., 2003). Moreover, Dhanotia et al. reported the 5α-reductase inhibitory activity of both the petroleum ether extract of the fruit of Citrullus colocynthis and a steroidal compound isolated from this plant in testosterone induce prostate hyperplasia in rat (Dhanotia et al., 2011). ...
Chapter
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Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is one of the most common urological disease in aging men, associated with lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS). A better understanding of the prostate physiology, function, and pathogenesis has led to the development of promising therapeutic agents, useful in the management of clinical BPH in men. The specific approach used to treat BPH depends upon a number of factors like age, prostate size, weight and severity of the symptoms. Watchful waiting, pharmacological therapy, and surgery are also helpful for the BPH patients, depending on the severity of the disease. Although conventional drug therapy (alpha1 -blockers, 5α-reductase inhibitors) and surgery (prostatectomy, transurethral resection, etc.) seem to be most effective for patients with clinical BPH, herbal medicines (Serenoa repens, Pygeum africanum, Urtica dioica etc.) are also commonly used in patients with mild to moderate symptoms. This article provides a brief account of the rationale and efficacy of different treatment options currently available in the management of BPH.
... Similarly, Wu et al. reported the anti-androgen property of Sinalbin and β-sitosterol of the Brassica alba seed extract on testosterone induced BPH model ( Wu et al., 2003). Moreover, Dhanotia et al. reported the 5α-reductase inhibitory activity of both the petroleum ether extract of the fruit of Citrullus colocynthis and a steroidal compound isolated from this plant in testosterone induce prostate hyperplasia in rat (Dhanotia et al., 2011). ...
... Topical application of ethanolic, petroleum ether extract, or isolate of petroleum ether extract of Cuscuta reflexa also increased the number of hair follicles, as well as the follicle anagen/telogen (A/T) ratio, thereby enhancing hair growth in the TES-treated rats [20]. Similarly, petroleum ether extract of Citrullus colocynthis Schrad fruits [21] and ethanol extract of Adiantum Capillus veneris Linm [22] have been found to exhibit hair re-growth promoting activity in animal models of TES-induced alopecia. ...
Article
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Hair loss (alopecia) is a universal problem for numerous people in the world. The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of red ginseng oil (RGO) and its major components on hair re-growth using testosterone (TES)-induced delay of anagen entry in C57BL/6 mice and their mechanisms of action. Seven-week-old C57BL/6 mice were daily treated with TES for 1 h prior to topical application of 10% RGO, 1% linoleic acid (LA), 1% β-sitosterol (SITOS), or 1% bicyclo(10.1.0)tridec-1-ene (BICYCLO) once a day for 28 days. Hair regenerative capacity was significantly restored by treatment of RGO and its major compounds in the TES-treated mice. Histological analysis showed that RGO along with LA and SITOS but not BICYCLO promoted hair growth through early inducing anagen phase that was delayed by TES in mice. Treatment of mice with RGO, LA, or SITOS up-regulated Wnt/β-catenin and Shh/Gli pathways-mediated expression of genes such as β-catenin, Lef-1, Sonic hedgehog, Smoothened, Gli-1, Cyclin D1, and Cyclin E in the TES-treated mice. In addition, RGO and its major components reduced the protein level of TGF-β but enhanced the expression of anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2. These results suggest that RGO is a potent novel therapeutic natural product for treatment of androgenic alopecia possibly through hair re-growth activity of its major components such as LA and SITOS.
... Minoxidil is administered topically as a 4-5% solution for the treatment of alopecia but has adverse systemic effects such as anorexia and myocardial infarction [12]. Recently, natural products and plant extracts that can promote hair growth have been widely used in the hair care industry [13][14][15][16]. As a natural product, insect wax is secreted by male Ericerus pela Chavanness, which live mainly on Chinese privet (Ligustrum lucidum) and Chinese ash (Fraxinus chinensis) which are widely distributed in most parts of China, Japan and the Korean peninsula from the subtropics to temperate regions [17,18]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Insect wax is secreted by Ericerus pela Chavanness. It has been traditionally used to treat hair loss in China, but few reports have been published on the hair growth-promoting effect of insect wax. In this work, we examined the hair growth-promoting effects of insect wax on model animals. Different concentrations of insect wax were topically applied to the denuded backs of mice, and 5% minoxidil was applied topically as a positive control. We found that insect wax significantly promoted hair growth in a dose-dependent manner, 45% and 30% insect wax both induced hair to regrow, while less visible hair growth was observed in blank controls on the 16th day. The experimental areas treated with 45% and 30% insect wax exhibited significant differences in hair scores compared to blank controls, and hair lengths in the 45% and 30% insect wax group was significantly longer than in blank controls on the 16th and 20th days. There were no new hair follicles forming in the treated areas, and the hair follicles were prematurely converted to the anagen phase from the telogen phase in experimental areas treated with 45% and 30% insect wax. Both 45% and 30% insect wax upregulated vascular endothelial growth factor expression. The results indicated that 45% and 30% insect wax showed hair growth-promoting potential approximately as potent as 5% minoxidil by inducing the premature conversion of telogen-to-anagen and by prolonging the mature anagen phase rather than increasing the number of hair follicles, which was likely related to the upregulation of VEGF expression. The dissociative policosanol in insect wax was considered the key ingredient most likely responsible for the hair growth promoting potential.
... The plant is enriched with different phytochemicals such as cucurbitacin E, elatericin B and dihydroelatericin B (Lavie et al., 1964). Albino rats with hair loss due to testosterone were exhibited remarkable hair growth when treated with the indrayan fruit extract (Dhanotia et al., 2011). Indrayan belongs to gourd family is broadly distributed in the deserts of the world. ...
Book
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A vast majority of the world’s population lacks access to essential medicines and the provision of safe healthcare services. Medicinal plants and herbal medicines can be applied for pharmacognosy, or the discovery of new drugs, or as an aid for plant physiology studies. In recent years, there has been increased interest in the search for new chemical entities and the expression of resistance of many drugs available in the market has led to a shift in paradigm towards medicinal research. Herbal treatments, the most popular form of folk medicine, may become an important way of increasing access to healthcare services. Advanced Pharmacological Uses of Medicinal Plants and Natural Products provides emerging research exploring the theoretical and practical aspects of drug discovery from natural sources that allow for the effective treatment of human health problems without any side effects, toxicity, or drug resistance. Featuring coverage on a broad range of topics such as ethnobotany, therapeutic applications, and bioactive compounds, this book is ideally designed for pharmacologists, scientists, ethnobotanists, botanists, health researchers, professors, industry professionals, and health students in fields that include pharmaceutical drug development and discovery.
... So, length of hair follicle, density of hair follicle and the A/ T ratio are used to evaluate hair growth-promoting effects of drugs. For example, Noubarani used hair follicle density and the A/T ratio to evaluate the effect of Adiantum capillus-veneris Linn on testosterone-induced hair loss [13] and Dhamotil used hair length, density, and the A/T ratio to assess the effect of Citrullus colocynthis Schrad on testosterone-induced alopecial [18]. In this paper, we used hair length, density, the A/T ratio and diameter of hair bulb to assess the effect of WW and WWP. ...
