Article

Are we missing the boat? Current uses of long-term biological monitoring data in the evaluation and management of marine protected areas

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  • Berks Bucks and Oxon Wildlife Trust
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... They usually provide high accuracy and precision, especially if carried out according to standardised data collection protocols (Addison, 2011). However, they are rarely used in (M)PA effectiveness assessments, even in data rich countries (Addison et al., 2015). ...
... In over 60% of the studies, the assessment spanned more than one decade (Table 7.4). Addison, 2011;Addison et al., 2015). ...
... However, they are complex, costly and timeconsuming. Thus, they are seldom implemented, even in (M)PAs(Addison et al., 2015;Collen et al., 2016). Adequate monitoring has been an (M)PA managerial and research challenge for a long time(Hockings et al., 2000) and it remains so in most settings today(Addison et al., 2015;Protected Planet, 2020), despite the use that global databases can provide(IUCN, 2021b;Protected Planet, 2020; WWF 2021). ...
... We targeted our investigation to MPA management agencies in Australia, where MPAs have the scientific basis (long-term biological monitoring data and scientific understanding of the long-term effects of MPA protection) to inform quantitative assessments of environmental condition for particular habitats (e.g., shallow coral reefs and rocky reefs; Babcock et al., 2010;Barrett et al., 2009;De'ath et al., 2012). Despite this foundation, MPA practitioners typically use long-term monitoring data to support qualitative condition assessments (Addison et al., 2015b). Our study aimed to establish whether management agencies intend to implement quantitative condition assessments of Australian MPAs. ...
... Australian management agencies are prominent amongst those globally who now routinely conduct PAME evaluations (Table 1; Cook et al., 2010;Leverington et al., 2010). The practitioners interviewed in this study have access to some of the world's longest running marine biological monitoring programs; however, they are currently not evaluating these data against quantitative condition categories to assess biodiversity outcomes (Addison et al., 2015b). There was a clear aspiration to change this situation, with key informants who held strategic roles from each management agency in this study confirming they were currently working toward implementing quantitative condition assessments over the next five to ten years. ...
... Given these uncertainties, informants suggested that more targeted monitoring and research was needed to facilitate change. This view supports suggestions that current PA monitoring programs are not adequately targeted to management needs (Hedge et al., 2017;Fox et al., 2014), often because these PA monitoring programs are conducted either partially or completely independently of management agencies (Addison et al., 2015b). ...
Article
Protected area management effectiveness (PAME) evaluation is increasingly undertaken to evaluate governance, assess conservation outcomes and inform evidence-based management of protected areas (PAs). Within PAME, quantitative approaches to assess biodiversity outcomes are now emerging, where biological monitoring data are directly assessed against quantitative (numerically defined) condition categories (termed quantitative condition assessments). However, more commonly qualitative condition assessments are employed in PAME, which use descriptive condition categories and are evaluated largely with expert judgement that can be subject to a range of biases, such as linguistic uncertainty and overconfidence. Despite the benefits of increased transparency and repeatability of evaluations, quantitative condition assessments are rarely used in PAME. To understand why, we interviewed practitioners from all Australian marine protected area (MPA) networks, which have access to long-term biological monitoring data and are developing or conducting PAME evaluations. Our research revealed that there is a desire within management agencies to implement quantitative condition assessment of biodiversity outcomes in Australian MPAs. However, practitioners report many challenges in transitioning from undertaking qualitative to quantitative condition assessments of biodiversity outcomes, which are hampering progress. Challenges include a lack of agency capacity (staff numbers and money), knowledge gaps, and diminishing public and political support for PAs. We point to opportunities to target strategies that will assist agencies overcome these challenges, including new decision support tools, approaches to better finance conservation efforts, and to promote more management relevant science. While a single solution is unlikely to achieve full evidence-based conservation, we suggest ways for agencies to target strategies and advance PAME evaluations toward best practice.
... Thus, they are seldom implemented, even in (M)PAs (Addison et al., 2015;Collen et al., 2016). Adequate monitoring has been an (M)PA managerial and research challenge for a long time (Hockings et al., 2000) and it remains so in most settings today (Addison et al., 2015;Protected Planet, 2020), despite the use that global databases can provide (IUCN, 2021b;Protected Planet, 2020;WWF 2021). ...
... Thus, they are seldom implemented, even in (M)PAs (Addison et al., 2015;Collen et al., 2016). Adequate monitoring has been an (M)PA managerial and research challenge for a long time (Hockings et al., 2000) and it remains so in most settings today (Addison et al., 2015;Protected Planet, 2020), despite the use that global databases can provide (IUCN, 2021b;Protected Planet, 2020;WWF 2021). As a result, the existing evidence is largely based on case studies using different species, monitoring techniques and conservation indicators across countries, regions and realms (Collen et al., 2016). ...
... In over 60% of the studies, the assessment spanned more than one decade (Table 6.11). Addison, 2011;Addison et al., 2015). ...
... This study found that only 43% of sites have had any kind of assessment, even though effective management of MPAs requires not only the existence of management plans but also regular assessments to determine if conservation objectives have been met (Pomeroy et al. 2005;Cook et al. 2010). Addison et al. (2015) even suggest that evaluations should be conducted annually instead of the current norm of every 5-10 years. This lack of assessments in the Irish Sea confirms findings from Australia (Cook et al. 2010) where 60% of practitioners were found to rely on experience rather than assessments to support their management decisions. ...
... This lack of assessments in the Irish Sea confirms findings from Australia (Cook et al. 2010) where 60% of practitioners were found to rely on experience rather than assessments to support their management decisions. While managers' judgements of on-ground conditions can be highly accurate and their judgements should not be disregarded as they provide valuable qualitative data (Cook et al. 2014), differences in interpretation by managers of what can be described as 'good' conditions may compromise this accuracy and make the reproducibility of assessments difficult (Addison et al. 2015). ...
... The results of this study are limited by the accessibility to management plans and site assessments, if they exist at all. Even where long-term biological monitoring exists, Addison et al. (2015) find that it is frequently not used by protected area managers. This seems to be because it is difficult for many site managers to access relevant information to support their decisions (Pullin and Knight 2005;Addison et al. 2015Addison et al. , 2017. ...
Article
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Marine protected areas (MPAs) are a conservation tool designed to adequately manage and protect marine resources threatened by human activity by addressing both biological and socioeconomic needs. The Irish Sea is a busy waterway under the jurisdiction of six entities (Northern Ireland, the Republic of Ireland, the Isle of Man, Scotland, England, and Wales). Within this body of water there are almost 200 conservation designations across 111 MPA sites, with many sites having multiple designations (national, EU, and international). Data is lacking on the effectiveness of these protected areas in reaching their conservation objectives due to sites being inadequately monitored. The race to meet the 10% marine protected area target set by the Conservation on Biological Diversity, however, may be compromising effective planning. Do multiple designations ensure better protection of the marine environment, or is the Irish Sea home to paper parks, offering little protection? Metadata compiled from the World Database on Protected Areas and conservation reports from MPA managers were used to investigate this question. The results show a positive correlation between the number of designations of a site and the existence of a publicly available management plan. The presence of a management plan was also linked to whether or not site assessments were conducted by the relevant authorities, and sites having multiple designations was weakly correlated with favourable assessment outcomes. The results of this study highlight the need to better understand the requirements of national, regional and international-level conservation designations and how they interact with each other.
... Around the globe, management effectiveness evaluation is nowadays recognized as an important framework to support ecosystems conservation efforts. The growing societal demand for environmental accountability, requires determining whether management objectives have been achieved, to justify that it is worth investing money in environmental protection (Addison et al., 2015). Hence, it is urgent to track the changes in coastal and marine ecosystems environmental state due to management efforts being taken to reduce human pressures. ...
... As stated in Addison et al. (2015), management effectiveness evaluation is essential to better understand, learn from and improve conservation efforts. Our long-term data sets provided useful information about the environmental state of the Mondego estuary, critical to formulate informed decisions in future management actions in this ecosystem. ...
Article
Reliable ecosystem status assessment of coastal and marine environments is key due to mounting pressures from human activities. Aiming at a successful management, a plethora of evaluation tools currently exist, but there is no consensus on what index or indices should be used by environmental managers in establishing benthic quality. The main goal of this investigation was to evaluate the suitability of thermodynamic-oriented indicators (Eco-Exergy and Specific Eco-Exergy) and trait-based indices (Rao's Quadratic Entropy, Functional Redundancy and Community-Weighted Mean trait value) as tools to capture potential ecological changes, comprehending their utility for addressing specific management objectives. In order to do so, a long-term data set (1993–2012) from a southern European estuary (Mondego estuary, Portugal) was used to assess the responsiveness of macroinvertebrates assemblages to a large-scale management intervention, and the performance of thermodynamic-oriented indicators and trait-based indices was compared. The results indicated that the undertaken management efforts were successful at improving the ecosystem state and confirmed that hydrodynamic conditions in the estuary have been the major drivers of the changes observed over the last three decades. Both Exergy-based and trait-based indices coherently reflected the ecological changes observed along the temporal disturbance-recovery gradient analysed. Indices response was congruent but of different nature and detail level. Trait-based indices provided a more detailed assessment of the benthic communities and informative picture than Exergy-based indices but the overall outcome of both types of indices was broadly convergent. Combining multiple indicators should thus be more likely to improve transparency and to provide a more robust assessment method.
... To secure the sustainable use of nature, governments develop regulations and policies, and monitor nature to track the state and trends of its health. The state and trends also provide the evidence base to evaluate the effectiveness of those policies (Miedziński, 2018), to discover environmental implications of the use of nature (Linton and Warner, 2003;Dahl, 1981), and to counter negative effects by developing effective strategies and action plans (Asongu et al., 2018, Addison et al., 2015Mascia et al., 2014). Tracking the state and trends of nature is therefore also acknowledged in global monitoring and reporting policies, such as the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) and the Aichi Targets of the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) 2 . ...
... meta-data) necessary for data interpretation are missing, or if the data are captured in a handwritten scanned document. Stronger collaborations between policy makers and observers are needed to ensure that observation efforts generate data that can be found, accessed and made suitable for processing and presented in such a way that it answers questions asked by policy makers (Addison, 2015). ...
