Article

Implications of the Changing Pattern of Landcover of the Lagos Coastal Area of Nigeria

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Abstract

Lagos, like most other coastal cities is associated with many of the consequences of such ecological relationships, which include physical alterations and destruction of coastal habitats, flooding, erosion, pollution and continued threats from rising sea levels. Thus, in order to ensure sustainable coastal area management, techniques are required that provide cost effective means for mapping and monitoring landcover change and impacts. In this study, the aim was to evaluate the attendant socio-economic and environmental implications of the changing pattern of landcover change associated with the Lagos coastal zone. The observed (1986-2002) and predicted (2002-2027) rapid and continuing landcover change in the Lagos coastal area have multifarious implications on the residents and inhabitants of the area and on the entire Lagos residents in general; which is a consequence of the multiple impacts (positive and negative) that affect the ability of biological systems to support human needs. Some of the positive impacts of landuse/cover change include the continued increase in food and fibre production, resource use efficiency, wealth, livelihood security, welfare and human well-being. However, the undesirable and negative impacts of landcover change include massive alterations o f biogeochemical cycles (e.g. nitrogen, carbon and water), ecosystem processes, earth-atmosphere interactions, loss of biodiversity and soil degradation at different spatial and temporal scales. For instance, the expansion of the developed landcover into the swamp landcover type would have destructive consequence on the ecological biodiversity of the area and an attendant reduction in the livelihood of those that depend on these vegetal resources.

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... Remote sensing offers a quick, timely and cheap method of acquiring up-to-date data over large areas of land including areas inaccessible through direct field surveys. Hence, a considerable number of studies has gone into the LULC change assessment of coastal areas over temporal and spatial scales using different imagery types and change detection techniques including the use of multi-source data (Adepoju, Millington, & Tansey, 2006;El-Hattab, 2016;Okude & Ademiluyi, 2006;Wang, Sousa, & Gong, 2004). It has been noted that as data become more accessible at higher spatial and temporal resolutions, the application of multi-source data for change detection will grow into a key area of research (Giri, 2012;Lu et al., 2004). ...
... They ascribed these changes to rapid urbanization and land reclamation. Taiwo (Adepoju, Millington and Tansey, 2006;Okude and Ademiluyi, 2006;Olaleye and Abiodun, 2009;Nwokoro and Dekolo, 2011;Nkwunonwo, 2013;Ukor, Ogbole and Alaga, 2016). Some of the studies attempted to use multi-source data in their classifications; Landsat and SPOT (Adepoju et al., 2006;Okude & Ademiluyi, 2006), Topo-maps and Quick bird images (Olaleye & Abiodun, 2009). ...
... Taiwo (Adepoju, Millington and Tansey, 2006;Okude and Ademiluyi, 2006;Olaleye and Abiodun, 2009;Nwokoro and Dekolo, 2011;Nkwunonwo, 2013;Ukor, Ogbole and Alaga, 2016). Some of the studies attempted to use multi-source data in their classifications; Landsat and SPOT (Adepoju et al., 2006;Okude & Ademiluyi, 2006), Topo-maps and Quick bird images (Olaleye & Abiodun, 2009). Also, most of the studies only focused on the metropolitan part of the study area (Adepoju et al., 2006;Nkwunonwo, 2013;Nwokoro & Dekolo, 2011;Olaleye & Abiodun, 2009;Ukor et al., 2016). ...
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In the wake of the burgeoning population, socioeconomic and environmental issues facing coastal areas, LULC change detection has become an essential tool for environmental monitoring towards achieving sustainable development. In this study, an object-based image analysis approach using post-classification comparison technique was applied for assessing the LULC of the coastal city of Lagos from 1986 to 2016. The study describes how satellite imagery from different sources (Landsat and SENTINEL 2A) can be successfully integrated for Land use Land cover change detection. The results show that between 1986 and 2016, there were net increases in bare areas, built-up areas, and shrublands and a general decline in forestlands, waterbodies and wetlands. Over 60,000ha cover (approx. 190% increase) was converted into built-up areas while 83,541ha (835.4km 2) of forestland were lost, suggesting high rates of urbanization and corresponding deforestation. About 60% loss of wetlands was also observed in the same time period. The decrease in water bodies and a steady increase in bare and built-up areas are possibly due to the prevalent land reclamation activities in the study area. Higher rates of deforestation and increase in bare areas were observed from 2001 to 2016 in comparison to 1986 to 2001. The observed trends are likely to continue, and for future management actions, predictive studies are suggested to provide more empirical evidence.
... Presently, it stands as the 14th largest urban area in the world and is on the cusp of becoming a primary coastal megalopolis. Lagos urban area is home to approximately 33% of the Lagos State population [20]. ...
... From 2006-2008, the annual projected growth rate stood at 4.44%, which had a ranking of the 7th fastest growing urban area in the world [20]. The grown spatially from a traditional core settlement of about 3.85 sq km in 1881 to a metropolis of over 1,183 sq km. ...
... Conversion from rural to urban area accounts for approximately 75% of the population growth of Lagos' metropolitan area [15]. Between 1986 and 2002 the developed area in Lagos Coastal Area increased by 13% (from 43% in 1986 to 56% in 2002), while swampland decreased by 11% and water area decreased by 3% [20]. ...