Article
White wax (WW) has been traditionally used to treat hair loss in China. However there has been no reporter WW and its extract responsible for hair growth-promoting effect on androgenetic alopecia. In this paper, we examined the hair growth-promoting effects of WW and policosanol of white wax (WWP) on model animal of androgenetic alopecia and the potential target cell of WW and WWP. WW (1, 10 and 20%) and WWP (0.5, 1 and 2%) were applied topically to the backs of mice. Finasteride (2%) was applied topically as a positive control. MTS assays were performed to evaluate cell proliferation in culture human follicle dermal papilla cells (HFDPCs). The inhibition of WW and WWP for 5α- reductase were tested in Vitro. Results showed more lost hairs were clearly seen in mice treated with TP only and TP plus vehicle. Mice which received TP plus WW and WWP showed less hair loss. WW and WWP showed an outstanding hair growth-promoting activity as reflected by the follicular length, follicular density, A/T ratio, and hair bulb diameter. The optimal treatment effect was observed at 10% WW and 1% WWP, which were better than 2% finasteride treatment. MTS assay results suggested that WW and WWP remarkably increased the proliferation of HFDPCs. Inhibitor assay of 5α- reductase showed that WW and WWP inhibited significantly the conversion of testosterone to dihydrotesterone, and the IC50 values of WW and WWP were higher than that of finasteride. In Conclusion, WW and WWP could act against testosterone-induced alopecia in mice, and they promoted hair growth by inhibiting 5α-reductase activity and HFDPCs proliferation. DPCs is the target cell of WW and WWP.
... In comparison, the development of CIA treatment is lagging and no effective treatments for CIA are available at present [1,2]. In recent years, many plants have been tested for their hair growth promoting activity viz Tridax procumbens [3], Citrullus colocynthis [4], Eclipta alba [5], Cuscuta reflexa [6,7]. This work was done with an attempt to collect some experimental evidences if the herbs under consideration, which is Trigonella foenum-graecum and Butea monosperma and their polyherbal formulation are having some potential of preventing hair loss in such cases of chemotherapy-induced alopecia. ...
... Oral ingestion of the fruit prescribed for diabetes (Huseini , 2009). Petroleum ether extract of the fruits of Citrullus colocynthis shown to induce hair follicle density (Dhanotia , 2011). ...
... Dhanotia et al. (2009) studied 2% and 5% petroleum ether ext ract of fruit of Citrullus colocynthis. The results of treatment with 2 and 5% petroleum ether extracts were co mparable to the positive control finasteride [37]. [40]. ...
... Dhanotia et al. (2009) studied 2% and 5% petroleum ether ext ract of fruit of Citrullus colocynthis. The results of treatment with 2 and 5% petroleum ether extracts were co mparable to the positive control finasteride [37]. [40]. ...
Article
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Alopecia is a dermatological disorder also expressed as loss of hair. Psycho-social importance of hair is the main cause of the focus of cosmaceutical industry on hair growth formulations. Various medicinal systems consist of the therapy for alopecia but very few of them are promising. Use of herbs and medicinal plants in the treatment of alopecia is a well-known folklore practice. The conventional synthetic drugs are associated with the one or more significant side effects when used in the long term for alopecia treatment. The herbal drugs can provide a safer and more effective alternative to the treatment. Understanding of physiological factors affecting hair growth and mechanism of herbs in promoting hair growth can be helpful in the hair growth research. The article reviews the alopecia as a disorder, the present status of the nonsurgical treatment options for alopecia and the discussion on the systematic research going on the herbal drugs to treat alopecia.
... Interestingly, petroleum ether extracts of C. colocynthis have been reported to block androgen-induced alopecia (Dhanotia et al., 2011). Therefore, the plant may exhibit several beneficial skin care effects. ...
Article
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Medicinal plants have been traditionally used to address and treat a variety of pathologies including skin diseases. Six medicinal herbs, grown in Jordan, were evaluated for their ability to reduce UVB-induced skin damage, a major contributor to erythema, skin aging and cancer formation. Ethanolic, acetonic and aqueous extracts were prepared from the stems and leaves of the plants. Human keratinocyte HaCaT cells were incubated without or with the different extracts for 24 hr, exposed to UVB irradiation and taken for viability and apoptosis assessment by resazurin and caspase-3 determinations, respectively. Selected extracts were further evaluated by the DCFDA method (ROS production measurement) and on pig and human skin explants. From the 18 extracts screened, only Citrillus colocynthis extracts showed significant protective properties against UVB-induced apoptosis. UV protective activity was found in the water extracts of both stem and leaf preparations of the plant. UV protection was independent of ROS production. Importantly, Citrillus colocynthis extracts were also able to attenuate the photodamage in both ex vivo skin models used in this study. Therefore, the current preliminary screening indicates that Jordanian medicinal plants might be valuable sources for novel skin care compounds. This study also suggests that Citrillus colocynthis extracts exhibit significant photoprotection properties and may attenuate the deleterious effects of UVB radiation.
... The plant is enriched with different phytochemicals such as cucurbitacin E, elatericin B and dihydroelatericin B (Lavie et al., 1964). Albino rats with hair loss due to testosterone were exhibited remarkable hair growth when treated with the indrayan fruit extract (Dhanotia et al., 2011). Indrayan belongs to gourd family is broadly distributed in the deserts of the world. ...
Chapter
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The primary aim of this study is to access the salient herbal plants with the active constituent of potentially anti-hair fall activities. It also presents the various reasons behind hair loss ailments. As part of this study, a focus is placed on active phytochemicals within these medicinal plants or natural products in terms of various hair fall disease treatments. As natural products have a beneficial effect to minimize hair loss and have promoted the potential for new hair growth, it presents the medicinal values of natural plants in reference to safety and effectiveness for health.
... It also promotes hair growth via the stimulation of growth factor release from adipose-derived stem cells dermal papilla and epithelial cells (Choi et al. 2018). Recently, natural products and plant extracts that are reported to promote a significant hair growth have been widely used in the hair care industry (Dhanotia et al. 2011). In recent years, several scientific reports and clinical trials have revealed the useful effects of Biofield Energy Treatment, which have shown to enhance the immune function in cases of cervical cancer patients via therapeutic touch (Lutgendorf et al. 2010) massage therapy (Ironson et al. 1996) etc. Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) therapies are now rising as preferred models of treatment, among which Biofield Therapy (or Healing Modalities) is one approach that has been reported to have several benefits to enhance physical, mental and emotional human wellness. ...
Article
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Development of hair follicle is undergoing cycles of three phases like anagen, catagen, and telogen. Adequate hair growth is essential for social interaction and outlook in human life. In this context, the present study was performed for the assessment of the impact of Biofield Energy Healing (The Trivedi Effect®) Treatment on the test item (1:1 ratio mixture of herbal extracts of Phyllantus emblica and Eclipta alba) in C57BL/6 mice. The test item was divided into two parts. One part was denoted as the untreated and test item without any Biofield Energy Treatment, while the other part was defined as the Biofield Energy Treated test item, which received the Consciousness Energy Healing Treatment by a renowned Biofield Energy Healer, Alice Branton. The study parameters like anagen induction and visual melanogenesis using skin biopsy technique were used in this experiment for the assessment of hair growth phages.The experimental results of the untreated and Biofield Energy Treated test item groups showed 50% and 60%, respectively of hair growth on dorsal clipped skin after topical application compared to the vehicle control group. Besides, the Biofield Energy Treated test item exhibited 60% melanogenesis after biopsy analysis in mice skin at the end of experiment compared with the vehicle control group. The overall results demonstrated that the Biofield Energy Treatment has the potential for hair growth promotion as evident via increased hair growth and melanogenesis. Therefore, the Biofield Energy Healing (The Trivedi Effect®) Treatment could be useful as a hair growth promoter for various treatment of skin injuries and skin-related disorders like necrotizing fasciitis, actinic keratosis, sebaceous cysts, diaper rash, decubitus ulcer, etc.