Article
Full-text available
To secure the sustainable use of nature, governments track nature's health and develop regulations and policies. Although there is a seeming abundance in observation-recordings, decision-and policy-makers are constrained by the lack of data and indicators, mostly as a result of barriers preventing existing data from being found, accessed, made suitable for (automated) processing and reused, but also due to missing visualisations targeted at answering questions asked by policy makers. This paper explores the process and principles for developing a biodiversity web-platform that informs policy and management on the state and trends of nature, based on experiences with the Dutch Caribbean Biodiversity Database (DCBD). The DCBD supports the assessment of the state of nature and guarantees long-term data availability in an environment that experiences a high turnover in project funds and personnel. Three principles made DCBD's uptake and growth possible: The platform is funded, promoted and used by national and regional policy makers, it simplifies tasks of local management and rap-porteurs, and it is continuously being adapted to changing needs and insights. Stronger dissemination of DCBD's narratives in social arenas (e.g. newspapers, social media) may make Caribbean nature and biodiversity more politically and societally relevant.
... We used control charts, a simple graphical tool originally derived for industry that plots when a system is 'out of control' to determine when a management intervention is required. While control charts are not frequently used in environmental monitoring (Addison et al. 2015;Morrison 2008), they are considered a useful tool in aquatic water quality monitoring (ANZECC/ ARMCANZ 2000). In the current study, the control charts were used to provide triggers for management action at the scale of the whole shore management area. ...
... Control charts can be used to provide an explicit link to management action through the setting of management triggers. These triggers are based on a conceptual model of the system and the relationship between the human activity and the resulting response of the system (Addison et al. 2015). ...
Article
Full-text available
Intertidal invertebrates are often used in en- vironmental monitoring programs as they are good in- dicators of water quality and an important food source for many species of fish and birds. We present data from a monitoring program where the primary aim is to report on the condition of the potential invertebrate prey abun- dance, biomass and diversity for migrating shorebirds on mudflats adjacent to a waste water treatment plant in a Ramsar listed wetland in Victoria, Australia. A key threat to the foraging habitat at this site has been assessed as a reduction in potential prey items as a result of the changes to the waste water treatment processes. We use con tro l ch ar ts, which su mm ar ise dat a from intertidal mudflats across the whole shoreline of the adjacent waste water treatment plant, to elicit a manage- ment response when trigger levels are reached. We then examine data from replicate discharge and control sites to d eterm ine the most appropriate management re- sponse. The monitoring program sits within an adaptive management framework where management decisions are reviewed and the data is examined at different scales to evaluate and modify our models of the likely out- comes of management actions. This study provides a demonstration of the process undertaken in a year when trigger levels were reached and a management decision was required. This highlights the importance of moni- toring data from a range of scales in reducing uncertain- ty and improving decision making in complex systems.
... is not uploaded to a well-known public data-platform. Existing data are also often not accessible, e.g. because of legal restrictions, or sharing reluctance due to scientific policy makers and observers are needed to ensure that observation efforts generate data that can be found, accessed and made suitable for processing and presented in such a way that it answers questions asked by policy makers (Addison, 2015). ...
... developing effective strategies and action plans(Asongu et al., 2018, Addison et al., 2015Mascia et al., 2014). Tracking the state and trends of nature is therefore also acknowledged in global monitoring and reporting policies, such as the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) and the Aichi Targets of the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) 9 .The clearing-house mechanism of the CBD promotes the use of web-platforms 10 to inform and enable the transparent sharing of information with governments and all other stakeholders, including private and voluntary sectors, science and the public at large(UNEP, 1995;Blurton, 2002;Chemutai, 2009). ...
... Scientific research has a key role to play in developing sustainability solutions. However, integrating science into decision-making processes about sustainability (or any complex or "wicked" issue) alongside the many actors, institutions, types of knowledge, jurisdictions, political processes, and other social issues remains a significant challenge (Cook et al. 2010;McCright and Dunlap 2011;Cvitanovic et al. 2014;Addison et al. 2015;Hering 2015;Cairney 2016;Clark et al. 2016a). Yet, effective solutions have to account for this tangle of overlapping and shifting issues. ...
Article
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Cultivating a more dynamic relationship between science and policy is essential for responding to complex social challenges such as sustainability. One approach to doing so is to “span the boundaries” between science and decision making and create a more comprehensive and inclusive knowledge exchange process. The exact definition and role of boundary spanning, however, can be nebulous. Indeed, boundary spanning often gets conflated and confused with other approaches to connecting science and policy, such as science communication, applied science, and advocacy, which can hinder progress in the field of boundary spanning. To help overcome this, in this perspective, we present the outcomes from a recent workshop of boundary-spanning practitioners gathered to (1) articulate a definition of what it means to work at this interface (“boundary spanning”) and the types of activities it encompasses; (2) present a value proposition of these efforts to build better relationships between science and policy; and (3) identify opportunities to more effectively mainstream boundary-spanning activities. Drawing on our collective experiences, we suggest that boundary spanning has the potential to increase the efficiency by which useful research is produced, foster the capacity to absorb new evidence and perspectives into sustainability decision-making, enhance research relevance for societal challenges, and open new policy windows. We provide examples from our work that illustrate this potential. By offering these propositions for the value of boundary spanning, we hope to encourage a more robust discussion of how to achieve evidence-informed decision-making for sustainability.
... Central to the capability required for undertaking assessments of the marine environment and the impacts caused by human stressors is the collection of long time-series data from locations dispersed throughout the marine environment. This includes measurements of oceanography, biogeochemistry, marine soundscapes and species, communities and habitats, the varied means by which ocean resources are used and the cultural role that the ocean provides to human society (e.g., Nicol et al., 2012;Moore and Gulland, 2014;Addison et al., 2015;Erbe et al., 2015;Lynch et al., 2014;Evans et al., 2018). Also key to supporting the coordination of activities are data management systems that make such time series publicly available (e.g., the Ocean Biogeographical Information System (OBIS 3 ) and systems for modeling and analyzing marine variables to support the investigation of future potential states, the interactions between marine activities and development of appropriate management strategies (e.g., Fulton et al., 2011;IPCC, 2014;Plagányi et al., 2014;Ortiz et al., 2016;Gattuso et al., 2018). ...
Article
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In 2004, the United Nations (UN) General Assembly approved a Regular Process to report on the environmental, economic and social aspects of the world’s ocean. The Regular Process for Global Reporting and Assessment of the State of the Marine Environment, including Socioeconomic Aspects produced the first global integrated assessment of the marine environment in December 2016 (known as the first World Ocean Assessment). The second assessment, to be delivered in December 2020, will build on the baselines included in the first assessment, with a focus on establishing trends in the marine environment with relevance to global reporting needs such as those associated with the UN Sustainable Development Goals. Central to the assessment process and its outputs are two components. First, is the utilization of ocean observation and monitoring outputs and research to temporally assess physical, chemical, biological, social, economic and cultural components of coastal and marine environments to establish their current state, impacts currently affecting coastal and marine environments, responses to those impacts and associated ongoing trends. Second, is the knowledge brokering of ocean observations and associated research to provide key information that can be utilized and applied to address management and policy needs at local, regional and global scales. Through identifying both knowledge gaps and capacity needs, the assessment process also provides direction to policy makers for the future development and deployment of sustained observation systems that are required for enhancing knowledge and supporting national aspirations associated with the sustainable development of coastal and marine ecosystems. Input from the ocean observation community, managers and policy makers is critical for ensuring that the vital information required for supporting the science policy interface objectives of the Regular Process is included in the assessment. This community white paper discusses developments in linking ocean observations and science with policy achieved as part of the assessment process, and those required for providing strategic linkages into the future.
... In a study on the effectiveness of management in protected areas in Indonesia, Brun et al. (2015) offered solutions to manage these areas effectively; observation and the prevention of constructing buildings were some of the solutions that could be relied on to protect the protected areas. In a study on the management of offshore protected areas, Addison et al. (2015) noted that the assessment of management effectiveness is in its infancy. They came to the conclusion that, even when the results of longterm monitoring are available, the management organizations do not use evaluation of management effectiveness to assess the quantity conditions. ...
Article
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In the world today, where the industrialization of countries is still on the increase, protecting habitats and wildlife will be possible only in protected areas. That is why maintaining species’ diversity and preventing the destruction of habitats in protected areas has been of great interest. Rapid Assessment and Prioritization of Protected Area Management methodology is one of the most common methods of management effectiveness assessment and is used as a tool for managers and decision-makers of protected areas. Recently, the biodiversity and sustainability of wildlife populations, as well as preserving the integrity of protected areas in the Khuzestan province, have been at risk due to several factors; therefore, the evaluation of management effectiveness in these areas is necessary. The studied areas in this research are protected areas in Khuzestan province, with a history of more than 5 years of management. The results of this study show that Dez, a protected area with the highest points in the planning (38.5), has the highest score in management effectiveness (128.78). Also, Shimbar, a protected area with the lowest score (11), has the lowest score of management effectiveness (64.66) among the other areas. The overall management level of the protected areas in the Khuzestan province is at the low-intermediate managerial level compared to the global average. Therefore, it is necessary to change the policies and management of these areas.
... For Hamelin Bay, it is vital that the data around provisioning and its impacts is collected and findings integrated into decision-making processes. This remains a significant challenge, even in places with well-developed conservation management strategies such as Ningaloo (Addison, Flander, & Cook, 2015;Cook, Hockings, & Carter, 2010;Boschetti et al., 2016). At Hamelin Bay the government has noted that: ...
Article
This paper focuses on stingray and eagle ray tourism in Hamelin Bay, Western Australia, and examines whether current governance arrangements are sufficient. Utilising a desk-based methodology we review the literature and analyse the relevant legal provisions and management practices to determine whether these are appropriate given growth in tourism numbers. Although stricter controls were recommended over ten years ago, and some reforms were made, we find that governance remains limited. We make recommendations for the future with implications for governance in Australia and other regions where marine-based tourism is expanding and must be sustainably managed.
... Introduction Successfully navigating modern day environmental challenges requires the integration of new and evolving knowledge into decision-making processes [1]. Science is one form of knowledge that is critical in this regard [2], however, the uptake and integration of scientific research into decision-making processes remains a significant challenge [3][4][5]. For this reason an emergent body of literature has sought to identify the barriers preventing the use of environmental science by decision-makers, and in turn, develop strategies for improving the extent to which environmental science informs policy and practice [6,7]. ...