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An explosion in population, economic development in coastal cities worldwide lead to severe issues and challenges. One reason is that physical planning faces diverse social, economic and political challenges which hinder an organized and planned urban development, therefore leading to issues. This paper examines land use pattern in the coastal area of Lagos state: issues and challenges using both primary and secondary data. The result of the remote sensing analysis of google earth exposed that urban development was stronger in the study area (3.6% increase between 2011, 4.7% increase between 2017, and 12.5% between 2020). Also, the study showed that land-use planning flops due to the lack of implementation of legal regulations, laws, population surge. The study recommends the development of strategies that discourage the disturbance of swamp habitat and funding of more research on the implication of land use, health and life expectancy, and wetlands.
... As part of this trend, the coastal zones are known to be home to nearly 75% of the global population (Asangwe, 2006). Lagos city has grown from a settlement of about 3.85 km 2 in 1881 to a huge metropolis of over 1,183 km 2 in 2004 (Okude & Ademiluyi, 2006). In consequence, the population which was negligible in those years had risen from about 5.7 million in 1991 to about 9.1 million in 2006 (National Population Commission, 2006) with average population density of 20,000 persons/km 2 (Presidential Committee on the Redevelopment of Lagos mega-city Region, 2006). ...
... The depletion of wetland and their dependent species not only translate into biodiversity loss into loss of carbon sink substrate nutrient recycle and other ecological services. An economic implication of the loss of mangrove is the loss of tidal breeding ground for several fish species (Okude and Ademiluyi, 2006); these impacts on the food webs through the loss of sources of fish protein in addition to disruption in livelihood of fishermen. The rapid rate of loss of wetland and the attendance necessitate urgent action to conserve the few remaining ones along the vision sustained in the area by Lekki Conservation Center/Nigeria Conservation Foundation (NCF). ...
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This study tries to examine the effect of urbanization on wetland and biodiversity in the mangrove forest of Lagos state, Nigeria. Two scenes of Landsat TM (Thematic Mapper) of 18 th December, 1984 and ETM + (Enhanced Thematic Mapper) of December 2006 were processed to extract the wetlands, mangroves and water bodies across the area of study. ENVI software was used along with parallelepiped supervised classification in processing the Land-sat images. Results showed that the mangrove wetlands and swamps decreased annually both between 1990 and 2000. It was further seen that the highest decline in the Mangrove was recorded in Epe LGA while that of swamps shows that the highest decline in swamp wetland occurred in Epe and Ibeju-Lekki council area of Lagos State. Results further show that mangroves which were widespread in seven council areas around these lagoons in 1990, have dwindled to only four councils in 2000. In conclusion therefore, the relevance of spatial plans employing image processing analysis and geo-information in revealing wetland loss within the study area was necessary. Relevant recommendation was also made in this study.
... This reduction could be attributed to an increase in human activities (which of course includes oil theft and its attendant oil spill) in the study area. This was agrees with Okude andAdemiluyi (2006), andOmodanisi (2013). ...
... This reduction could be attributed to an increase in human activities (which of course includes oil theft and its attendant oil spill) in the study area. This was agrees with Okude andAdemiluyi (2006), andOmodanisi (2013). ...
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Oil spill negatively impacts man and his environment, thereby affecting human lives, animals and plants. The occurrence of it has increased in Nigeria specifically, Lagos State, bringing grave environmental and economic effects. Thus, this paper assessed the impact and vulnerability of oil spill posed in the study area and the possibility of a management strategy, from satellite imageries (Landsat ETM+7 (2011) and Landsat ETM+8 (2014 and 2015)) to water and soil surveys using Geospatial techniques. The result showed in total, that there was a rise in built-up areas of the land cover classification of about 58.9 % and a decline of 29.1 % in vegetation for 2011, 2014 and 2015. Heavy metal such as Iron (Fe), Lead (Pb), Zinc (Zn) and Phosphate (PO4) tested in water and soil were apparent, with phosphate (PO4) having the highest concentration of 289.370 mg/l in water and 3.750 mg/ in soil. This paper concludes that oil spill affected the study area and thus there is a need for an effective and efficient response management system in Nigeria.
... As part of this trend, the coastal zones are known to be home to nearly 75% of the global population (Asangwe, 2006). Lagos city has grown from a settlement of about 3.85 km 2 in 1881 to a huge metropolis of over 1,183 km 2 in 2004 (Okude & Ademiluyi, 2006). In consequence, the population which was negligible in those years had risen from about 5.7 million in 1991 to about 9.1 million in 2006 (National Population Commission, 2006) with average population density of 20,000 persons/km 2 (Presidential Committee on the Redevelopment of Lagos mega-city Region, 2006). ...
... The depletion of wetland and their dependent species not only translate into biodiversity loss into loss of carbon sink substrate nutrient recycle and other ecological services. An economic implication of the loss of mangrove is the loss of tidal breeding ground for several fish species (Okude and Ademiluyi, 2006); these impacts on the food webs through the loss of sources of fish protein in addition to disruption in livelihood of fishermen. The rapid rate of loss of wetland and the attendance necessitate urgent action to conserve the few remaining ones along the vision sustained in the area by Lekki Conservation Center/Nigeria Conservation Foundation (NCF). ...