... Petroleum ether and ethanol extracts of Citrullus colocynthis were tested for their positive effect on hair follicles and induced alopecia in albino mice (Dhanotia et al., 2011). Petroleum ether extracts resulted in reduction in time taken for hair growth initiation as compared with untreated control animals. ...
Chapter
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Bioactive compounds obtained from plants are the most important products serving humanity. There are enormous compounds reported from different plants which are being used to formulate countless medicines today. These are sources of medicines providing: antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, anti-cancerous, anti-hypercholesterolimic, antipyretic and many more activities. In addition, these compounds are also being used in formulating various food supplements like vitamins, minerals, alkaloids, steroids etc. One such medicinal plant blessed with important bioactive compounds showing many of the above-mentioned properties is: Citrullus colocynthis (L.) Schrad., belonging to family Cucurbitaceae. The wonder plant is found distributed mostly in arid to semi-arid regions all over the world. It is an important plant of Rajasthan possessing fabulous medicinal properties, as discussed in this chapter. The review summarises previous and recent research findings conducted on this plant with special reference to in vitro studies. This review tries to inculcate indigenous ethnomedicinal information, ayurvedic findings, advanced biochemical and biotechnological approaches related to the plant species.
... The result of treatment with 2 and 5% petroleum ether extracts were comparable to the positive control finasteride. The petroleum ether extract of C. colocynthis and its isolate is useful in the treatment of androgen-induced alopecia [21]. ...
... In addition, C. colocynthis petroleum extract was beneficial to the management of alopecia induced by androgen [52]. In addition to its potential use as a supplement for protecting patients experiencing chemotherapy, the extract of C. Colocynthis has implied an antigenotoxic activity in mice with oxidative DNA damage induced by cyclophosphamide [53]. ...
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Plants are seen generally as resources for food and medicines by humans. Citrullus colocynthis is a decorative European plant. It belongs to the Cucurbitaceae family and is also called bitter apple and bitter cucumber. This plant is mostly found in Africa, Asia and many regions of Iran. In this article, Citrullus colocynthis was found to have antidiabetic, hypolipidemic, antineoplastic, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, profibrinolytic, analgesic, antiallergic, antimicrobial, pesticidal and immunostimulant activity. It also has an effect on the reproductive system and fertility. This review suggests that Citrullus colocynthis has a broad spectrum of pharmacological activity, in which antidiabetic activity is prominent. It seems that more research is needed to evaluate these findings.
... The plant is enriched with different phytochemicals such as cucurbitacin E, elatericin B and dihydroelatericin B (Lavie et al., 1964). Albino rats with hair loss due to testosterone were exhibited remarkable hair growth when treated with the indrayan fruit extract (Dhanotia et al., 2011). Indrayan belongs to gourd family is broadly distributed in the deserts of the world. ...
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The primary aim of this study is to access the salient herbal plants with the active constituent of potentially anti-hair fall activities. It also presents the various reasons behind hair loss ailments. As part of this study, a focus is placed on active phytochemicals within these medicinal plants or natural products in terms of various hair fall disease treatments. As natural products have a beneficial effect to minimize hair loss and have promoted the potential for new hair growth, it presents the medicinal values of natural plants in reference to safety and effectiveness for health.
... Cedarwood, lavender, thyme, and rosemary oils have been used anecdotally for over 100 years to treat hair loss (Hosking et al., 2019). Other medicinal herbs have also been explored for their potential in enhancing hair growth (Lee et al., 2010;Dhanotia et al., 2011;Seo et al., 2013;Oh et al., 2014;Jain and Dass, 2015;Jain et al., 2016;Shahtalebi et al., 2016;Ash et al., 2019). ...
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Essential oils are one of the most popular natural products, with broad applications in dermatology. Hair loss is a disorder in which the hair falls out from skin areas where they are usually present, such as the scalp and the body. The aim of the work was to formulate oleogels containing two essential oils (Cedarwood and Rosemary) singly and in combination and evaluate their hair growth enhancing effect on an animal model. Oleogels were formed using beeswax as the organogelator with concentrations of 10 % for the oils when used singly or 5 % each for the oils when formulated in combination. Characterization of oleogels were done using spreadability, oil binding capacity (OBC), gas chromatography (GC) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Hair growth evaluation was carried out in 18 albino rats in six groups of threes. A hair removal cream was applied on the experimental animals and the Oleogel applied for six-weeks. GC analysis of the oils revealed the presence of thujopsene, alpha-pinene, beta-pinene, pentane, alpha cedrenea, beta cedrenea, alpha cedrol, gamma-terpene, acetonitrite, atlantone, terpinolene in cedarwood oil while rosemary oil contained 1-8 cineole, camphor, alpha-pinene, beta-pinene, camphene, p-cymene, alpha-terpinene, gamma terpinene, gamma-humulene, beat-bisabolene, genaniol and terpinolene. DSC thermogram of the oleogel formulations showed varying degrees of amorphicity. Spreadability results showed that the oleogels containing cedarwood oil were more spreadable. Conversely, oil binding capacity values were higher with Rosemary oil than Cedar wood oil with values ranging from 91 % (for the oleogel containing 10 % rosemary oil) to 81 % for the bland oleogel (no essential oil). Hair growth evaluation revealed that the oleogel containing rosemary oil (10 %) had similar effects as the positive control (Minoxidil, 2 %) at the end of the six-week period. Oleogels made from cedar wood and rosemary oils have hair growth enhancing effects.
... As far as hair loss is concerned, scientists across globe have published abundant literature on herbs and their efficacious effects on rodent models of hair loss (Table 1). Rodent studies have shown beneficial effects of hair growth using herbal plants such as, 3 % proanthocyanidins from grape seeds (C3H mouse) [33] , Panax ginseng extract and ginsenoside Rb1 (mouse vibrissal follicles in organ culture) [34] , Polygonum multiflorum extract (C57BL/6 mice) [35] , Nardostachys jatamansi extract and their constituents (nardal, jatamansic acid, wistar rats) [36] , Citrullus colocynthis Schrad extract (albino mice) [37] , and Ziziphus jujuba oil (BALB/C mice) [38] . Eclipta alba extract (2 and 5 %) incorporated into water in oil cream base showed a better hair growth activity than 2 % topically applied minoxidil on skin of shaved rats [39] . ...
... The Fruits of Citrullus colocynthis L. contain seventeen compounds broadly recognized and divided into five classes: ketones, alcohols, epoxy compounds, hydrocarbons, and an acid. The C. colocynthis Schrader fruit is assessed for hair growth activity in androgen-induced alopecia and showed broad-spectrum antimicrobial, antiinflammatory, anti-diabetic activity, and hepatoprotective activity [40][41][42][43][44][45][46][47][48][49][50] . ...