Article
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Responding to modern day environmental challenges for societal well-being and prosperity necessitates the integration of science into policy and practice. This has spurred the development of novel institutional structures among research organisations aimed at enhancing the impact of environmental science on policy and practice. However, such initiatives are seldom evaluated and even in cases where evaluations are undertaken, the results are rarely made publicly available. As such there is very little empirically grounded guidance available to inform other organisations in this regard. To help address this, the aim of this study is to evaluate the Baltic Eye Project at Stockholm University–a unique team consisting of researchers from different fields, science communicators, journalists and policy analysts–working collectively to support evidence-informed decision-making relating to the sustainable management of the Baltic Sea environment. Specifically, through qualitative interviews, we (1) identify the impacts achieved by the Baltic Eye Project; (2) understand the challenges and barriers experienced throughout the Baltic Eye Project; and (3) highlight the key features that are needed within research organisations to enhance the impact of science on policy and practice. Results show that despite only operating for three years, the Baltic Eye Project has achieved demonstrable impacts on a range of levels: impacts on policy and practice, impacts to individuals working within the organisation and impacts to the broader University. We also identify a range of barriers that have limited impacts to date, such as a lack of clear goals at the establishment of the Baltic Eye Project and existing metrics of academic impact (e.g. number of publications). Finally, based on the experiences of employees at the Baltic Eye Project, we identify the key organisational, individual, financial, material, practical, political, and social features of university-based boundary organisations that have impact on policy and practice. In doing so this paper provides empirically-derived guidance to help other research organisations increase their capacity to achieve tangible impacts on environmental policy and practice.
... Specifically in relation to marine systems it was recently shown that although marine resource managers and scientists have similar research interests and identify similar future research priorities, decision-makers may be unaware of the full breadth of existing scientific information that they could use to inform their decision-making processes (Cvitanovic et al., 2013). Subsequently, marine resource decision-makers from a range of agencies and locations were found to rely on individual experiences or other secondary sources of information when developing and implementing conservation actions in isolation from scientific evidence (Cvitanovic et al., 2014a;Addison et al., 2015). This pattern potentially compromises the effectiveness of their decision with adverse flow-on effects to the people and communities who depend on the goods and services provided by marine systems. ...
Preprint
The science-based management of natural resources requires knowledge exchange between scientists and environmental decision-makers, however, this exchange remains a significant challenge. Rather, evidence suggests that decision- makers rely on individual experience or other secondary sources of knowledge in isolation from scientific evidence when formulating decisions, potentially compromising the effectiveness of their decisions. As a result a new field of research broadly characterised as ‘knowledge exchange’ has emerged, focused largely on identifying and overcoming the barriers to knowledge exchange among scientists and decision-makers. More recently knowledge exchange research has also begun to explore the relationship between science and decision-making specifically in relation to marine ecosystems and resources. The aim of this paper is to review the literature in relation to knowledge exchange for natural resource management, with a focus on recent evidence in relation to the management of marine resources. This review identifies critical barriers inhibiting knowledge exchange among marine scientists and decisions-makers, such as the inaccessibility of science to decision-makers as well as institutional barriers that limit the extent to which scientists and decision-makers can prioritise knowledge exchange activities. Options for overcoming these barriers, such as novel approaches to knowledge exchange (e.g.- knowledge co-production, knowledge brokers and boundary organisations) and the enabling environments and institutional reforms needed to complement efforts to improve knowledge exchange, are also identified. This review concludes by articulating the gaps in our understanding of knowledge exchange, to help guide future research in this field and improve the sustainable management of marine resources.
... A zoning scheme and activity-specific regulations are among the management tools used to balance competing goals, but these are not always guaranteed to work. Therefore, monitoring is required to assess whether conservation goals are being achieved and to prompt changes in management strategies where there is evidence of an unacceptable level of environmental change (Addison et al., 2015a;Hockings et al., 2006;Pomeroy et al., 2004). ...
Article
There is an increasing demand that managers of marine parks quantitatively demonstrate the achievement of their conservation goals. Monitoring is one tool that can help with this. One component of monitoring that is challenging for managers is the statistical treatment of monitoring data. Commonly used approaches, such as null hypothesis tests, are conceptually challenging and operationally complex, potentially leading to wrong conclusions and poor decisions. A more straightforward approach is parameter estimation with confidence intervals. Parameter estimation focuses on estimating the size of change or difference (an 'effect size') in a response variable and comparing this with a pre-defined effect size called a management threshold. Confidence intervals indicate the level of precision in estimates of change, which make for more balanced conclusions. Parameter estimation is also conducive to graphing, which can facilitate interpretation and communication to non-scientists. In this paper, I demonstrate three examples of parameter estimation and discuss their relative strengths and weaknesses. By presenting these examples, I hope to encourage managers to adopt statistical approaches that allow them to quantify environmental change in a way that will contribute to defensible conclusions, facilitate timely decision making and be understood by stakeholders.
... Creating and managing MPAs, especially with NTZs, is costly and time-intensive [25], and often negatively perceived by local communities as they initially limit their resource extraction [26,27]. Thus, assessing the effectiveness of NTZs is critical [28,29], not only for supporting sound decision making for MPA management, but also for demonstrating long-term positive impacts on biodiversity and society [30]. For instance, evidence of positive responses of commercial fisheries can increase NTZ management legitimacy and improve stakeholder acceptance and compliance among local communities [21]. ...
Article
Monitoring and assessing the effectiveness of no-take zones (NTZs) is critical, not just for the effective management of marine resources, but also for informing and gaining support from community stakeholders. The Galapagos Marine Reserve (GMR) established a network of coastal NTZs in 2001, yet, to date no study has investigated their effectiveness in protecting and enabling key species to recover. Using data from the Galapagos National Park Directorate annual Lobster Population Monitoring Program from 2012 to 2014, this study evaluated the recovery of the commercially valuable red spiny lobster (Panulirus penicillatus) inside NTZs in the GMR. It was hypothesized that NTZs would present higher lobster abundances or sizes when compared with adjacent fished zones. However, the study found no significant differences in these comparisons. Overall the findings indicate that > 11 years of protection has had no appreciable effect on lobster abundances or sizes inside the NTZs. This paper explores possible reasons for the lack of response in NTZs, and concluded that non-compliance and shortcomings within the enforcement framework of the GMR are the key factors limiting the functionality of these NTZs. Additionally, it also evaluates the limitations of the current monitoring program and highlights the need for a more comprehensive and long-term program to be implemented. As the new zoning scheme for NTZs in the GMR that began in 2016 is still to be determined, this information should be considered by decision makers to improve the effectiveness of NTZs and sustainable management of the GRM's coastal resources.
... Despite the growing political and social imperative for MER, and the rise in MER approaches employed around the globe, there are some persistent challenges to implementing and undertaking successful marine MER activities. There are institutional challenges, such as: a lack of stability in resources to fund MER activities through time, which means that the time-frame of many important ecological changes will not be detected by MER activities (Duarte et al., 1992;Ferraro et al., 2006); a continued failure to set clear management, monitoring and evaluation objectives (Kemp et al., 2012;Fox et al., 2014); and, persistent difficulties in accessing fit-for-purpose environmental monitoring data, successfully evaluating different types of monitoring data, and "closing the loop" to ensure the results of monitoring and evaluation informs evidence-based management (Fox et al., 2014;Addison et al., 2015). Scientific challenges also exist that limit the ability of marine MER activities to inform evidence-based management, which include the challenge of monitoring extensive, remote environments, poor scientific understanding of large-scale ecological processes and interactions, uncertainty in the attribution of cumulative impacts of threats, and in understanding the effectiveness of management interventions (Cvitanovic et al., 2015;Addison et al., 2017). ...
Article
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Sustainable management and conservation of the world's oceans requires effective monitoring, evaluation, and reporting (MER). Despite the growing political and social imperative for these activities, there are some persistent and emerging challenges that marine practitioners face in undertaking these activities. In 2015, a diverse group of marine practitioners came together to discuss the emerging challenges associated with marine MER, and potential solutions to address these challenges. Three emerging challenges were identified: (i) the need to incorporate environmental, social and economic dimensions in evaluation and reporting; (ii) the implications of big data, creating challenges in data management and interpretation; and (iii) dealing with uncertainty throughout MER activities. We point to key solutions to address these challenges across MER activities: (i) integrating models into marine management systems to help understand, interpret, and manage the environmental and socio-economic dimensions of uncertain and complex marine systems; (ii) utilizing big data sources and new technologies to collect, process, store, and analyze data; and (iii) applying approaches to evaluate, account for, and report on the multiple sources and types of uncertainty. These solutions point towards a potential for a new wave of evidence-based marine management, through more innovative monitoring, rigorous evaluation and transparent reporting. Effective collaboration and institutional support across the science-management-policy interface will be crucial to deal with emerging challenges, and implement the tools and approaches embedded within these solutions.
... Creating and managing MPAs, especially with NTZs, is costly and time-intensive [25], and often negatively perceived by local communities as they initially limit their resource extraction [26,27]. Thus, assessing the effectiveness of NTZs is critical [28,29], not only for supporting sound decision making for MPA management, but also for demonstrating long-term positive impacts on biodiversity and society [30]. For instance, evidence of positive responses of commercial fisheries can increase NTZ management legitimacy and improve stakeholder acceptance and compliance among local communities [21]. ...
... Evidence-based decision-making is vital to the successful conservation of biodiversity in policy and practice (Cook et al. 2010;Sutherland et al. 2004), yet research suggests that practitioners seldom use evidence to inform decisions (Walsh 2015). A reliance on forms of evidence such as anecdotes occurs as a result of barriers to the uptake of evidence, including lack of access to scientific literature, lack of practice-relevant conservation science, time constraints, or perhaps even evidence complacency (Addison et al. 2015;Walsh 2015;Sutherland and Wordley 2017). To improve the use of evidence in practice, conservation scientists have suggested that decision support tools could be better designed and utilised to deliver evidence in a useable form Dicks et al. 2014). ...