Article
Full-text available
This study tries to examine the effect of urbanization on wetland and biodiversity in the mangrove forest of Lagos state, Nigeria. Two scenes of Landsat TM (Thematic Mapper) of 18 th December, 1984 and ETM + (Enhanced Thematic Mapper) of December 2006 were processed to extract the wetlands, mangroves and water bodies across the area of study. ENVI software was used along with parallelepiped supervised classification in processing the Land-sat images. Results showed that the mangrove wetlands and swamps decreased annually both between 1990 and 2000. It was further seen that the highest decline in the Mangrove was recorded in Epe LGA while that of swamps shows that the highest decline in swamp wetland occurred in Epe and Ibeju-Lekki council area of Lagos State. Results further show that mangroves which were widespread in seven council areas around these lagoons in 1990, have dwindled to only four councils in 2000. In conclusion therefore, the relevance of spatial plans employing image processing analysis and geo-information in revealing wetland loss within the study area was necessary. Relevant recommendation was also made in this study.
... As illustrated in Table 3 The economic implication of wetland loss may be unquantifiable due to several tangible and intangible products and services which may never be accounted for. Okude and Ademiluyi (2006) corroborated that economic implication of loss of mangroves may include loss of tidal breeding grounds for several fishes which might impact the food web in addition to loss of fish protein. ...
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Wetlands are intrinsic ecosystems however, uncontrolled human interference could adversely affect their species composition and diversity while altering important ecological processes. This study investigated the spatio-temporal changes in land-use and their consequent impacts in a section of the Lower Ogun River Basin Wetlands. The study area was divided into 1 km 2 grids of 67 units using 0.052 % sampling intensity for the assessments. Change detection analysis was carried out on Landsat images of three different years (i.e. 1984, 2000 and 2015) to analyze the pattern and trend of change in the study area while direct field assessments were carried out for anthropogenic impacts. Factors responsible for landuse change dynamics and their possible impacts were investigated directly on the field with explanatory variables obtained through open discussion with focused group (Farmers, Hunters and Household heads) within eight communities. Results showed that several streams flow from upper Ogun area (189.59-614.05 m) into the study area (0-99.37 m) which caused overbank flow and contributed to the structure of the floodplain. There were reductions of 5.4 % (3.67 Km 2) and 0.30 % (0.01 Km 2) in natural vegetation and water body with 4.8 % (3.26 Km 2) and 34.25 % (0.42 Km 2) increase in bareground and settlement respectively from 1984-2015. Farming, sand mining, bush burning and logging were the causes of wetland degradation. Therefore, conservation efforts should include local community participation, regular monitoring and incorporating wetland impact assessment into developmental activities within the area to abate degradation.
... Spatially, Lagos City grew from a traditional core settlement of about 3.85 km 2 in 1881to 46.6 km 2 in 1911 (Okude & Ademiluyi, 2006). The city covered 52.3 km 2 in 1921, 66.3 km 2 in 1931, and 69.9 km 2 in 1952 (Abiodun, 1997). ...
Article
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Urban development in flood-prone areas has created many environmental challenges in many cities in Nigeria. This survey-based study examined the drivers and spatial extent of development in floodplains in metropolitan Lagos. A total of 1,031 (7.2%) buildings out of 14,273 were systematically selected along 211 streets out of 1,403 prone to flood, and a structured questionnaire was administered to heads of households to determine the factors influencing development in floodplains. A Thematic Mapper of 1990, Enhanced Thematic Mapper of 2000 and the Google Earth Landsat of 2014 were also analysed in ILWIS 3.3 Academic and Arc-GIs 10.2 to determine the extent of development in floodplains. The study revealed, in order of significance, closeness to place of work, nearness to market, closeness to children’s schools, low rent, low income, and family affinity as factors that influenced the development in floodplains in the Lagos metropolis. Ineffective control of development and inadequate compliance with planning and building regulations were additional factors. Urban development in flood-prone areas in Lagos increased from 9.3 km2 in 1990 to 10.50 km2 in 2000 and 17.80 km2 in 2014. The study recommends that floodplains should be acquired and effectively protected to prevent any form of physical development; they should serve as natural sink for storm water and urban green for passive recreation. Urban development regulations should be strictly enforced by the relevant government agencies, such as the Lagos State Building Control Agency in the Ministry of Physical Planning and Urban Development.
... Available records (Yaro, 2013;IPCC, 2014) show that the single largest threat to achieving sustainable food production in Sub-Saharan Africa is the threat from climate variability. This is because, as noted by Okunade and Ademiluyi (2009), climate-related risks are the major causes of human suffering, poverty, and reduced opportunity, which lead to large-scale human development reversals. Manifestations of climate variability such as incidents of extreme weather events have left no continent untouched (IPCC, 2014). ...
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The past two decades have seen invigorated debates on the causal link between climate variability and food crop production. This study 7 extends the debate further by investigating how climate variability has affected the production of four specific food crops: maize, millet, rice, and groundnuts in northeastern Ghana. The results are based on temperature and rainfall data obtained from the Ghana Meteorological Agency and the Ministry of Food and Agriculture and are supported with in-depth interviews with selected staff from other allied institutions. While an inverse relationship between climate variability and food crop production was established, the effects were not homogenous, as climate variables (rainfall and temperature) did not all exert the same effect across all crops. This suggests that the generalized interpretation of the relationship between climate variability and food crop production should be undertaken with caution and that each variable must be examined on its own merit. We argue that the negative relationship between climate variability and food crop production has the potential to erode the gains made by the state-sponsored development authority SADA in their poverty reduction drive in northeastern Ghana.