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The medicinal plant Citrullus colocynthis is very significant for indigenous medicine. The pharmacological effects of root, fruits, seeds, leaves, and the whole C. colocynthis have been practices for the treatment of diseases. Phytochemical screening of the fruits of C. colocynthis has observed several bioactive compounds. The glycosides, flavonoids, alkaloids, carbohydrates, fatty acids, and essential oils contain phenolic and flavonoids in the C. colocynthis fruit. In current research work, a review on pharmacological study of medicinal plant C. colocynthis. Many related research articles were checked and collected in Google Scholar, PubMed, Science direct, the scientific information Database, and Scopus. For the present study purpose, using the terms colocynthis, Indrayan, Garhtumba, and Kharatumba in the title of all articles published to 2021 were observed. This study suggests that the extract of C. colocynthis could offer cheaper herbal drugs. The finding of the present research work would be significant, help prepare less costly, eco-friendly herbal drugs to treat various diseases and infections to replace synthetic drugs.
... The plant grows in Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, Iraq, Jordan, Turkey, India, China, Pakistan, and other Asian, African, and European countries (AL-SNAFI 2016). Different CCT plant parts such as the seeds, leaves, fruit, stem, and root, are utilized as oil or aqueous extracts, dried or fresh, and are believed to have anti-diabetic (RAHIMI et al. 2012), antihyperlipidemic (RAHBAR andNABIPOUR 2010), laxative (MARZOUK et al. 2010), anti-inflammatory (MARZOUK et al. 2010), analgesic (MARZOUK et al. 2010), hair-growing (DHANOTIA et al. 2011), vermifuge (RAHIMI et al. 2012), antifungal (MARZOUK et al. 2009), antibacterial (MARZOUK et al. 2009), and antioxidant properties (TANNIN-SPITZ et al. 2007). ...
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Traditionally, the usage of Citrullus colocynthis (CCT) causes severe side effects. The side effects of CCT fruit extract administered orally at different doses related to gastric tissues and circulating cytokines profiles were reported. Thirty-five adult male albino mice were divided into 4 groups, a control group (G1) and three experimental groups. They orally received aqueous fruit extract over 20 days at different doses; 100, 200, and 300 mg/kg of body weight/day. Total body weight, stomach tissue, peripheral blood, anti-inflammatory, and pro-inflammatory cytokines were evaluated. Body weight significantly decreased in groups 2 and 3 over four weeks. Neutrophils, lymphocytes, monocytes, and basophils were significantly (p<0.05) elevated in group 4; while hemoglobin and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC) were significantly decreased (p<0.05). Interleukin-8 (IL-8) level was significantly elevated in groups 3 and 4 versus the control group (p<0.05). Interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels showed a significant (p<0.05) increase in group 4 only. Anti-inflammatory cytokines showed a significant (p<0.05) decrease in all treated groups. The stomach tissues revealed that the extract induced a superficial focal loss of the surface mucous protective epithelium, the atrophy of peptic cells, and a thickening of mucosal connective tissue. The submucosa showed vascular congestion and inflammatory cell infiltration. Severe histological changes were reported in group 4. Using the extract for 20 days led to the elevation of the differential white blood cell (WBC) count as well as the destruction of the gastric mucosal lining at high doses. This could be due to an increase in pro-inflammatory and declining anti-inflammatory cytokines. It is not recommended to use CCT in high doses or for long periods.
... The importance of C. colocynthis plant is disclosed in certain studies as it has various medicinal effects. Anti-inflammatory effect (Onyeji et al., 2017), antioxidative effect (Bernard and Olayinka, 2010), anticonvulsant effect (Kaushik et al., 2015;Mehrzadi et al., 2016), anti-alopecia effect (Dhanotia et al., 2011), anti-fungal effect (Rezai et al., 2017;Salehi et Biol. Clin. ...
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Gastrointestinal, skin, pulmonary and cardiovascular problems have been reported all over the world on massive scale. The treatment of these problems has become tough due to genetically modified bacterial strains and fungal infections. The present studied was conducted to evaluate the antimicrobial activities of Citrullus colocynthis plant extract. The ethanolic extract of dried fruit pulp, seed, and root was evaluated with respect to anti-bacterial and anti-fungal properties. The anti-microbial profile studied against four bacterial strains (2 Gram negative and 2 Gram positive) while anti-fungal profile studied against four fungal species. All the bacterial and fungal strains used in the study showed sensitivities against the respective extracts. The zones of inhibition ranged between 7 mm to 23 mm, and 6 mm to 23 mm in against bacterial and fungal strains, respectively. The extract of seed found to be less effective against both the organisms. It was suggested from our study that the extract of Citrullus colocynthis may be used in medicines to cure bacterial diseases.
... the neck, dyspepsia, constipation, anemia's and throat diseases. The fruit pulp is purgative, diuretic, antiepileptic, and is used against gonorrhea (Dhanotia et al., 2011;Marzouk et al., 2010;Qazan et al., 2007). ...
... The fruit has a pungent smell, bitter and has a purgative characteristic. Extraction of C. colocynthis can act as antihelmintic, antipyretic, can treat ulcers, asthma, bronchitis, enlargement of the spleen, dyspepsia, constipation, anaemia and throat disease (Roy et al., 2007;Dhanotia et al., 2011). This plant also has several pharmacological effects such as antibacterial, hypoglycemic, immunostimulating and antiandrogen beside act as hair promoting effect (Yardimci, 2017). ...
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Hair loss or alopecia is a common dermatological issue that can affect millions of human population of all ages and both gender, male and female. Frequently, alopecia has been found to be associated with significant adverse effects or reduction of psychological and self-esteem. Consequently, this may lead to psychological problems such as depression and anxiety, thus it may negatively impact the quality of life as well. There are several types of hair loss including androgenetic alopecia (AGA), alopecia areata (AA), alopecia totalis (AT), Alopecia Universalis (AU), cicatricial alopecia (CA), senescent alopecia (SA), traction alopecia (TA) and telogen effluvium. However, this review will focus on the androgenic alopecia only. Androgenic alopecia (AGA) also known as male pattern baldness is referred to as hair loss that often occurs in men after puberty caused by the androgen. In addition, this review will discuss on the hair growth cycles and their mechanism on the androgenic alopecia and lastly the management of androgenic alopecia using plant derivatives and methods used in order to prolong the efficacy of androgenetic alopecia treatment.
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In this systematic review and meta-analysis, we investigated the effect and side effects of Citrullus colocynthis on glycemic factors and lipid profile in diabetic patients. We systematically searched English and Persian databases from inception till August 2021 using Medical Subject Headings (MeSH). Two authors independently extracted data and assessed the quality of studies. The standardized mean differences were pooled using fixed-effect models, and statistical heterogeneity was assessed using the I squared (I²) index. Of the 321 articles searched in the databases, 136 related articles were screened, 14 relevant full-text articles were assessed for eligibility; finally, four articles were included in the study, three articles were entered into the meta-analysis. The results of the meta-analysis indicated that Citrullus colocynthis does not have a significant effect on fasting blood sugar (FBS), hemoglobin A1c (HBA1c), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), total cholesterol, and triglyceride indices but increases high-density lipoprotein (HDL) (Mean Difference: 5.76; 95% CI: 1.69 to 9.84; P = 0.006; I2 = 0%). The meta-analysis results showed that Citrullus colocynthis has no significant effect on glycemic and metabolic indices of diabetes - except HDL. Due to the relatively low quality and the small number of included trials, conducting further large scale well-designed randomized clinical trials to determine the effect of Citrullus colocynthis on glycemic and metabolic indices seems essential.