... primary scientific literature, personal experience) has been identified as an important factor in the success of adaptive marine management and governance [74,75]. Indeed, it has been shown that although marine resource managers and scientists may have similar research interests and identify common priorities, managers and policy makers tend to rely less on scientific information, and more on individual experiences when developing and implementing management actions [76,77]. This is a key consideration, because while personal experience can be linked to awareness of an issue, issues more commonly perceived may not be those of greatest ecological importance. ...
Article
Marine management has typically prioritised natural science methodological traditions as an evidence base for decision-making; yet better integration of social science methods are increasingly shown to provide a more comprehensive picture to base management decisions. Specifically, perceptions-based assessments are gaining support, as they can provide efficient and holistic evaluation regarding management issues. This study focuses on coral reefs because they are particularly threatened ecosystems, due to their ecological complexity, socio-economic importance, and the range of environmental drivers that impact them. Research has largely concentrated on assessing proximate threats to coral reefs. Less attention has been given to distal drivers, such as socio-economic and governance factors. A common understanding of threats related to coral reef degradation is critical for integrated management that takes account of peoples’ concerns. This study compares perceptions of drivers of reef health among stakeholders (n = 110) across different sectors and governance levels, in four Caribbean countries. Interview data identified 37 proximate and 136 distal drivers, categorised into 27 themes. Five sub-groups of themes connecting proximate and distal drivers were identified. Perceptions of two of these narratives, relating to ‘fishing and socioeconomic issues’ and ‘reef management and coastal development’, differed among respondents from different countries and sectors respectively. However, the findings highlight a shared perception of many themes, with 18 of the 27 (67%) mentioned by > 25% of respondents. This paper highlights the application of perceptions data for marine management, demonstrating how knowledge of proximate and distal drivers can be applied to identify important issues at different context-specific scales.
... We conducted interviews with MPA managers and scientists from Australian management agencies to document a national perspective of how long-term biological monitoring data are used to inform evidence-based management of Australian MPAs (Addison et al., 2015). ...
... A rapid review of recent literature shows that these researches mainly aim at finding means to improve protected areas efficiency, but in many different ways. Some are oriented toward the definition or analysis of indicators of management efficiency (Addison et al., 2015;Aung et al., 2004;Calado et al., 2016;Cook et al., 2014), or of financial efficiency (Cornejo et al., 2016). Others are more interested in direct management and propose technical tools in order to facilitate manager's work and decision-making (D'Antonio et al., 2013;Del Carmen Sabatini et al., 2007;Kidd et al., 2015;Lin and Li, 2016;Lopez y Royo et al., 2009). ...
Article
Protected areas are the cornerstones of conservation policies worldwide. However, only few researches are led to analyse the way they emerge, except for criticising top-down governmental choices. Yet, the historical approach and strategic analysis of public policy building over the long term allows a better understanding of the stakes of action capacity of these policies. We therefore mobilize the advocacy coalition framework to show that protected areas creation is always due to coalitions of actors who belong to different professional fields and act at different scales but nevertheless share common stakes. On the basis of a comparative study in French and Brazilian Amazon, we show that if all coalitions for protected areas share a common objective of limited deforestation, they are still very different according to the type of conservation they promote (strict biodiversity conservation, population-based conservation or sustainable forest management). We also show that the ability of the coalitions to build efficient public policies is highly depending on internal factors (i.e. their ability to gather strategic resources) and on external factors (i.e. socio-political context and international pressure). Finally, the comparative analysis of coalitions pleading for the same type of protected areas in two different countries allows us to insist on the importance of qualitative embedded researches when it comes to understand why some protected areas have more chances to reach environmental effectiveness in one socio-political context than in another one.
... However, despite a significant increase in the production of scientific knowledge, an implementation gap remains (Ormerod et al., 2002;Berrang-Ford et al., 2011). Rather, evidence suggests that decision-makers often rely on experiential knowledge when developing and implementing conservation and management actions in isolation from evidence-based science (Pullin et al., 2004;Cvitanovic et al., 2014a;Addison et al., 2015), limiting the potential success of management actions. Accordingly, improving knowledge exchange among scientists and decision-makers to support adaptive governance structures is an emergent priority for the environmental sector (Cornell et al., 2013;Meadow et al., 2015). ...
Article
Despite growing rhetoric regarding the potential benefits of using knowledge brokers in relation to environmental challenges and decision-making processes, the evidence in support of such claims is mostly anecdotal. This is, in part, due to the lack of established methods to evaluate the effectiveness and efficiency of knowledge brokers. To address this gap we assess the utility of social network analysis (SNA) to evaluate the effectiveness of knowledge brokers in connecting scientists and decision-makers. Specifically, using a case-study approach, we undertake longitudinal SNA over a 12-month period to evaluate the extent to which the knowledge broker developed networks between producers and users of knowledge across different organizations. We also undertook a qualitative survey of scientists (n = 29) who worked in the same organization as the knowledge broker to understand the extent to which the knowledge broker increased the impact of scientific research for decision-making purposes. Results show that the knowledge broker developed an extensive stakeholder network of 192 individuals spanning over 30 organizations. The results of the SNA found that over time this network increased in density and became more cohesive, both key elements underpinning successful knowledge exchange. Furthermore, the qualitative survey found that the knowledge broker also had a positive impact in other ways, including helping researchers understand the operating environments within decision-making agencies and the best approaches for engaging with specific decision-makers. Thus, this study demonstrates the value of SNA for evaluating knowledge brokers and provides empirical support for the use of knowledge brokers in the environmental sector. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and ERP Environment
... Understanding long-term trends (e.g. occurring over the lifetime of MREDs) requires post-development comparisons with long-term timeseries data [112,123,124] and such data are relatively rare, 13 which causes problems for benthic monitoring in relation to any marine activity. Whilst knowledge of natural variability in the populations under investigation is essential to quantify MRED-related change there is currently little guidance on what constitutes an appropriate temporal or spatial scale in relation to MRED monitoring. ...
Article
Full-text available
Marine renewable energy developments (MREDs) are rapidly expanding in size and number as society strives to maintain electricity generation whilst simultaneously reducing climate-change linked CO2 emissions. MREDs are part of an ongoing large-scale modification of coastal waters that also includes activities such as commercial fishing, shipping, aggregate extraction, aquaculture, dredging, spoil-dumping and oil and gas exploitation. It is increasingly accepted that developments, of any kind, should only proceed if they are ecologically sustainable and will not reduce current or future delivery of ecosystem services. The benthos underpins crucial marine ecosystem services yet, in relation to MREDs, is currently poorly monitored: current monitoring programmes are extensive and costly yet provide little useful data in relation to ecosystem-scale-related changes, a situation called ‘data-rich, information-poor’ (DRIP). MRED –benthic interactions may cause changes that are of a sufficient scale to change ecosystem services provision, particularly in terms of fisheries and biodiversity and, via trophic linkages, change the distribution of fish, birds and mammals. The production of DRIPy data should be eliminated and the resources used instead to address relevant questions that are logically bounded in time and space. Efforts should target identifying metrics of change that can be linked to ecosystem function or service provision, particularly where those metrics show strongly non-linear effects in relation to the stressor. Future monitoring should also be designed to contribute towards predictive ecosystem models and be sufficiently robust and understandable to facilitate transparent, auditable and timely decision-making.
... The uptake and integration of evidence from science into policy is a well-known challenge Addison et al. 2015). A growing body of research has sought to understand how these challenges can be overcome to facilitate real-time, adaptive knowledge exchange between researchers and members of the policy community (Cvitanovic et al. 2015;Jarvis et al. 2015). ...
Article
Full-text available
ClimateXChange (CXC) was established in 2011 as Scotland’s Centre of Expertise on Climate Change. It aims to link research and policy, and to be a focal point the Scottish Government can call on for advice on climate change science, mitigation and adaptation actions, and analysis. Bringing together 15 Scottish institutions, CXC is an innovative organisation bridging the science policy gap. We outline CXC’s formation and structure, and use CXC’s experiences to date to highlight features that have been successful in facilitating knowledge exchange as well as on-going challenges. Based on our reflections of CXC, we demonstrate how boundary organisations can (i) meet near-term policy demand for evidence via small-scale, rapid response projects; and (ii) pool expertise from across the research community; whilst (iii) benefiting from longer-term, strategic programmes of research tackling complex, global challenges. We illustrate that while CXC has some unique characteristics, many of the lessons and experiences are applicable to other organisations seeking a greater connection between science and policy.
... For example, Cvitanovic and Hobday (2018) offer a series of practical steps that marine researchers should consider when designing KE initiatives, starting with the formation of trust and a shared vision among actors, through to the implementation of participatory research approaches, and concluding with the establishment of context-specific knowledge management systems. Despite this, there are still numerous challenges to KE and the integration of research into marine decision-making processes (Addison et al., 2015;Cvitanovic et al., 2015a). While KE is easy to implement in theory, it is much harder to achieve in practice. ...
Article
The ever-increasing pressure on marine environments is leading to a growing demand for evidence-informed decision-making, which is supported via interactive knowledge exchange among marine researchers and decision-makers. While there is increasing guidance on how to undertake effective knowledge exchange at the interface of science and policy, there is little information on the monetary and non-monetary costs of such endeavours. As a first step to filling this gap we undertake a narrative review of the literature and illustrate it with individual experiences from four case studies, each of which has implemented a common knowledge exchange strategy within a marine context: knowledge co-production, knowledge brokerage, boundary organisation or social connections/network. Our aim is to: (i) identify the range of costs associated with knowledge exchange activities; (ii) investigate whether the benefits outweigh the costs; and (iii) provide practical considerations to aid planning and budgeting for knowledge exchange projects in the future. We highlight direct (e.g., budget for training, labour, administration, events) and indirect, monetary and non-monetary costs (e.g., emotional effort, trust building) and risks that can occur before, during, and after projects, bearing much invisible effort. We find that the costs and benefits of knowledge exchange efforts are often intangible, hard to measure, underappreciated and insufficiently budgeted for within research projects. Researchers considering knowledge exchange activities must adequately account for preconditions of the research activity (e.g., context and scale) and invest in pre-project effort to make it work (e.g., time and costs involved in building relationships, recruitment/writing proposals), which may need institutional funding. We also recommend that funded project leaders include contingency funds to capitalise on emergent and unforeseen activities, while unfunded project leaders consider an interaction (e.g., a meeting or online conference) to maintain links for future opportunities.