... The metropolis is bounded in the north and northeast by Ogun State and Ikorodu Local Government Area, respectively; in the east by Epe and Ibeju-Lekki LGAs; in the west by Badagry LGA; and in the south by the Atlantic Ocean/Gulf of Guinea ( Figure 1). It grew spatially from a traditional core settlement of about 3.85 km 2 in 1881 (Okude and Ademiluyi, 2006) to 46.6 km, 2 in 1911; 52.3 km 2 in 1921; 66.3 km, 2 in 1931; 69.9 km, 2 in 1952; 69.9 km 2 , in 1963; 85.44 km, 2 in 1986; 96.53 km 2 , in 1990 (Abiodun, 1997); and 950.72 km 2 , in 2006 (NPC, 2010;Lagos State Government, 2014). ...
Article
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Municipal solid waste (MSW) has contributed significantly to flooding in the Lagos metropolis. This study examined the volume of MSW generated using per capita waste generation, projected population, quantity of MSW collected and deposited at six landfills sites from 2007 to 2013. One thousand and twenty-five copies of a structured questionnaire were administered to obtain data. The points where MSW blocked drainage channels in the metropolis were mapped. Multiple regression was used to establish the association between flooding and MSW at p<0.05. A total of 77,757,749.8 tons of MSW was generated, while 27.7% of it was collected and deposited at six landfill sites from 2007 to 2013. 11% of the municipal solid waste was collected by the Lagos State Waste Management Authority, 9.9% by private sector service providers, 29.2% by cart pushers and 49.7% dumped in canals/lagoons. Weekly collection of MSW was 58.5%. The sampled buildings were flooded at an average of nine times. Two hundred and twenty-two points where MSW blocked drainage channels were identified. The 2 municipal solid waste indicators were statistically significant at F2, 1022 = 1034.2, R = 0.669. The study recommends measures to enhance the strengths and address the weaknesses of the current approaches towards the attainment of global best practices in the management of MSW and flooding in the Lagos metropolis. Key words: Flood, municipal solid waste, generation, collection, drainage channe
... On the western side, the state is bordered by the Republic of Benin ( Figure 1). (Okude and Ademiluyi, 2006) to a metropolis of over 3,577.28 km 2 in 2010 (Lagos State Government, 2014). ...
Article
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Many research works emphasized on rainfall pattern and urban flooding while others examined the relationship between extreme rainfall and its implication for flood frequency with little attempt to establish relationship between extreme rainfall and maximum river discharge. This study therefore, draws interconnection between extreme daily rainfall and maximum daily river discharge within Lagos metropolis. Data on rainfall were collected from Ikeja and Lagos Roof weather stations within the Yewa Basin in Lagos. Also, data on river discharge for Yewa River were obtained from Ogun-Oshun River Basin Development Authority, Abeokuta. Pearson Product Moment Correlation Coefficient (PPMC) was employed to assess the relationship between extreme daily rainfall and maximum daily river discharge at 95% confidence level. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) employed was used to test for the variability in the means of extreme daily rainfall events across the two weather stations. The result showed that there is a significant relationship between extreme daily rainfall events and maximum daily river discharge for Ikeja station (tvalue = 2.60, Cv= 2.18, P≤0.05) while no significant relationship was shown in Lagos Roof (tvalue = 1.60, Cv= 2.18, P≥0.05). It was also revealed that that there are no significant differences in the mean values of extreme daily rainfall across the stations (F130=2.086, P≥0.05).Therefore, this work has been able to show that the relationship between extreme rainfall and maximum river discharge is not always significant due to several factors such as distance from the sea (continentally) and variation in rainfall across the weather stations.
... The metropolis is bounded in the north and north-east by Ogun State and Ikorodu LGA, respectively; in the east by Epe and Ibeju-Lekki LGAs; in the west by Badagry LGA, and in the south by the Atlantic Ocean/Gulf of Guinea ( Figure 1). It grew spatially from a traditional core settlement of about 3.85 km 2 in 1881 (Okude andAdemiluyi 2006) to 46.6 km 2 , in 1911;52.3 km 2 , in 1921;66.3 ...
Article
Frequent floods have led to loss of lives and destruction of property in both coastal and landlocked cities across the globe, particularly where floodplains have been developed without recourse to space standards. This paper investigated the contributions of contravention of building codes to flooding in flood-prone areas in the Lagos metropolis. Global Positioning Systems (GPSs) were used to determine the location and elevation above sea level of 1,025 buildings situated in 211 streets that were prone to flooding. The distance of buildings from drainage channels/the lagoon was determined in ArcGIS 10.2 environment. Findings revealed that building code contravention contributed significantly to flooding (r = 0.926). About 63.5% and 63.3% of sampled buildings contravened building-plot ratio and statutory setbacks from drainage channels/the lagoon, respectively. Proactive urban planning, strict enforcement of building codes and development control regulations are required to reduce flooding and its consequences in cities of developing nations where flooding has become an annual occurrence.
... Climate change is often used to describe any kind of change in climate that may be natural or human-induced (Pradhan, 2002). Climate-related risks are the major causes of human sufferings, poverty and reduced opportunity, which will lead to large scale human development reversal (Okunade and Ademiluyi, 2009). Frequent incidents of extreme weather events have left no continent untouched. ...
Article
Climate change is a phenomenon that is currently in dire need of a wide range of publicity and other measures in order to adapt and mitigate its effect on the society. This study examined the level of climate change awareness among the poor resource farmers in some selected local government areas of Oyo state. A structured questionnaire titled "Climate Change Awareness Questionnaire (CCAQ)" was administered on a sample of 240 households. Data collected were analyzed using descriptive statistical tools such as frequency counts and percentage as well as cross table analysis. Findings indicated that the level of climate change awareness was generally low among the resource poor farmers. Agricultural extentionist can play an important role in educating the farmers about climate change, mitigation and adaptation.