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In this paper, we reviewed plants being effective in treatment of BPH for the purpose of finding new sources of pharmaceutical agents. All pertinent literature databases were searched. The search keywords were plant, herb, herbal therapy, phytotherapy, benign prostatic hyperplasia, BPH, and prostate. All of the human, animal and in vitro studies were evaluated. According to the studies, some of the substantial effective constituents of the plants in treatment of BPH are oenothein B, icaritin, xanthohumol, diarylheptanoid, 2,6,4'-trihydroxy-4-methoxybenzophenone, emodin, fatty acids, atraric acid, n-butylbenzene-sulfonamide, curbicin, theaflavin-3,30-digallate, penta-O-galloyl-b-D-glucose, lycopene, sinalbin, β-sitosterol, secoisolariciresinol diglucoside, genistein, apigenin, baicalein, and daidzein. Besides, Serenoa repens, Pygeum africanum, Curcubita pepo, and Urtica dioica as the most prevalent plants used to treat BPH. S. repens in human studies showed equivalent effectiveness to tamsulosin and in combination to U. dioica revealed equal effects to finastride with less side effects. There are numerous plants that have beneficial influence on BPH although the mechanisms of action in some plants are not well understood yet. Active ingredients of some of these plants are known and can be used as lead components for development of new effective and safe drugs.
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Ethnopharmacological relevance: Many traditional Chinese medicines (TCM) have been used for hundreds of years for hair blackening and hair nourishing, and now many of them are commonly used in Chinese herbal shampoo to nourish the hair and promote hair growth. Aims of the study: The present study was performed to screen 5α-reductase (5αR) inhibiters from traditional Chinese medicines, evaluate its hair growth promoting activity in vivo, and further investigate its effects on androgen metabolism and the expression of 5αR II in hair follicles. Materials and methods: Nine TCM which were dried, ground and extracted by maceration with 75% ethanol or distilled water were used for screening 5αR inhibiters, and enzymes were extracted from the rat epididymis. The leaves of Platycladus orientalis (L.) Franco was used to evaluate the in vivo anti-androgenic activity. Skin color was observed daily and the hair re-growth was assessed by assigning the hair growth score. The longitudinal sections of hair follicles were used for observing follicle morphology, classifying of distinct stages of hair follicle morphogenesis and calculate the average score. The transverse sections were used for determination of hair follicle counts. Testosterone (T), Dihydrotestosterone (DHT) and Estradiol (E2) levels in serum and skin tissue were detected by ELISA kits. The immunofluorescence assay was used to detect the influence of CP-ext on 5αR expression in dorsal skin. Results: We found the extract of Ganoderma Lucidum(GL-ext), Polygonum Multiflori(PM-ext), Cacumen Platycladi(CP-ext) and Cynomorium songaricum(CS-ext) showed stronger 5αR inhibitory activity.CP-ext (5mg and 2mg/mouse/day) could significantly shorten the time of the dorsal skin darkening and got longhaired (P<0.01), and showed high hair re-growth promoting activity. Furthermore the histological data of hair follicles in each group showed that CP-ext could promote the growth of hair follicle and slowed down hair follicles enter the telogen. What's more CP-ext significantly reduced DHT levels and down-regulated the expression of 5αRⅡin skin (P<0.01). Conclusions: GL-ext, PM-ext, CP-ext and CS-ext showed strong 5αR inhibitory activity. CP-ext possesses high hair growth promoting activity in the in vivo androgen-sensitive mouse model via inhibiting the 5αR activity, decreasing the DHT levels and in turn suppressing the expression of 5αR. Our study may contribute to the development of a new generation of herbal supplements with clearer material basis of pharmacodynamic for treating androgenic alopecia (AGA).
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Insulin acts alone for the survival of Diabetic Mellitus of type I. However, Type II may require insulin for correction of hyperglycemia for therapeutic approach. But now the diabetic patients are treated by thiamine supplementation. This chapter describes the process involved in maintenance of glucose level in blood circulation, hormonal control of glucose homeostasis, classification of diabetes mellitus, role of thiamine in normal glucose metabolism and relationship of thiamine and diabetes mellitus.
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ABSTRACT Food security and sustainiblity in agriculture is greatly devastated by the emergence of phytonematodes triggering huge yield losses worldwide. Traditionally, synthetic chemicals are widely and commonly used to combat nematode pests; however, the chemical poses negative impact on environment and biodiversity which create urgency in development of an alternative biosafe measure to control these pests. In this regards, researchers have focused on the use of phytopesticides which are eco-friendly and easily accessible and degradable in soil as compared to synthetic chemcials. The given information in this review article highlights the importance of Citrullus colocynthis L. Schrad as a promising biological and pesticidal agent useful for the treatment of various medicinal ailments as well as reducing different pests that are harmful for the crop yield and emphasize the need to utilize the useful effect of this plant against nematodes. Phytochemistry of the C. colocynthis and the secondary metabolites isolated from the plant i.e. alcohols, esters, fatty acids terpenes, flavonoids and steroids are assembled in this article which further provide a basis for a noteworthy nematicidal effect.
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ABSTRACT Objectives: To Evaluate the Efficacy of “Rovaan Poshak Taila” in the Management of Khalitya (Diffuse Alopecia) Methods: A total of 55 subjects who were suffering from Khalitya (Diffuse Alopecia) were included in the study. Out of total 55 subjects, only 50 subjects completed the trial. The clinical assessment recorded for the Rovaan Poshak Taila in 50 subjects was evaluated based on improvement in Kandu (Itching on scalp), Kesha Bhoomi Rukshata (Dryness on scalp), Darunaka (Dandruff), Keshchyuti (Hair loss/day), hair texture status and hair pull test. Clinical parameters were assessed at Day 0, Day15 Day30 and on follow up day (Day 45). All subjects were given Rovaan Poshaka Taila for local application on the scalp for 10 minutes, keeping up overnight and rinsing the next morning, performing it thrice a week for 30 days. Results: Treatment with Rovaan Poshak Taila for 30 days resulted in a significant decrease in hair loss/day Score from 1.909± 0.5535 to 1.453±0.5740 & 0.9800±0.9145 & 0.9800±0.8687 (mean ± SD, P<0.0001; t=3.204; t=6.427; t = 6.427) on Day15, Day 30 & on Day 45. This result indicates that Rovaan Poshak Taila is able to control the Keshchyuti (Hair loss/day) on day 30 with hair loss on 51st to 100th / day from frequent hair loss of 101 to 120 hair loss from Day 0.Conclusion: The study revealed that Rovaan Poshak Tail is effective in the treatment of Khalitya (Diffuse Alopecia). Key Words Rovaan Poshak Tail, Hair loss, Alopecia, Khalitya
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Currently available conventional therapies of hair loss using synthetic drugs are still imperfect and have a number of limitations. Their effectiveness as well as the safety of their use is often questioned. It has led to an increased interest in alternative treatments with fewer side-effects such as formulations containing herbs and/or their active constituents. For this purpose several electronic databases and hand-searched references were used to summarize current knowledge regarding topically used herbal products for the treatment of hair loss acquired on the basis of preclinical and clinical studies. Moreover, mechanism of their action, follicular penetration and possible adverse effect of herbal products will be also described.