... Professionals and nature enthusiasts observe and record nature, either using protocols in field studies, remote sensing and monitoring schemes, or via opportunistic sightings. Despite this seeming abundance in data availability, decision-and policy-makers are constrained by the lack of targeted data and indicators, mostly as a result of barriers preventing existing data from being found and accessed, or by missing forms of presentation that answer questions of policy makers and practitioners (Verweij et al., 2019;Geijzendorffer et al., 2016;Addison, 2015;Wetzel et al., 2015;Proença et al., 2017). ...
... Recently it has been estimated that rate of mangrove degradation in the protected areas is 0.57%, and about 6% of mangrove areas have been lost since 1996 within protected areas, at a lower rate than outside protected areas (7.1%), but not significantly different (Worthington and Spalding, 2019; Table 1). Thus, the effectiveness of PAs with respect to ecological and/or socio-economic factors is debatable (Bennett and Dearden, 2014), and most of the PAs lack both clear aims and long-term biological data to evaluate the management effectiveness (Addison et al., 2015). Furthermore, the ecosystem connectivity and climate change considerations are often lacking in the PAs of coastal and marine environments (McLeod et al., 2009;Magris et al., 2014). ...
Article
Full-text available
The ecosystem services offered by mangroves have made their protection critical. Last three decades of mangrove conservation are often relied on legal protection of existing mangroves and massive restoration/rehabilitation of degraded/reclaimed areas. Legislative protection measures are based on declaration of protected areas and descriptive regulatory measures in the form of acts or laws, whereas restoration/rehabilitation efforts are often based on mono-specific plantation. Despite various legislative protections, habitat conversion is still continuing, and ecological health of existing mangrove areas are degrading. Furthermore, the massive restoration/rehabilitation efforts could not offset for the continual destruction of established forests, but only short-term increase in area. This calls for evaluating effectiveness of the existing conservation measures and then formulating better management measures in the context of increasing pressures and threats. Land conversion and ecological degradation of coastal wetlands are the primary stressors, associated with rapid coastal developmental activities and climate change. Mangroves require desired habitat niche and hence, their conversion to other land uses may lead to permanent loss, whereas ecologically degraded areas may be resilient if supported by effective rehabilitation measures. Hence, preventing the habitat conversion and preserving the ecological health are the need of the hour to safeguard the existing mangroves and sustain the ecosystem services offered by them. Better ecological conditions also support the adaptive potential of mangroves (viz., the ability of populations or species to adapt to rapid environmental changes with minimal disruption) to cope with the climate change. Since mangroves are flow-through system, preserving the hydrological connectivity of existing mangroves, facilitating the connectivity between adjacent ecosystems and protecting the natural corridors are the potential strategies to enhance the ecological health of mangroves. This can be achieved by an effective site-specific, long-term and integrated ecosystem-based protection, management and rehabilitation strategy with sound scientific knowledge and drastic legislative measures to regularize the coastal developmental activities.
...  Practitioner time to find and read evidence  Relevance and applicability of the evidence Addison et al. (2015) Marine protected area management agencies (Australia) ...
Thesis
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Wildlife managers are faced with decisions and issues that are increasingly complex, spanning natural and human dimensions. A strong evidence base that includes multiple forms and sources of knowledge would support these complex decisions. However, a growing body of literature demonstrates that environmental managers are far more likely to draw on intuition, experience, or opinion to inform important decisions rather than empirical evidence. In 2018, I interviewed members from natural resource management branches of Indigenous (n = 4) and parliamentary (n = 33) governments, as well as nongovernmental stakeholder groups (n = 28) involved in wildlife management and conservation in British Columbia, Canada. I set out to: assess how interviewees perceive and use western-based scientific, Indigenous and local knowledge and the extent to which socio-economic and political considerations challenge the integration of evidence [Chapter 2]; examine perceptions on the current and future status of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) populations and fisheries [Chapter 3] (supplemented with n = 1029 online survey responses from rainbow trout anglers); and identify perceived benefits and existing barriers supporting or limiting the use of a particular type of evidence, conservation genomics [Chapter 4]. Then in 2019, I facilitated fuzzy cognitive mapping workshops with n = 12 participants from four groups of fisheries managers, detailing their perceptions on the evidence influencing freshwater fish and fisheries decisions [Chapter 5]. Collectively, this research suggests that wildlife management issues and decisions are time-sensitive and value-laden. Interviewees relied heavily on personal contacts with internal colleagues and institutional information to inform decisions and practices. Evidence which may influence decisions is within a closed social network, centralized to a handful of decision-making organizations and their partners. A lack of time and information overload were major barriers to external evidence use. A lack of trust and hesitancy to share were major barriers to Indigenous and local knowledge use. Abundant environmental evidence may not be immediately ‘actionable’ and relevant to known problems faced by decision-makers due in part to poor communication and dissemination. Participants perceived a diminishing role of evidence in decisions due to increases in socio-economic and political influence that may supersede conservation.
... Conservation of marine resources has become a global priority. Therefore, the concept of marine protected areas (MPA) or marine parks (MPs) is now widely publicized in the literature (Addison et al., 2015;Nyigulila Mwaipopo, 2008). MPs consist of sea areas that are earmarked to protect and sustain ecosystems and the organisms that thrive in such habitats. ...
Article
Full-text available
This review paper highlights the level of awareness on the conservation and sustainable use of marine parks (MPs) among stakeholders in the marine tourism business. Authors present in detail the benefits, marine biodiversity (MB), and programs designed for the conservation and sustainable use of MPs. Numerous benefits of MPs range from the management of marine protected areas to the protection of natural resources, such as plants, animals, and the ecosystem. The primary role of MPs is to properly manage and conserve MB, which protects vulnerable or endangered species and habitats. Other benefits of MPs include protecting the long-term health of marine environment through the conservation of marine life. Hence, scientists are mandated by national governments to supervise and conduct research aimed at protecting and managing MPs. Likewise, numerous conservation programs have been proposed over the years to secure the conservation and sustainable use of MPs. MB conservation can be enhanced by objective zonation, promoting alternatives, and limiting visitor's use of MPs and provision of on-site waste amenities. Overall, the review of the literature showed that the provision of education, awareness and outreach programs to local communities and visitors could ensure the successful conservation of MB in MPs.
... denn je ist ein Übergang zu nachhaltigem Ressourcenmanagement nötig, um Wasserressourcen auch für zukünftige Generationen zu bewahren (Flammini et al. 2014;World Economic Forum 2011;Meinel und Lehmann 2016). Neue wissenschaftliche Erkenntnisse sind dabei eine wichtige Grundlage für einen erfolgreichen Übergang zu nachhaltigem Wassermanagement (Armitage et al. 2008), doch werden diese im politischen Prozess meist nur selektiv aufgegriffen (Addison et al. 2015;Cvitanovic et al. 2017;Tosun 2012Tosun , 2013. Knowledge Broker können dabei helfen, dass wissenschaftliche Erkenntnisse systematischer im politischen Prozess zum Tragen kommen (Cvitanovic et al. 2013;Hering 2016;Reed et al. 2014;Meyer 2010). ...
Article
Full-text available
Policymakers increasingly perceive of micropollutants in water (e.g. pharmaceutical residues) as an issue that needs to be addressed. How do environmental groups, in their capacity as knowledge brokers between science and politics, contribute to evidence-based policymaking concerning aquatic micro pollutants? To address this research question, we concentrate on Friends of the Earth Germany (BUND) and its impact on policymaking. More specifically, in this study, we are interested in the strategies of the BUND concerning the pursuit of its regulatory interests. We also examine its collaboration with policymakers in the context of stakeholder consultations and its role for the implementation of policy solutions at the local level. Our findings reveal that the BUND indeed has a reputation as a knowledge broker concerning aquatic micro pollutants. The scientific approach of this organization also materializes in the fact it is willing to change its position and policy demands in response to new empirical evidence. This article contends that the BUND’s transparency in relation to the acknowledgement of scientific uncertainty and its willingness to change its policy demands earns it the status as a knowledge broker. In consequence, it can participate in policymaking in a broader and more direct fashion. In addition, however, the BUND reaches out to the public and practices a strategy of indirect interest mediation. Thus, this study contributes to the literature by demonstrating that both direct access to policymaking and indirect interest mediation via the media and the public are used in a complementary fashion to influence policy decisions. This means that even if environmental groups have direct access to politics they will continue to seek the public in order to increase their negotiation power.
... They usually provide high accuracy and precision, especially if carried out according to standardised data collection protocols (Addison, 2011). However, they are rarely used in (M)PA effectiveness assessments, even in data rich countries (Addison et al., 2015). An example of a well designed biodiversity quantitative monitoring system is that in force in the European Union's Natura 2000 Network. ...
Chapter
Different studies have shown that, despite the rise in PA numbers and coverage worldwide, the global deterioration of biodiversity has not been stopped. Are PAs adequately fulfilling their mission of conserving biodiversity? That is the key question that PA effectiveness assessment / evaluation (PAME) seeks to answer. PA evaluation methods can be classified according to the type of data used as: qualitative, opinion-based methods, quantitative methods and mixed methods. Conventional PAME methods assume that good management equals good conservation outcomes, which is not always the case. Thus, PA assessments are gradually moving towards measuring biodiversity outcomes rather than indirect factors of performance.
... For example, the Common Fisheries Policy in Europe and the Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act in the United States explicitly highlight spatial boundary delineation for fishery management. When assessing fisheryeffort changes that may be attributable to OWFs, it is important to interpret those changes in the context of the existing long-term trends and spatial boundaries (e.g., Addison et al., 2015). ...