... Developed land comprising residential, industrial, commercial, transportation and other use increased from 85.4 km 2 (43.36%) to 111.9 km 2 (56.8%) of the total land area of Lagos between 1986 and 2002 (Okude and Ademiluyi, 2006). Significant loss (38-100%) in wetlands as a result of urban development in coastal parts of the city was also recorded during the period 1986-2006 (Taiwo, 2009). ...
... From previous studies, the original soil classes of most metropolitan urban farm areas and their immediate environment have changed (Adeniyi, 1986;Okude and Ademiluyi, 2006;Taiwo, 2011). The changes may have resulted from urbanization and physical development which have considerably affected the soil nature through uncoordinated overland flow and soil erosions (Areola and Ofomata, 1978;Oduwaye, 2009;Akinmoladun and Adejumo, 2011). ...
Article
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Soil texture is one of the important factors for determining crop yields and information about agricultural viability in any geographical location. For instance, soil fertilization, soil treatment and irrigation designs as well as power requirements for farm machinery require detailed information on soil texture. This paper thus examines soil textural classes in selected urban farming areas of metropolitan Lagos, namely Tejuoso, Alapere, Festac, Barracks, Oko-Oba and Idi-Araba farm communities. It further relates the textural classifications to the cultivation and production of vegetables. Soil samples for textural analysis were collected from 6 selected locations and in each location, 5 samples at 0-15 and 15-30 cm depths were taken using composite sampling techniques. Determinations of textural classes were done in the laboratory using the mechanical analysis method with the aid of hydrometer to calculate the percentage of sand, silt, and clay in the sampled soils. The production of soil texture map was done through remotely sensed data processing. Acquired soil base map was scanned, Geo-referenced and digitized to extract the soil type layers. Updating and superimposing of attribute information of textural classification were done through interactive techniques using Microsoft excel 2007 and Arc Info version 9.2. The finding shows that the soil textural fractions (% sand, % silt, and % clay) were spatially observed, nevertheless, only one-quarter of textural classes are represented in the selected area. The regression model (R 2) result generated denote P > 0.391, P > 0.100 and P > 0.529 for % sand, % clay and % silt respectively.The application of animal feed manure was noted to have contributed to high silts contents in agricultural land of urban Lagos especially around Tejuosho and Alapere areas. Litter decomposition and soil water pressure also accounted for the variability but the effect was not consistent across different soils (P < 0.06). The output of the interactive techniques also reveals that there is similarity between laboratory result and the soil map used as baseline information. Interview however reveals that farmers lack knowledge of soil map and textural classes. The study therefore recommends that for soil fertility sustainability in the urban areas of Lagos, farmers need to be enlightened on soil map, textural classes and manure application through effective education awareness.
... From antiquity, the LU/LC themes of the Lagos metropolis has been predominantly water bodies and vegetation, with few residential areas, but since the last two decades, urban areas have spawned, resulting to insufficient space for much of the human population and their concomitant activities. Previous studies have shown that between 1984 and 2006, urban areas have grown steadily in Lagos state and have occupied much of the total land areas [34][35]. ...
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Recent explosions in demography and urbanization have prompted concerns for investigating the various dimensions of human environment. Of particular interest are the land use/land cover (LU/LC) themes, which have been undergoing severe modifications, due to the range of human activities. The problem with such changes, if not checked, is that the land surfaces will become vulnerable to environmental threats of all kinds, and human populations will be at the receiving end of incidental difficulties. This paper presents the result of LU/LC investigation and mapping of the metropolitan areas of Lagos, Nigeria, using 2012 SLC-off Landsat ETM+ images. While unsupervised maximum likelihood classifier (MLC) was adopted for the investigation, the gaps in the SLC-off images were filled by means of a simple heuristic approach that applies the inverse distance weighting (IDW) interpolation algorithm, available in QGIS software. The result obtained tends to show that more than half of the land areas of the Lagos metropolis have been urbanized, and this change is occurring at an alarming proportion. This rapid urban explosion can be attributed to the influx of large numbers of the human populations, who have migrated from different parts of Nigeria, and the establishment of more housing units to accommodate them. The evidence of such urban growth is often perceived in the reclamation of land from water body, and the despoliation of vegetative networks, which help maintain the balance of the ecosystem. Ultimately, such adjustments compound the impacts of climate change and intensify the frequency and severity of environmental disasters, such as flooding and drought, on human populations.
... As part of this trend, the coastal zones are known to be home to nearly 75% of the global population (Asangwe, 2006). Lagos city has grown from a settlement of about 3.85km 2 in 1881 to a huge metropolis of over 1,183km 2 in 2004 (Okude & Ademiluyi, 2006). In consequence, the population which was negligible in those years had risen from about 5.7million in 1991 to about 9.1million in 2006 (National Population Commission, 2006) with average population density of 20,000 persons/km 2 (Presidential Committee on the Redevelopment of Lagos mega-city Region, 2006). ...