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Background Androgenetic alopecia (AGA) is the most common form of non‐scarring alopecia in humans. Several studies have used different laboratory models to study the pathogenesis and interventions for AGA. These study models have proved beneficial and have led to the approval of two drugs. However, the need to build on existing knowledge remains by examining the relevance of study models to the disease. Objective We sought to appraise laboratory or pre‐clinical models of AGA. Method We searched through databases (PubMed, ScienceDirect, Web of Science, World CAT, Scopus and Google Scholar) for articles on AGA‐related studies from 1942 to March 2019 with a focus on study models. Results The search rendered 101 studies after screening and deduplication. Several studies (70) used in vitro models, mostly consisting of two‐dimensional monolayer cells for experiments involving the characterization of androgen and 5‐alpha reductase (5AR) and inhibition thereof, the effects of dihydrotestosterone (DHT) and biomarker(s) of AGA. Twenty‐seven studies used in vivo models of mice and monkeys to investigate DHT synthesis, the expression and inhibition of 5AR and hair growth. Only four studies used AGA‐related or healthy excisional/punch biopsy explants as ex vivo models to study the action of 5AR inhibitors and AGA‐associated genes. No study used three‐dimensional [3‐D] organoids or organotypic human skin culture models. Conclusion We recommend clinically relevant laboratory models like human or patient‐derived 3‐D organoids or organotypic skin in AGA‐related studies. These models are closer to human scalp tissue and minimize the use of laboratory animals and could ultimately facilitate novel therapeutics.
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Hair loss may not be recognized as a life-threatening disorder. However, it has a great harm on a person's self-respect, mental health, and entirety quality of life. Androgenic alopecia (AGA) is the most common type of hair loss, which affects a great number of both men and women. Alopecia can be treated with various hair loss strategies, including hair transplant, cosmetics and medication. Medical treatment shows the outstanding ability in improving hair growth. Plenty of drugs prevent alopecia by inhibiting the secretion of male hormone. But these medicines exhibit some undesirable side effects. Since hair loss requires a long-term treatment, and minimizing adverse side effects is extremely urgent in drug development. Accordingly, new agents are obtained from natural products with less adverse effects. Traditional Chinese medicines exhibit unique advantages in hair loss treatment. This review generalizes and analyzes the recent progress of medicinal plants for the treatment of hair loss, suggested mechanisms and outlines a number of trials taken or underway to optimize the treatment.
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The process of programmed cell death (PCD), or apoptosis, are triggered by external and internal stimuli such as ultraviolet radiation, oxidative stress, ROS, DNA damage etc. It is an intrinsic cell-suicide programmed for maintaining tissue homeostasis and safeguard the organism by demise of infected cell. Recently, many potent apoptosis-inducing drugs associated with human health have been recorded that prevent cancer and other related diseases. Therefore, research mainly focus on the cell cycle analysis and signaling pathways that control cell cycle arrest and programmed cell death. Failure of apoptotic machinery can cause many diseases in human such as cancer. The goal of this chapter are to provide a general overview of molecular mechanisms of apoptosis, function of apoptosis in animal, regulation of apoptosis, process of necrosis, different types of disease associated with apoptosis as well as an alternative forms of apoptosis.
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People commonly inquire about vitamin and mineral supplementation and diet as a means to prevent or manage dermatological diseases and, in particular, hair loss. Answering these queries is frequently challenging, given the enormous and conflicting evidence that exists on this subject. There are several reasons to suspect a role for micronutrients in non-scarring alopecia. Micronutrients are major elements in the normal hair follicle cycle, playing a role in cellular turnover. The role of nutrition and diet in treating hair loss represents a dynamic and growing area of inquiry. This chapter summarizes the role of vitamins and minerals in non-scarring alopecia. Micronutrients such as vitamins and minerals play an important, but not entirely clear role in normal hair follicle development and immune cell function. Deficiency of such micronutrients may represent a modifiable risk factor associated with development, prevention, and treatment of alopecia.
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Background: Androgenetic alopecia (AGA) is one of the most common chronic problems seen by dermatologists worldwide. It is characterized by progressive hair loss, especially of scalp hair, and has distinctive patterns of loss in women versus men, but in both genders the central scalp is most severely affected. It often begins around puberty and is known to effect self-esteem and the individual's quality of life. In contrast to the high prevalence of AGA, approved therapeutic options are limited. In addition to the scarce pharmacologic treatments, there are numerous nonprescription products claimed to be effective in restoring hair in androgenetic alopecia. Objectives: The purpose of this paper is to review published medical and non-medical treatments for male and female AGA using the American College of Physicians evidence assessment methods. MEDLINE, EMBASE and Cochrane Library were searched for systematic reviews, randomized controlled trials, open studies, case reports and relevant studies of the treatment of male and female AGA. The relevant articles were classified according to grade and level of evidence. Results: The medical treatments with the best level of evidence classification for efficacy and safety for male AGA are oral finasteride and topical minoxidil solution. For female AGA, topical minoxidil solution appears to be the most effective and safe treatment. The medical treatments corresponding to the next level of evidence quality are some commonly used therapeutic non-FDA-approved options including oral and topical anti-hormonal treatments. Surgical treatment of follicular unit hair transplantation is an option in cases that have failed medical treatment although there is high variation in outcomes. Limitations: Some articles, especially those concerning traditional herbs claimed to promote hair regrowth, were published in non-English, local journals. Conclusions: An assessment of the evidence quality of current publications indicates that oral finasteride (for men only) and topical minoxidil (for men and women) are the best treatments of AGA.
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A crude 50% ethanol extract of Citrullus Colocynthis Schrad was administered orally to male albino rats for evaluation of antifertility effects. The animals were divided into five groups: group A was a vehicle-treated control group; treatment groups B, C, and D received 100 mg/kg/day C. Colocynthis extract for periods of 20, 40, and 60 days, respectively, and group E animals received the extract at 100 mg/kg/day for 60 days followed by 60 days of recovery. For androgenicity evaluation of the extract, the animals were divided into four groups: group F animals were castrated 30 days before the experiment to serve as controls, and group G, H, and I were subjected to castration 30 days before the experiments, followed by administration of fruit extract (100 mg/kg/day p.o.), testosterone propionate (0.01 mg/rat/alternate day s.c.), and fruit extract along with testosterone propionate, respectively, for 30 days. Significantly reduced cauda epididymis sperm motility and density, number of pups, fertility, and circulatory levels of testosterone were observed in all treatment groups. The weights of testes, epididymis, seminal vesicle, and prostate were significantly decreased in groups B, C, and D. The weights of all organs in the different groups of the androgenicity study were markedly decreased in group F when compared with group A, in group G when compared with group F, and in group I when compared with group H, and increased in group H when compared with group F. The serum testosterone levels also showed a similar pattern. The concentration of testicular cholesterol was significantly elevated, while protein, sialic acid, acid and alkaline phosphatase concentrations were decreased. The histoarchitecture of the testes showed degenerative changes in the seminiferous epithelium, arrest of spermatogenesis at the secondary spermatocyte stage, cytolysis, and the lumen filled with eosinophilic material. Histometric parameters except Sertoli cell nuclear area and number of round spermatids showed marked alterations. All altered parameters restored to normal in group E. No changes were observed in body weight, litter size, hematology, and serum biochemistry. In conclusion, a 50% ethanol extract of C. Colocynthis showed an antiandrogenic nature, thereby reduced reversible infertility in male albino rats.