Article
Full-text available
Changes to fisheries that result from offshore wind farm (OWF) installations may be considered good or bad depending on various stakeholders' perspectives. OWFs can act as artificial reefs that may benefit secondary fish production, but such effects may also have ecological consequences. The fisheries exclusion effect that turns some OWFs into no-go areas, hence effectively no-take zones, could provide resource enhancements or redistribution. However, the displacement of fishing effort may have consequences to fisheries elsewhere. Changes in the sensory environment related to sound, as well as electromagnetic fields and physical alterations of current and wind wakes, may have as yet unknown impacts on fisheries resources. Understanding the interactions among effect type, OWF development phase, and spatiotemporal population dynamics of commercial and recreational species remains challenging , exemplified by the commercial fishery lobster genus Homarus in European and North American waters. While knowledge of the interactions between resource species and OWFs is improving, there remain questions on the wider interaction between and consequences of OWFs and fisheries. Studies of this wider relevance should aim to improve understanding of the economic and societal impacts of OWFs linked to ecosystem services that support fisheries. Furthermore, assisting fisheries management and providing advice requires monitoring and survey data collection at appropriate spatiotemporal scales. This information will help to determine whether OWFs have any meaningful impact on regional fisheries, and increased investments will be needed to target scientifically appropriate monitoring of OWFs and fisheries, which is supported by better integrated policy and regulation.
... For example, the Common Fisheries Policy in Europe and the Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act in the United States explicitly highlight spatial boundary delineation for fishery management. When assessing fisheryeffort changes that may be attributable to OWFs, it is important to interpret those changes in the context of the existing long-term trends and spatial boundaries (e.g., Addison et al., 2015). ...
Article
Full-text available
p>Changes to fisheries that result from offshore wind farm (OWF) installations may be considered good or bad depending on various stakeholders’ perspectives. OWFs can act as artificial reefs that may benefit secondary fish production, but such effects may also have ecological consequences. The fisheries exclusion effect that turns some OWFs into no-go areas, hence effectively no-take zones, could provide resource enhancements or redistribution. However, the displacement of fishing effort may have consequences to fisheries elsewhere. Changes in the sensory environment related to sound, as well as electromagnetic fields and physical alterations of current and wind wakes, may have as yet unknown impacts on fisheries resources. Understanding the interactions among effect type, OWF development phase, and spatiotemporal population dynamics of commercial and recreational species remains chal-lenging, exemplified by the commercial fishery lobster genus Homarus in European and North American waters. While knowledge of the interactions between resource species and OWFs is improving, there remain questions on the wider interaction between and consequences of OWFs and fisheries. Studies of this wider relevance should aim to improve understanding of the economic and societal impacts of OWFs linked to ecosystem services that support fisheries. Furthermore, assisting fisheries management and providing advice requires monitoring and survey data collection at appropriate spatiotemporal scales. This information will help to determine whether OWFs have any meaningful impact on regional fisheries, and increased investments will be needed to target scientifically appropriate monitoring of OWFs and fisheries, which is supported by better integrated policy and regulation.</p
... Additional data are collected within research projects. Addison et al. (2015) showed that even where periodic monitoring existed, management agencies preferred to conduct qualitative MPA ME assessments based on expert interpretation of monitoring results. But they also observed a willingness from management practitioners to better utilize monitoring data in quantitative condition assessments. ...
Article
Full-text available
For almost two decades, marine protected areas (MPAs) have been a central instrument of coastal conservation and management policies, but concerns about their abilities to meet conservation goals have grown as the number and sizes of MPAs have dramatically increased. This paper describes how a large (15 years) program of transdisciplinary research was used to successfully measure MPA management effectiveness (ME)—how well an MPA is managed, how well it is protecting values, and how well it is achieving the various goals and objectives for which it was created. This paper addresses the co-production and uptake of monitoring-based evidence for assessing ME in coastal MPAs by synthesizing the experiences of this program conducted with MPA managers. I present the main outcomes of the program, many were novel, and discuss four ingredients (learned lessons) that underpinned the successful uptake of science during and after the research program: (i) early and inclusive co-design of the project with MPA partners and scientists from all disciplines, (ii) co-construction of common references transcending the boundaries of disciplines, and standardized methodologies and tools, (iii) focus on outcomes that are management-oriented and understandable by end-users, and (iv) ensuring that capacity building and dissemination activities occurred during and persisted beyond the program. Standardized monitoring protocols and data management procedures, a user-friendly interface for indicator analysis, and dashboards of indicators related to biodiversity, uses, and governance, were the most valued practical outcomes. Seventy-five students were trained during the projects and most of the monitoring work was conducted with MPA rangers. Such outcomes were made possible by the extended timeline offered by the three successive projects. MPA managers’ and scientists a posteriori perceptions strongly supported the relevance of such collaboration. Local monitoring and assessment meets the needs of MPA managers, and forms the basis for large-scale assessments through upscaling. A long-term synergistic transdisciplinary collaboration between coastal MPA managers and research into social-ecological systems (SESs) would simultaneously (i) address the lack of long-term resources for coastal monitoring and SES-oriented research; (ii) increase science uptake by coastal managers, and (iii) benefit assessments at higher levels or at broader geographic scales.
... Monitoring data are essential for evaluating the management effectiveness of MPAs. Dedicated evidence-based management will be achievable only through the use of long-term monitoring data in quantitative assessments (Addison et al., 2015). According to the WCPA framework, the elements of context, planning, inputs, process, outputs, and outcomes should all be evaluated in one MEE. ...
Article
Rapid population growth is putting enormous pressure on fragile marine ecosystems. Marine protected areas (MPAs) are a widely adopted management tool to address these challenges, but their conservation effectiveness is uncertain, especially in developing countries such as China. Management effectiveness evaluation (MEE) is an efficient method for assessing MPA outcomes and identifying key impact factors. However, only a limited number of MEEs have been conducted for China's MPAs in the past two decades, thus largely limiting their improvement of management. In this context, we conducted a comprehensive review of MPAs status and existing MEEs in China. We found that despite the significant increase in the number and coverage of China's MPAs, their conservation effectiveness might be impacted by the lack of systematic planning, adequate funding, appropriate zoning, long-term monitoring, and sound laws. Major challenges to the evaluation of MPA management effectiveness in China include the lack of a standardized framework, limited survey data, financial support, and public engagement. To address these challenges, we developed a comprehensive framework based on the common objectives of China's MPAs and existing MEE frameworks. We also recommend based on the developed framework: 1) establishing long-term monitoring pilots in national MPAs; 2) providing sustained funding support for MEE, monitoring and capacity building from government, social capital, and ecotourism; and 3) promoting public participation in MPA management and evaluation through advocacy, incentive mechanisms, and establishment of committees. Adopting our recommendations can strengthen adaptive management and provide new insights into evidence-based decision-making for MPAs in China.
... Despite the growing political and social imperative for MER, and the rise in MER approaches employed around the globe, there are some persistent challenges to implementing and undertaking successful marine MER activities. There are institutional challenges, such as: a lack of stability in resources to fund MER activities through time, which means that the time-frame of many important ecological changes will not be detected by MER activities (Duarte et al., 1992;Ferraro et al., 2006); a continued failure to set clear management, monitoring and evaluation objectives (Kemp et al., 2012;Fox et al., 2014); and, persistent difficulties in accessing fit-for-purpose environmental monitoring data, successfully evaluating different types of monitoring data, and "closing the loop" to ensure the results of monitoring and evaluation informs evidence-based management (Fox et al., 2014;Addison et al., 2015). Scientific challenges also exist that limit the ability of marine MER activities to inform evidence-based management, which include the challenge of monitoring extensive, remote environments, poor scientific understanding of large-scale ecological processes and interactions, uncertainty in the attribution of cumulative impacts of threats, and in understanding the effectiveness of management interventions (Cvitanovic et al., 2015;Addison et al., 2017). ...
Article
Sustainable management and conservation of the world’s oceans requires effective monitoring, evaluation, and reporting (MER). Despite the growing political and social imperative for these activities, there are some persistent and emerging challenges that marine practitioners face in undertaking these activities. In 2015, a diverse group of marine practitioners came together to discuss the emerging challenges associated with marine MER, and potential solutions to address these challenges. Three emerging challenges were identified: (i) the need to incorporate environmental, social and economic dimensions in evaluation and reporting; (ii) the implications of big data, creating challenges in data management and interpretation; and (iii) dealing with uncertainty throughout MER activities. We point to key solutions to address these challenges across MER activities: (i) integrating models into marine management systems to help understand, interpret, and manage the environmental and socio-economic dimensions of uncertain and complex marine systems; (ii) utilizing big data sources and new technologies to collect, process, store, and analyze data; and (iii) applying approaches to evaluate, account for, and report on the multiple sources and types of uncertainty. These solutions point towards a potential for a new wave of evidence-based marine management, through more innovative monitoring, rigorous evaluation and transparent reporting. Effective collaboration and institutional support across the science–management–policy interface will be crucial to deal with emerging challenges, and implement the tools and approaches embedded within these solutions.
... mainly bony fishes), relegating less sought species (Lloret & Font, 2013). But, there are non-conventional sources of long-term and standardized biological information such as baseline studies, usually used for Environmental Impact Assessments (EIA) and environmental monitoring associated to large marine infrastructure (Addison, Flander, & Cook, 2015). Sampling efforts in areas associated to infrastructure can generate a remarkable amount of data that can serve to different purposes, including estimating LWRs for understudied species. ...
Technical Report
Long-term environmental monitoring studies includes morphometric data (length and weight) of aggregating fish species around this artificial structure and adjacent soft bottom habitats. We used these data, obtained biannually (summer and spring) between 2012 and 2018, to estimate population parameters such as length-weight relationships (LWRs) for 28 species. Gender and ontogeny-based differences in LWR were determined in four species, while novel LWR information was generated for all other species.
... The succeeding stages of MPA establishment are the management of the reef. This call for the formation of a management structure or body and the creation of a management plan, which is crucial for the sustainability of an MPA, monitoring protected areas in quantitative condition assessments (Pelletier, 2020) should be repeated at regular intervals, and conduct qualitative MPA assessment (Addison et al.,2015) throughout the management process. ...