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Lagos metropolis, the current economic capital of Nigeria is a low-lying coastal city endowed with a number of lagoons and wetland ecological assets. Lagos/Lekki Lagoons being the largest with a combined size of 646km2 are fringed on many sides by wetlands. Many of these wetlands have undergone severe spatial changes from rapid urbanization in the past three decades. The precise nature of these changes is largely unknown and unreported. As the area is experiencing intense development pressure, this study therefore examined the spatial changes in the wetlands fringing these lagoons using the integrated approach of remote sensing data and GIS with topographic maps providing baseline data. The objective is to quantify and establish the precise location and magnitude of these changes over the years from 1984 to 2006. Two types of wetlands are prevalent in the Lagos area namely: the swamps and mangroves. ENVI software was used along with parallelepiped supervised classification in processing the Landsat images. Results show that the mangrove wetlands decreased from 88.51km2 to 19.95km2 at -3.12km2 annually while swamps decreased from 344.75km2 to 165.37km2 at - 8.15km2 annually both between 1984 and 2006. Results further show that mangroves which were widespread in seven council areas around these lagoons in 1984, have dwindled to only four councils in 2006. These decreases are attributable to urban development pressures. Some of the implications of these losses and conservation issues are briefly highlighted.
... LULC changes may have negative impacts on environment, water resources, land and vegetation if appropriate measures are not taken in time (Sunday and Ajewole, 2006).The lack of proper rehabilitation of the LS exploitation sites causes serious environmental degradation and spread of diseases (Kaliampakos et al., 1998). This necessitates temporal monitoring of changes occurring in the land use and land cover of an area. ...
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The aim of the study is to assess the limestone (LS) exploitation area and its negative impacts on natural resources using geo-spatial techniques. LS is an important constituent of cement manufacturing which is extensively used in the construction of infrastructure such as roads and buildings. The Margalla Hills National Park (MHNP) is situated around Islamabad and contains a large amount of LS reserves. However, the exploitation of LS from the MHNP is causing harmful environmental impacts on the surrounding areas. Geographic Information System (GIS) and Remote Sensing (RS) have been proved as powerful tools for LS exploitation assessment. Four Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM)/Enhanced Thematic Mapper (ETM+) satellite images have been acquired over a span of 17 years (1992-2009). The temporal changes in the study area were detected by performing the digital image processing techniques of image enhancement and supervised classification. The classification accuracy has been verified with high resolution Google Earth images and by using error matrix. Advanced Space borne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) Global Digital Elevation (GDEM) has been used for topographic information extraction. It was observed that LS exploitation area increased from 0.35% to 5.72% from 1992-2009, whereas, the vegetation was decreased from 23.46% to 12.12%. Urban development also increased rapidly. The results showed that LS exploitation is deteriorating the ecosystem, biodiversity, landscape and vegetation of the MHNP which was established in 1980 to protect, conserve and manage the biodiversity and ecosystem in this region. We conclude that the LS exploitation in the MHNP should be managed properly to secure the water, soil, air quality in the federal capital. Initiatives should be taken for the rehabilitation of the LS exploited areas and then, to suggest alternative LS exploitation sites in the near periphery of study area with EIA restrictions.
... Studies have argued that as mangroves and coastal wetlands provide protection for coastal areas (UNEP, 2002), their depletion and replacement with impervious surfaces would increase flooding and disrupt associated marine processes, food web, and biodiversity among others. Perhaps the perennial severe flooding in the Lagos coastal area (Okude and Ademiluyi, 2006b) may have been exacerbated by the land cover changes and large scale conversion of mangroves and wetlands observed here and in similar studies. ...
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Urban sprawl is one of the severe land use/land cover (LULC) change agents, especially in rapidly urbanizing developing countries such as Nigeria. Land use/land cover is among the key drivers of environmental change as it leads to dramatic changes in both landscape patterns and ecosystem functions. Lagos metropolis, the nation's economic nerve center, is on a low-lying coastal landscape endowed with lagoons, wetlands, and other ecological assets. The Lagos/Lekki Lagoon system, with its catchments and wetlands, constitute about 71% of the state. With rapid urbanization and intense development pressure, some of the fringing wetlands and other land cover in the area have been converted to urban landscape. Just like the wetlands, the precise nature of these land cover changes is comprehensively unknown. In this ongoing study, land cover dynamics linked to the spatial changes in the wetlands fringing these lagoons are also comprehensively assessed. With low topography, high energy, and erosive coastlines, the extent of coastal erosion (1985–2009) in the area is assessed with remote sensing data and geographic information system (GIS) using topographic maps as baseline data. ENVI software is deployed for the processing of Landsat imageries, and unsupervised classification is used for image classification. The objective is to establish the locations and magnitude of the land cover dynamics between 1984 and 2006, ultimately leading to implications for flood risk on affected areas. Results show that as swamps decreased from 344.75 km 2 to 165.37 km 2 and mangroves decreased from 88.51 km 2 to 19.95 km 2 , both between 1984 and 2006, built-up areas increased from 48.97 km 2 to 282.78 km 2 at 10.61 km 2 /y; water body decreased from 685.58 km 2 to 654.98 km 2 at −0.16 km 2 /y; bare land increased from 24.32 km 2 to 72.73 km 2 at 2.2 km 2 /y; and vegetation decreased marginally from 1369.15 km 2 to 1361.08 km 2 at −0.37 km 2 /y all between 1984 and 2006. Evidently most of the growth in built-up areas occurred in previous wetland areas and some vegetated areas. Most of the increase in built-up area occurred in the Eti-osa Local Government Area (LGA) and then in the Kosofe LGA. The decrease in the water body is attributable to anthropogenic action of reclamation and accretion arising from island formation on the Lekki Lagoon. Some of the consequences of the land cover (LC) dynamics are briefly highlighted.