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Androgenetic alopecia (AGA) is a dihydrotestosterone (DHT)-mediated process, characterized by continuous miniaturization of androgen reactive hair follicles and accompanied by perifollicular fibrosis of follicular units in histological examination. Testosterone (T: 10(-9)-10(-7) M) treatment increased the expression of type I procollagen at mRNA and protein level. Pretreatment of finasteride (10(-8) M) inhibited the T-induced type I procollagen expression at mRNA (40.2%) and protein levels (24.9%). T treatment increased the expression of transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-beta1) at protein levels by 81.9% in the human scalp dermal fibroblasts (DFs). Pretreatment of finasteride decreased the expression of TGF-beta1 protein induced by an average of T (30.4%). The type I procollagen expression after pretreatment of neutralizing TGF-beta1 antibody (10 microg/ml) was inhibited by an average of 54.3%. Our findings suggest that T-induced TGF-beta1 and type I procollagen expression may contribute to the development of perifollicular fibrosis in the AGA, and the inhibitory effects on T-induced procollagen and TGF-beta1 expression may explain another possible mechanism how finasteride works in AGA.
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The 5th edition of this world renowned textbook is the result of a thorough updating of every chapter with respect to the mechanism of action and use of older agents and the addition of important new drugs. The philosophy and objectives of the earlier editions are continued, however, together with the same thoughtful organization, clarity and authority that have long made 'Goodman and Gilman' the standard book in the field. Although less dynamic or outmoded sections have been condensed or eliminated, the basic organization remains the same, with major attention being given to the well established, safe and effective prototypal drugs. After a discussion of the general principles of pharmacokinetics, special attention is given to drugs acting on the CNS, local anesthetics, drugs acting at synaptic and neuroeffector junctions, autacoids, cardiovascular drugs, water, salts and ions, drugs affecting renal function and electrolyte metabolism, drugs affecting uterine motility, gases and vapors, heavy metals and antagonists, locally acting drugs, antiparasitic drugs, antimicrobial drugs, antineoplastic drugs, drugs acting on the blood and hematopoietic system, hormones and hormone antagonists, vitamins and even the principles of prescription writing and patient compliance instruction. There is a detailed subject index referring to both medical concepts and drug names, generic as well as proprietary. This book will prove invaluable to both students and graduates in many areas of the biomedical sciences.
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A double-blind clinicopathologic study was designed to assess the efficacy and safety of topical minoxidil in the treatment of male-pattern baldness. Twenty-one bald but otherwise healthy male volunteers were randomly assigned (7 per group) to receive a 1% or 5% minoxidil solution in a vehicle of ethanol-water-propylene glycol or the vehicle alone applied twice daily to the bald scalp. The 15 white and 6 black subjects were aged 24 to 46 years. Scalp biopsies were done pretreatment and at weeks 12 and 24 after treatment began. Ten normal subjects from the same population, matched for age, served as controls for histopathologic studies. Increased hair growth was seen in both minoxidil-treated and placebo-treated groups, and there was no statistically significant difference between groups at 15.7 weeks when treatment was discontinued. Hair growth appeared to be limited to hypertrophy of pre-existent follicles; there was no good evidence for follicular neogenesis. It was concluded that topical application of up to 5% minoxidil solution was safe within the limits of this study.
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Male pattern hair loss is the most common cause of balding. The pathogenesis involves androgen, and in particular dihydrotestosterone, binding to androgen receptors in the dermal papilla of sensitive hair follicles. Hair follicle sensitivity is genetically determined and shows regional specificity. Androgen stimulation of scalp dermal papilla cells induces transforming growth factor beta (TGF-B) and results in cyclical miniaturization of the entire hair follicle. The resulting hair produced from that follicle is shorter and finer and provides less complete scalp coverage. In contrast androgen stimulation of beard dermal papilla cells produces insulin growth factor -2 (IGF-2) and results in cyclical enlargement of the entire hair follicle. The resulting hair produced from that follicle is longer and thicker and provides more complete facial skin coverage. Some degree of androgenetic alopecia is universal among ageing men, especially bitemporally, however less than half become bald in the Hippocratic sense. Although scalp hair coverage has little functional importance, it has cosmetic significance. Baldness changes the facial appearance of affected men. When that change is perceived as adverse it has the potential to produce emotional morbidity.
Article
Citrullus colocynthis. Schrad (Cucurbitaceae) is a traditionally acclaimed hair tonic in Ayurveda (the traditional Indian system of medicine). Studies were therefore undertaken to evaluate petroleum ether and ethanol extracts of C. colocynthis. for their effect on hair growth in albino rats. The extracts incorporated into oleaginous ointment base were applied topically on shaved denuded skin of albino rats. The time required for initiation of hair growth as well as completion of hair growth cycle was recorded. Minoxidil 2% solution was applied topically and served as the standard. Hair growth initiation time was significantly reduced to half on treatment with the petroleum ether extracts compared with untreated control animals. The time required for complete hair growth was also considerably reduced. The treatment was successful in bringing a greater number of hair follicles (>70%) to anagenic phase than standard minoxidil (67%). The result of treatment with 2 and 5% petroleum ether extracts were comparable with the standard minoxidil.
Article
The chloroform extract of Citrullus colocynthis yielded four cucurbitacin glycosides which were identified spectroscopically as 2-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-cucurbitacin I, 2-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-cucurbitacin E, 2-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-cucurbitacin L and the novel glycoside, 2-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(22–27)-hexanorcucurbitacin I. Detailed 1H and 13C NMR data are provided.
Article
Alopecia is a psychologically distressing condition. Androgenetic alopecia, which affects millions of men and women, is an androgen-driven disorder. Here, Cuscuta reflexa Roxb is evaluated for hair growth activity in androgen-induced alopecia. Petroleum ether extract of C. reflexa was studied for its hair growth-promoting activity. Alopecia was induced in albino mice by testosterone administration for 20 days. Its inhibition by simultaneous administration of extract was evaluated using follicular density, anagen/telogen ratio, and microscopic observation of skin sections. To investigate the mechanism of observed activity, in vitro experiments were performed to study the effect of extract and its major component on activity of 5alpha-reductase enzyme. Petroleum ether extract of C. reflexa exhibited promising hair growth-promoting activity as reflected from follicular density, anagen/telogen ratio, and skin sections. Inhibition of 5alpha-reductase activity by extract and isolate suggest that the extract reversed androgen-induced alopecia by inhibiting conversion of testosterone to dihydrotestosterone. The petroleum ether extract of C. reflexa and its isolate is useful in treatment of androgen-induced alopecia by inhibiting the enzyme 5alpha-reductase.
Article
Effects of the aqueous, glycosidic, alkaloidal and saponin extracts of the rind of Citrullus colocynthis on the plasma glucose levels were investigated in normal rabbits, while the effects of saponin extract on the fasting plasma glucose levels were studied in alloxan induced diabetic rabbits. In normal rabbits, oral administration of aqueous extract (300 mg/kg) produced significant reduction in plasma glucose after 1 h and highly significant after 2,3 and 6 h. Phytochemical screening revealed that the rind of C. colocynthis and its aqueous extract contains tertiary and quaternary alkaloids, glycoside and saponin components. The hypoglycaemic effects of these components given orally at a dose (50 mg/kg) were studied in normoglycaemic rabbits. Result showed that the alkaloidal extract did not significantly lower the blood glucose levels from 132 mg/100 ml at 0 h to 120 mg/100 ml after 6 h, while the glycosidic extract significantly lowered the fasting glucose levels after 2 and 3 h and highly significant after 6 h. The effect was more pronounced with saponin extract, the saponin significantly lowered the fasting glucose levels after 1 and 2 h and highly significant (P<0.001) after 3 and 6 h. Graded doses (10, 15 and 20 mg/kg) of saponin extract, when given orally to alloxan diabetic rabbits, produced a significant reduction of plasma glucose concentration. These results suggest that the aqueous extract of the rind of C. colocynthis possesses a hypoglycaemic effect and its hypoglycaemic action could be attributed for more extent to the presence of saponin in addition to the presence of glycosidic components.