Article
Full-text available
A practical implementation of marine management practices will warrant long-term sustainability of marine protected areas (MPAs) and stability of the fishers' livelihood in the area. This research presents the coral cover, fish diversity and describes the management practices of Barangay Sto. Nino and Barangay Apalan marine protected areas in Tuburan, Cebu, Philippines. Coral reef survey, visual fish census, and MPA Management Effectiveness Assessment Tool (MEAT) are employed. Results showed that the reef in Sto. Niño exhibits a high percentage of live hard corals at 49%, and dead corals with algae and rubble with only 15%. The fish density in the area is 508 individuals/250sqm whereas live hard coral (LHC) cover in Apalan is 24%. A dead coral percentage is relatively high at 38%, and fish density is 349 individuals/250sqm. Massive corals dominated the two MPAs, followed by submassive and branching corals. Both MPAs recorded damselfish (Pomacentridae), wrasse (Labridae), and coral health indicator fishes (CHI), such as butterflyfish (Chaetodontidae), and angelfish (Pomacanthidae). Overall evaluation of the reef conditions of Sto. Niño and Apalan MPAs are "fair" and "poor," respectively. Accordingly, there is a need to periodically prioritize local biological monitoring and MPA evaluation through institutional collaborations (i.e., local government, academe) to improve and sustain the MPAs in Tuburan, Cebu.
... mainly bony fishes), relegating less sought species (Lloret & Font, 2013). But, there are non-conventional sources of long-term and standardized biological information such as baseline studies, usually used for Environmental Impact Assessments (EIA) and environmental monitoring associated to large marine infrastructure (Addison, Flander, & Cook, 2015). Sampling efforts in areas associated to infrastructure can generate a remarkable amount of data that can serve to different purposes, including estimating LWRs for understudied species. ...
Article
Long‐term environmental monitoring studies includes morphometric data (length and weight) of aggregating fish species around this artificial structure and adjacent soft‐bottom habitats. We used these data, obtained biannually (summer and spring) between 2012 and 2018, to estimate population parameters such as length‐weight relationships (LWRs) for 28 species. Gender and ontogeny‐based differences in LWR were determined in four species, while novel LWR information was generated for all other species.
... Despite growing recognition for the importance of KE, many barriers remain that limit the integration of marine science into policy and practice (Addison et al., 2015;Cvitanovic et al., 2015a). For example, barriers relate to the decision-making process itself (e.g., lack of time or expertise to search for, access and interpret scientific knowledge), cultural differences between science and policy (e.g., different 'languages'), institutional disincentives (e.g., publish or perish), and inadequate resources (time, money, capacity) (Cvitanovic et al., 2014(Cvitanovic et al., , 2016Rose et al., 2018;Walsh et al., 2019). ...
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... Metrics such as distance from port, or the amount of high-quality fish habitat surrounding an MPA may provide a more comprehensive prediction of the outcomes of these conservation tools. Lastly, our study further supports the concept that MPAs are long-term conservation tools with full effects that may not be realized until 10 years or more post implementation, particularly in temperate systems (Addison et al., 2015;Heupel and Simpfendorfer, 2005;Ojeda-Martinez et al., 2007;Smale et al., 2019). As MPAs continue to be used as a prominent conservation strategy in coastal systems, managers should consider both the suite of human-induced (socio-ecological interactions) and environmental conditions that may alter MPA success as well as establish long-term monitoring programs to fully assess the functionality of marine reserves into the future. ...
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There is about to be an abrupt step-change in the use of coastal seas around the globe, specifically by the addition of large-scale offshore renewable energy developments to combat climate change. Developing this sustainable energy supply will require trade-offs between both direct and indirect environmental effects, as well as spatial conflicts with marine uses like shipping, fishing, and recreation. However, the nexus between drivers, such as changes in the bio-physical environment from the introduction of structures and extraction of energy, and the consequent impacts on ecosystem services delivery and natural capital assets is poorly understood and rarely considered through a whole ecosystem perspective. Future marine planning needs to assess these changes as part of national policy level assessments but also to inform practitioners about the benefits and trade-offs between different uses of natural resources when making decisions to balance environmental and energy sustainability and socio-economic impacts. To address this shortfall, we propose an ecosystem-based natural capital evaluation framework that builds on a dynamic Bayesian modelling approach which accounts for the multiplicity of interactions between physical (e.g., bottom temperature), biological (e.g., net primary production) indicators and anthropogenic marine use (i.e., fishing) and their changes across space and over time. The proposed assessment framework measures ecosystem change, changes in ecosystem goods and services and changes in socio-economic value in response to offshore renewable energy deployment scenarios as well as climate change, to provide objective information for decision processes seeking to integrate new uses into our marine ecosystems. Such a framework has the potential of exploring the likely outcomes in the same metrics (both ecological and socio-economic) from alternative management and climate scenarios, such that objective judgements and decisions can be made, as to how to balance the benefits and trade-offs between a range of marine uses to deliver long-term environmental sustainability, economic benefits, and social welfare.
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Worldwide, MPA practitioners are increasing adopting evidence-based management over anecdote and intuition. One of the most commonly promoted approaches is to monitor the status and trends of performance indicators and modify management when the status of an indicator is inconsistent with a target. But the challenge with indicator-based approaches is interpretation in the absence of an experimental (true or quasi) design. A more structured approach with greater inferential strength because the implicit adoption of experimental elements into the sampling design is the adaptive management approach promoted by Walters (1986). Another difference between adaptive management and indicator-based approaches is that the latter leads to reactive management interventions rather than evaluating alternative management options even in the absence of management failure. Unfortunately, adaptive management can be challenging to adopt in a scientifically rigorous way for at least two reasons. First, the cost to undertake large-scale experimental manipulations can be substantial. Second, stakeholders, such as commercial fishers or traditional villagers, may be unwilling to modify their livelihoods for experimental purposes even if learnings may result in more sustainable and cost-effective use of resources. As argued convincingly by one proponent of evidence-based management, adaptive management may still be applied efficiently to routine management activities. Routine management activities inside MPAs can include enforcement, raising environmental awareness amongst visitors, guiding visitors, installing vessel moorings and developing snorkel trails or nature trails through sensitive coastal vegetation. Applying adaptive management to these activities could lead to more scientifically sound and efficient management outcomes.
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The study and implementation of no-take marine reserves have increased rapidly over the past decade, providing ample data on the biological effects of reserve protection for a wide range of geographic locations and organisms. The plethora of new studies affords the opportunity to re- evaluate previous findings and address formerly unanswered questions with extensive data synthe- ses. Our results show, on average, positive effects of reserve protection on the biomass, numerical density, species richness, and size of organisms within their boundaries which are remarkably simi- lar to those of past syntheses despite a near doubling of data. New analyses indicate that (1) these results do not appear to be an artifact of reserves being sited in better locations; (2) results do not appear to be driven by displaced fishing effort outside of reserves; (3) contrary to often-made asser- tions, reserves have similar if not greater positive effects in temperate settings, at least for reef ecosystems; (4) even small reserves can produce significant biological responses irrespective of lati- tude, although more data are needed to test whether reserve effects scale with reserve size; and (5) effects of reserves vary for different taxonomic groups and for taxa with various characteristics, and not all species increase in response to reserve protection. There is considerable variation in the responses documented across all the reserves in our data set — variability which cannot be entirely explained by which species were studied. We suggest that reserve characteristics and context, par- ticularly the intensity of fishing outside the reserve and inside the reserve before implementation, play key roles in determining the direction and magnitude of the reserve response. However, despite considerable variability, positive responses are far more common than no differences or negative responses, validating the potential for well designed and enforced reserves to serve as globally important conservation and management tools.
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The management effectiveness of protected areas is a critically important consideration for their conservation success. Over 40 different protected area management effectiveness (PAME) data collection tools have been developed to systematically assess protected area management effectiveness. Many of these assessments have recently been collated into the Global IUCN Protected Area Management Effectiveness (PAME) database. We use the PAME database together with and the World Database on Protected Areas (WDPA) to assess current progress towards the Convention on Biological Diversity’s (CBD) 2010 and 2015 targets for PAME, which call for at least 30 per cent and 60 per cent of the total area of protected areas to have been assessed in terms of management effectiveness, respectively. We show that globally 29 per cent of the area protected has been assessed and 23 per cent of countries have reached the 60 per cent target. In addition 46 per cent of countries have reached the 30 per cent target. However, analytical results show that there are biases in the type of protected area assessed; protected areas with larger areas, and protected areas designated as National Parks (IUCN category II) are much more likely to have conducted a PAME assessment. In addition there is a paucity of PAME assessments from Europe and North America, where assessments of protected area management may already be integrated into protected area planning and monitoring systems, creating a challenge for reporting to the CBD. We further discuss the potential and limitations of PAME assessments as tools for tracking and evaluating protected area management, and the need for further assessment tools to address the ‘equity’ elements of Target 11 of the CBD.
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The world's coral reefs are being degraded, and the need to reduce local pressures to offset the effects of increasing global pressures is now widely recognized. This study investigates the spatial and temporal dynamics of coral cover, identifies the main drivers of coral mortality, and quantifies the rates of potential recovery of the Great Barrier Reef. Based on the world's most extensive time series data on reef condition (2,258 surveys of 214 reefs over 1985-2012), we show a major decline in coral cover from 28.0% to 13.8% (0.53% y(-1)), a loss of 50.7% of initial coral cover. Tropical cyclones, coral predation by crown-of-thorns starfish (COTS), and coral bleaching accounted for 48%, 42%, and 10% of the respective estimated losses, amounting to 3.38% y(-1) mortality rate. Importantly, the relatively pristine northern region showed no overall decline. The estimated rate of increase in coral cover in the absence of cyclones, COTS, and bleaching was 2.85% y(-1), demonstrating substantial capacity for recovery of reefs. In the absence of COTS, coral cover would increase at 0.89% y(-1), despite ongoing losses due to cyclones and bleaching. Thus, reducing COTS populations, by improving water quality and developing alternative control measures, could prevent further coral decline and improve the outlook for the Great Barrier Reef. Such strategies can, however, only be successful if climatic conditions are stabilized, as losses due to bleaching and cyclones will otherwise increase.