... The recent 26 December 2004 Asian tsunami that hit the south Indian coast has raised an alarm for demarking the coastal hazard line in the southeast coast of India. Moreover, mapping of coastal hazard map depends on a number of factors such as sea level rise, mean wave height, tidal oscillation, changes in long shore currents, sediment transport, wind direction, rainfall, flooding, changes in vegetation cover, geomorphology (Olorunfemi 1983;Chert and Rau 1998;Okude and Ademiluyi 2006;Vethamony et al. 2000;Neukermans et al. 2008). All the major natural hazards that cause havoc suggest the need to study, comprehend, classify and predict the vulnerability of the coast under given set of conditions. ...
Article
A study on the possible inundation limit in SE coast of India was carried out using various physical, geological and satellite imageries. The coastal inundation hazard map was prepared for this particular region as it was affected by many cyclones, flooding, storm surge and tsunami waves during the last six decades. The results were generated using various satellite data (IRS-P6 LISS3; LANDSAT ETM; LANDSAT-5 ETM; LANDSAT MSS) and digital elevation models (ASTER GLOBAL DEM), and a coastal vulnerability index was generated for the entire coastal stretch of Nagapattinam region in SE coast of India. The coastal area which will be submerged totally due to a 1–5 m rise in water level due to any major natural disaster (tsunami or cyclone) indicates that 56–320 km2 will be submerged in this particular region. The results suggest that nearly 7 towns and 69 villages with 667,477 people will be affected and indicate that proper planning needs to be done for future development.
... According to (Okude and Ademiluyi, 2006), the changing pattern of land cover may be explained by a number of factors, which include urbanization, industrialization, economic, hous- ing development, increasing value of real properties, increasing interest in real properties investment as a result of the uncer- tainties associated with stocks and saving in the country, devaluation of the Nigerian currency and inconsistencies in economic and fiscal policies afflicting other forms of invest- ment (Brand, 2001). In several regions of Madagascar, the an- nual rate of deforestation is estimated at 0.5% for the area of subsistence based on the system agriculture with the use of the fire and 2.0% for those accessible by good roads; thus the im- pact of the road infrastructure. ...
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This study is the result of investigating the land use/cover surrounding Conakry city and its two neighboring cities from the past to the present periods which are herein after referred to as this “region” and the impact of numerous changes during that time. These changes have become a major concern for the Guinean government and scientific community. Using map interpretation with integration of remote sensing, GIS technology and a GIS method we investigated the land use/cover and a population dynamism model with the aims of promoting a sustainable recovery and future judicious utilization. We found out that these three cities are on the verge of being unified, as a result of the expansion of urban residential areas and the changing economic realities causing significant influences on this land use/cover change. The pattern of land cover 59 years ago presented a landscape relatively pristine, while that in the present period presents a landscape that is markedly in a degrading decline. During the past 59 years, land use/cover has been influenced by key factors that revolve around socio-economic development, climatic patterns, topography manipulation, and policy implementation influences. The level of degradation of the land use/cover has increased and will oblige the political, scientific and local communities to take note of the environmental changes and set up urgent, rigorous and coherent policies for the rational development and management of the land use/cover resources of this region. That can be part of a model for other countries to reclaim the past sustainable environment.
... This implies that development of cities is increasingly challenged by globalization processes. In other words, achievement of knowledgebased and technology driven economy, sociodemographical changes, increasing mobility of factors of production have resulted to an accumulation of social and environmental problems (Okude et al., 2006;Mberu, 2005;Odufuwa, 2006. Pointing to the need for cities to be competitive, scholars over the years emphasized that, urban competition have become the leading principle that determines the future of urban system in developed and developing cities like Lagos (Brochie et al., 1995;Kresl, 1995;Berg et al., 2004). ...
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How can productive cities be created in the face of economic, social, political and environmental mishaps in planning, management and development process? How can cities become more enjoyable, functional and innovative using city management and development theories? Theoretically the paper examines the importance of cities and impact of urbanization and globalization towards competitiveness of cities. The paper argues that; despite the huge benefits accrued to cities via globalization, most developing cities are suffering from intolerably high levels of poor infrastructure and governance. The interlinks between an array of theories and city development and management forms the focus of the paper. The paper makes its contribution by: examining and discussing the theoretical undertones for sustainable cities and concluded with a set of recommendations on what needs to be done to achieve sustainable city development and management.
... Land cover change is an inevitable outcome of man-environment interactions (Okude and Ademiluyi, 2006). Therefore, gathered information about human land use and environmental land cover (LULC) changes are fundamental to a better understanding of the relationships and interactions between humans and the natural environment (Fichera, Modica and Pollino, 2012). ...
Article
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The philosophy behind a successful remote sensing data analysis and interpretation is examined with respect to human land use and environmental land cover (LULC) change detection. Alluding to the fact that LULC is an inevitable outcome of man-environment interactions, this paper appraises the importance of carrying out a research design useful for Geographic studies. The paper reiterated that Change Detection, Pattern Recognition, Spectral Classification and Textural Analysis are different forms of classification that are focused on three (3) main objectives. These objectives include detection of different kinds of features in an image, discrimination of distinctive shapes and spatial patterns, and identification of temporal changes in the satellite image. For implementation, the paper presents a cursory interpretation of satellite image data requirements in multi-date change detection by examining the various steps and analysis required to arrive at a valid conclusion for decision-making. Descriptive, Correlational, Semi-experimental, Experimental, Review and Meta-analytic (Meta-analysis) research design types were specifically highlighted. The only applicable research designs that suits land use cover (LULC) change detection include the ‘before and after study’ and ‘retrospective’. Using the Unified Markup Language (UML) diagram, we modeled and emphasized the relevance of a workflow in a study which could be presented in sections as an introduction (or background to the study), literature review, methodology, results and discussion of findings, and conclusion. PCA, raster composition, training site selection, image classification, error matrix analysis, post classification – image differencing and cross tabulation analysis and cartographic visualization of the result are discussed.