Article
The conversion of testosterone to dihydrotestosterone; 5alpha-androstan-17beta-ol-3-one by 5alpha-reductase plays a crucial role in hair baldness and prostatomegaly. Recent approach showed specific inhibitors for 5alpha-reductase type 2 such as finasteride promoted hair growth in male pattern alopecia. In order to search for effective medicinal plant extracts applied topically for androgenetic alopecia, we screened natural plant extracts having inhibitory activities of 5alpha-reductase type 2 and demonstrated its biological function in androgen-related animal models. We evaluated the inhibition activities of numerous plant extracts by contact cell based metabolic method using a stable HEK 293 cell line expressing human 5alpha-reductase (type 2). To elucidate the biological activity in vivo, the Thujae occidentalis semen (TOS) extract was topically applied to fuzzy rat and androchronogenetic alopecia (AGA) mouse, respectively. The secreted sebum and the size of sebaceous glands of fuzzy rat were measured after 6 weeks. Also, after the topical treatment with TOS extract and androgen receptor antagonist (cyproterone acetate) simultaneously with subcutaneous injection of testosterone (1 mg/mice/day), hair loss patterns of female B6CBAF1/j hybrid mouse were observed. TOS extract showed higher inhibition activity of 5alpha-reductase type 2(IC(50) value=2.6 microg/ml) than that of gamma-linolenic acid, but lower than that of finasteride. When applied to fuzzy rat, the amount of sebum and sebaceous gland size decreased remarkably. In AGA model, alopecia degrees of two groups, treated with TOS extract (P<0.015) or cyproterone acetate (P<0.01), were lower than that of vehicle (propylene glycol:ethanol=7:3) and there was no difference between above two groups. We have demonstrated the inhibitory activity of TOS extract for 5alpha-reductase type 2 and its biological action in two animal models, suggesting that TOS extract would be used as an effective agent for male pattern baldness by modifying androgen conversion.
Article
Petroleum ether extract of leaves and flowers of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis was evaluated for its potential on hair growth by in vivo and in vitro methods. In vivo, 1% extract of leaves and flowers in liquid paraffin was applied topically over the shaved skin of albino rats and monitored and assessed for 30 days. The length of hair and the different cyclic phases of hair follicles, like anagen and telogen phases, were determined at different time periods. In vitro, the hair follicles from albino rat neonates were isolated and cultured in DMEM supplemented with 0.01 mg/ml petroleum ether extract of leaves and flowers. From the study it is concluded that the leaf extract, when compared to flower extract, exhibits more potency on hair growth.
Article
Hot water polysaccharide extracts of Anacyclus pyrethrum (L.) Link. (family Compositae) Citrullus colocynthis (L.) Schrad. (family Cucurbitaceae) and Alpinia galanga (L.) Willd. (family Zingiberaceae) were tested for their immunostimulating activity in mice. The fractions from Anacyclus pyrethrum and Alpinia galanga showed a marked stimulating effect on the reticulo-endothelial system (RES) and increased the number of peritoneal exudate cells (PEC), and spleen cells of mice. In this case, the optimum doses were 50 and 25 mg/kg for the two fractions, respectively. On the other hand, the polysaccharide extracts of both Anacyclus pyrethrum and Alpinia galanga markedly enhanced the proliferation of the murine spleen cells in vitro using two tests (in vitro and in vivo effect). The results of the in vivo effect at a doses of 50 and 25 mg/kg, showed a stimulation index better than obtained with the in vitro effect at 50 and 25 microg/ml for Anacyclus pyrethrum and Alpinia galanga, respectively. While the extract of Citrullus colocynthis showed much weaker and variable immunostimulating activity.
Article
Hair loss is a distressing condition for an increasing number of men and women. It is of great importance; therefore, to develop new therapies for the treatment of hair loss. We examined the effects of 45 plant extracts that have been traditionally used for treating hair loss in oriental medicine in order to identify potential stimulants of hair growth. Six-week-old female C57BL/6 and C3H mice were used for evaluating the hair growth-promoting effects of the plant extracts. Topical application onto the backs of the C57BL/6 and C3H mice was performed daily for 30 days and 45 days, respectively. Protein synthesis was measured by the cysteine uptake assay, using cultured murine vibrissae follicles. Proliferation of the immortalized human keratinocyte cell line (HaCaT) and human dermal papilla (DP) cells was evaluated by the MTT and thymidine incorporation assays. The mRNA levels of several growth factors that have been implicated in hair growth control were measured by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Among the tested plant extracts, the extract of Asiasari radix showed the most potent hair growth stimulation in C57BL/6 and C3H mice experiments. In addition, this extract markedly increased the protein synthesis in vibrissae follicle cultures and the proliferation of both HaCaT and human DP cells in vitro. Moreover, the A. radix extract induced the expression of VEGF in human DP cells that were cultured in vitro. These results suggest that the A. radix extract has hair growth-promoting potential, and that this effect may be due to its regulatory effects on both cell growth and growth factor gene expression.
Article
Crude ethanolic extracts of fruits, leaves, stems and roots of Citrullus colocynthis Schrad were examined for their antibacterial potentialities against Gram positive and Gram negative bacilli. Ethanolic extracts of fruits, leaves, stems and roots were found to be active against Gram positive bacilli, viz., Bacillus pumilus and Staphylococcus aureus, while fruit and root extracts in double strength gave positive results against Gram positive bacillus (Bacillus subtilis). The Gram negative bacilli viz., Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa showed no response.
Article
Cuscuta reflexa (Roxb.), Citrullus colocynthis (Schrad.), and Eclipta alba (Hassk.) are traditionally acclaimed herbs for their hair growth-promoting potential. Aim In the present study, it was envisaged to prepare herbal formulations containing petroleum ether extracts of the three herbs in varying ratio and evaluating the formulations for the hair growth-promoting activity. The formulations as well as minoxidil (2%) solution (positive control) were applied topically on shaved skin of rats, and the time required for initiation and completion of hair growth cycle was recorded. Hair growth initiation time was markedly reduced to one third on treatment with the prepared formulation compared with control animals. The time required for complete hair growth was also reduced by 32%. Quantitative analysis of hair growth cycle after treatment with formulations and minoxidil (2%) exhibited greater number of hair follicles in anagenic phase compared with control. The results thus corroborate with the traditionally acclaimed hair growth-promoting capabilities of the plants. The prepared formulation also holds potential for treatment of alopecia.
Article
Androgenetic alopecia (AGA), or male pattern hair loss, affects approximately 50% of the male population. AGA is an androgen-related condition in genetically predisposed individuals. There is no treatment to completely reverse AGA in advanced stages, but with medical treatment (eg, finasteride, minoxidil, or a combination of both), the progression can be arrested and partly reversed in the majority of patients who have mild to moderate AGA. Combination with hair restoration surgery leads to best results in suitable candidates. Physicians who specialize in male health issues should be familiar with this common condition and all the available approved treatment options.
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