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The Great Barrier Reef Marine Park, an area almost the size of Japan, has a new network of no-take areas that significantly improves the protection of biodiversity. The new marine park zoning implements, in a quantitative manner, many of the theoretical design principles discussed in the literature. For example, the new network of no-take areas has at least 20% protection per “bioregion,” minimum levels of protection for all known habitats and special or unique features, and minimum sizes for no-take areas of at least 10 or 20 km across at the smallest diameter. Overall, more than 33% of the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park is now in no-take areas (previously 4.5%). The steps taken leading to this outcome were to clarify to the interested public why the existing level of protection was inadequate; detail the conservation objectives of establishing new no-take areas; work with relevant and independent experts to define, and contribute to, the best scientific process to deliver on the objectives; describe the biodiversity (e.g., map bioregions); define operational principles needed to achieve the objectives; invite community input on all of the above; gather and layer the data gathered in round-table discussions; report the degree of achievement of principles for various options of no-take areas; and determine how to address negative impacts. Some of the key success factors in this case have global relevance and include focusing initial communication on the problem to be addressed; applying the precautionary principle; using independent experts; facilitating input to decision making; conducting extensive and participatory consultation; having an existing marine park that encompassed much of the ecosystem; having legislative power under federal law; developing high-level support; ensuring agency priority and ownership; and being able to address the issue of displaced fishers.
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How effective are large, well-resourced protected areas at achieving biodiversity conservation goals? In this study we critically review biodiversity research and management practice in two of the world’s premier savanna reserves (Kruger National Park, South Africa and Kakadu National Park, Australia) by exploring management approaches to three shared conservation issues: fire, alien species and threatened species. These management approaches contrast sharply between the two reserves, with Kruger having notably more detailed and prescribed planning for biodiversity conservation. Overall assessment of the effectiveness of management is hampered by limited available information on trends for native species and threatening processes, but in general it is far more straightforward to understand the management framework and to measure biodiversity conservation performance for Kruger than for Kakadu. We conclude that biodiversity conservation outcomes are most likely to be related to the adequacy of dedicated resources and of monitoring programs, the explicit identification of clear objectives with associated performance indicators, and the considered application of management prescriptions. In Kakadu particularly, conflicting park objectives (e.g., biodiversity and cultural management) can reduce the effectiveness of biodiversity efforts. However, we recognize that for the long-term persistence of these large conservation areas and hence for biodiversity conservation, it is critical to include consideration of social context.
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Incorporating science into resource conservation and management is becoming increasingly important, but it is not yet clear how to provide information to decision makers most effectively. To evaluate sources of information used to support the management and conservation of California’s riparian bird habitat, we distributed a questionnaire to restoration practitioners and public and private land managers. We asked respondents to rate the importance and availability of different sources of information they use to inform their decisions. Synthetic reviews and peer-reviewed publications both received high importance and availability ratings. Web-based tools received low importance and availability ratings. One-on-one interactions between ecologists and decision makers received high importance ratings, similar to those of peer-reviewed publications and synthetic reviews, but their availability was rated lower than any other method of decision support. Our results suggest that the decision makers we surveyed are already using a wide variety of information, but that prioritizing one-on-one interactions between scientists and decision makers will enhance the delivery of all sources of information. KeywordsConservation planning-Decision support tools-Evidence-based conservation-Ecological restoration-Riparian
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Environmental management decisions based upon indicators are the end point of a process involving stakeholders and scientists. These steps should be explicit and follow a chronology. This paper presents a general framework for the design and use of management-oriented indicators, integrating management questions and performance criteria. We first examined the desirable characteristics of indicators aimed at providing decision-support for marine environmental management. Ideally, one should select the indicator that guarantees a safe and unambiguous decision leading to the appropriate measures in terms of regulation, remediation or control. In the present study, indicators are assessed according to two criteria: relevance and effectiveness. Relevance encompasses sensitivity and the existence of quantitative reference values, thereby allowing the selection of potential indicators. Effectiveness is the ability of the indicator to reach its predefined targets based on optimal (or at least improved) data collection protocols. The framework is illustrated by applying it to the European Water Framework Directive and to the Marine Protected Area management contexts. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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We compiled details of over 8000 assessments of protected area management effectiveness across the world and developed a method for analyzing results across diverse assessment methodologies and indicators. Data was compiled and analyzed for over 4000 of these sites. Management of these protected areas varied from weak to effective, with about 40% showing major deficiencies. About 14% of the surveyed areas showed significant deficiencies across many management effectiveness indicators and hence lacked basic requirements to operate effectively. Strongest management factors recorded on average related to establishment of protected areas (legal establishment, design, legislation and boundary marking) and to effectiveness of governance; while the weakest aspects of management included community benefit programs, resourcing (funding reliability and adequacy, staff numbers and facility and equipment maintenance) and management effectiveness evaluation. Estimations of management outcomes, including both environmental values conservation and impact on communities, were positive. We conclude that in spite of inadequate funding and management process, there are indications that protected areas are contributing to biodiversity conservation and community well-being.
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Evaluation of protected area management in Australia has been driven by public sector reporting requirements and concern to improve management performance. This review of the status of management evaluation in large protected area management agencies reveals considerable variability in effort applied to evaluation, with emphasis being given to context and planning for management and outcomes of management as it affects valued resources. Agencies have largely adopted best practice principles in making assessments, but are not comprehensive in assessing all parts of the management cycle. The current emphasis may serve reporting requirements, but does not provide information and links that can assist in identifying the factors that affect achievement (or otherwise) of desired management outcomes. This constrains capacity to adopt an adaptive management approach to park management based on management effectiveness evaluations.
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The first version of this document was published in 2000. At that stage, although the IUCN-WCPA Management Effectiveness Evaluation Framework had been developed over several years, it had only been field tested in a few countries. The whole concept of assessing management effectiveness of protected areas was still in its infancy. The need for methodologies to assess protected areas had been discussed by protected area practitioners for several years, but only a handful of systems had been field-tested and implemented, and there was little commitment to management effectiveness beyond a few enlightened individuals in nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) and parks agencies. There was also, in consequence, little evidence of the suitability of particular methodologies to meet the needs of the vast array of different types of protected area, and little experience in implementing the findings of assessments to achieve the aim of the whole exercise: more effective conservation. Six years later, the situation is very different. Management effectiveness evaluation is a term now well recognised in the lexicon of protected area management. Many different assessment methodologies have emerged, most of them developed using the Framework agreed by the World Conservation Union (IUCN) and its World Commission on Protected Areas (WCPA), and the number of individual protected areas that have undergone some form of evaluation has risen from a few hundred to many thousand.
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The present paper aims at identifying and assessing indicators of the effects of Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) in coral reef regions, based on a bibliography review in ecology, economics and social sciences. First the various effects Studied within each of these domains and the variables used to measure them were censused. Potential ecological indicators were assessed through their link with the question used (here termed "relevance") and their "effectiveness" which encompasses the issues of precision, accuracy and statistical power. Relevance and effectiveness were respectively measured by the frequency of use of each indicator and the proportion of significant results in the reviewed articles. For social and economic effects, the approach was not possible due to the low number of references: we thus discussed the issue of finding appropriate indicators for those fields. Results indicate: 1- the unbalance in literature between disciplines: 2- the need for protocols and methodologies which include controls in order to assess MPA effects: 3- an important proportion of ecological indicators with low effectiveness: 4- the large number of ecological effects still not studied or not demonstrated at present.
Chapter
Management within a spatial context is progressively becoming more common in marine systems as part of a global movement towards ecologically sustainable development and ecosystem-based management. To understand the implications of spatial management fully, there need to be clear ecological, social and economic management objectives and a system in place allowing measurement of the performance of spatial management in relation to these objectives. Although fisheries management is becoming increasingly spatially explicit, it lags developments in marine conservation, in which marine protected areas (MPAs) have been used extensively. This chapter reviews monitoring for achievement of ecological objectives of spatial management of marine systems and associated performance measures in a range of countries where long-term monitoring of MPAs has been established. The review summarizes spatial management objectives, performance measures, monitoring methodology and primary outcomes and provides a summary of the metrics (variables) and performance measures used worldwide. Reviewed studies aimed to monitor within-reserve effects (e.g., biomass accumulation) and outside-reserve effects (e.g., export of accumulated biomass or propagules across the reserve boundary, i.e., spillover). The review highlights that the objectives of spatial management were often very general and poorly defined. Objectives need to be framed in a way that management performance can be assessed through monitoring. A suite of appropriate metrics is available for this monitoring; however, planning for performance assessment must begin at the time of initial planning for the spatial management, rather than relying on ad hoc studies once the management regime is in place. In framing management objectives, many agencies have considered a relatively small spatial scale, associated with individual MPAs and adjacent areas. In the future, management objectives should be set at a regional scale so that the overall performance of the system can be determined, including assessing how the cessation of certain activities within MPAs displaces pressures on the environment. There needs to be a strong commitment to continued performance assessment; for example, many of the effects of MPAs are not evident for at least a decade. Investment in spatial management is likely to increase considerably in the coming years, broadening in scope from the current concentration on MPA management, particularly in response to the increasing focus on spatially explicit fisheries management and the ecological effects of fishing, and on environmental perturbations such as pollution and climate change. Performance measures for this type of monitoring need to be based as much as possible on sound ecological knowledge of responses to perturbations, rather than the arbitrary setting of limits with little ecological basis. © 2012 by R.N. Gibson, R.J.A. Atkinson, J.D.M. Gordon, R.N. Hughes, D.J. Hughes, and I.P. SmithCRC Press is an imprint of Taylor & Francis Group, an Informa business.
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Habitat reserves can promote ecological resilience to climate variability by supporting intact trophic webs and large-bodied individuals1, 2, 3. Protection may also alter community responses to long-term climate change by offering habitat for range-shifting species4. Here we analyse the species richness, diversity and functional traits of temperate reef fish communities over 20 years in a global warming hotspot and compare patterns in a marine reserve with nearby sites open to fishing. Species richness and diversity oscillated strongly on the decadal scale. Long-term warming signatures were also present as increasing functional trait richness and functional diversity, driven in part by a general increase in herbivores. Nevertheless, reserve sites were distinguished from fished sites by displaying: greater stability in some aspects of biodiversity; recovery of large-bodied temperate species; resistance to colonization by subtropical vagrants; and less pronounced increases in the community-averaged temperature affinity. We empirically demonstrate that protection from fishing has buffered fluctuations in biodiversity and provided resistance to the initial stages of tropicalization.
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This book outlines the creative process of making environmental management decisions using the approach called Structured Decision Making. It is a short introductory guide to this popular form of decision making and is aimed at environmental managers and scientists. This is a distinctly pragmatic label given to ways for helping individuals and groups think through tough multidimensional choices characterized by uncertain science, diverse stakeholders, and difficult tradeoffs. This is the everyday reality of environmental management, yet many impo