... However, it is also the most urbanized of the country's 36 states with only 5% on its population living in rural areas [20]. The population in the city of Lagos grows at an annual rate of 5.5 % and is accounted for by rural-urban migration mostly [19,32]. The implication of the rapid population growth in Lagos was unprecedented pressure on natural resources especially land and water, leading to large-scale physical transformations of the natural landscape. ...
Article
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The goal of this study was twofold; first analyze the patterns of water consumption in Lagos, Nigeria and use them in a System Dynamics (SD) model to make projections about future demand. The second part used remote sensing to quantify the contribution of extensive land use/cover change to urban flooding. Land use/cover dynamics over the past decade was analyzed using satellite imagery provided by Landsat Thematic Mapping (TM). Unsupervised classification was performed with false color composite using the Iterative Self-Organizing Data Analysis (ISODATA) technique in a Geographic Information Systems (GIS). The study area was divided into four different land use types during image classification: bare land, built-up area, water bodies, and vegetation. For water demand, two different scenarios of population growth including 5.5% and 2.75 % annual increase were considered. The results showed that water demand dropped by 67% of its current value when losses in distribution were reduced by 20% and population annual growth rate kept at 2.75% over the study period. Bare land and water bodies lost 1.31% and 1.61% of their current area respectively while built-up area grew by 1.11%. These changes in land use/cover changes led to a 64% increase in average surface runoff, mostly attributable to increasing surface imperviousness and the absence of an adequate urban drainage system.
... Nigeria, together with China and India are expected to account for almost 40% of this growth. Lagos city has seen significant growth since 1881 when the settlement was almost 4km 2 in size [2] to its current status as a megacity covering an area of over 1,100km 2 [3]. ...
Conference Paper
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The occurrence of natural disasters is of growing concern globally due to increasing disruption, damage and loss of life. The rising flood frequency in Lagos, Nigeria, emphasises the need for improved flood prevention and management measures. This study evaluates the impacts of flooding on the residents of Lagos, Nigeria by focusing on five areas: Lekki, Victoria Island, Ikeja, Surulere and Ikorodu. Each area represents a different income level and population density. Flood managers in Lagos were also interviewed to understand the flood management and prevention situation from the government’s perspective, together with the barriers and drivers to effective flood management. Data collected from residents indicate that heavy rainfall, blocked and/or failure of drainage systems, and lack of land use planning were considered the most frequent contributors to the flooding problem. A high proportion of residents live in flood prone areas, having been unaware of the initial flood problem, or selecting the area due to proximity to work or affordability. Government initiated flood awareness campaigns aimed to inform residents. However, some residents continue to live in homes at risk from flooding due to sentimental values, whilst others simply cannot afford to move houses. Results revealed some of the impacts of flooding include displacement, damage to property, disruption to movement and health issues. The study recommends that residents need to be more aware of proper waste disposal. The government also needs to implement controls on development on flood plain, ensure better and regular waste collection methods, proper maintenance of drainage systems and better flood defences are in place. Also, offering incentives should be in place for residents willing to move to minimise impacts of flooding.
... The recent 26 December 2004 Asian tsunami that hit the south Indian coast has raised an alarm for demarking the coastal hazard line in the southeast coast of India. Moreover, mapping of coastal hazard map depends on a number of factors such as sea level rise, mean wave height, tidal oscillation, changes in long shore currents, sediment transport, wind direction, rainfall, flooding, changes in vegetation cover, geomorphology (Olorunfemi 1983;Chert and Rau 1998;Okude and Ademiluyi 2006;Vethamony et al. 2000;Neukermans et al. 2008). All the major natural hazards that cause havoc suggest the need to study, comprehend, classify and predict the vulnerability of the coast under given set of conditions. ...
... GIS techniques allow users to create interactive queries, analysis of spatial information, data editing, representation of maps and results of these operations (Schroder, 2010). In addition, it is a very useful tool in mapping, monitoring coastal resources and assessing changes in coastal environmental caused by human activities and interference of humans (Hadjimitsis et al., 2005;Sunday and Ajewole, 2006). GIS have been used in combination with remote sensing to analyse land use and land cover changes (Sreenivasulu and Bhaskar, 2010;Areendran et al., 2013). ...
Technical Report
This study presents the current distribution pattern of Asiatic lions in Gir PA along with the distribution pattern of its prey species, the vegetation features and distribution of water points. The study also shows changes in vegetation cover/density on decadal base since 1976 (covering almost 50 years). In the study satellite images from different years were analyzed. Sample plots were surveyed in Gir PA for ground truthing. Along with vegetation data, extent of invasive species affecting the habitat was also analyzed in Gir PA. This study presents National Park specific observations as well. The observations and findings in this study are lion centric. The management field units i.e. Beats are also analyzed in detail and Beat specific data is also presented. Future management interventions that involve lion centric measures for habitat improvement and its maintenance are discussed.
... The extensive land reclamation practice, and the uncompleted coastal defenses and groynes off the Lekki Peninsula, has also blocked the sediment transport drift by the breakwaters. The rate of erosion eastwards of Victoria Island has intensified towards the tail end of the last constructed groyne (Figs. 8, 9, and 10) [39]. ...
Article
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Shorelines and adjoining land remain an important site for the intensive interplay of socioeconomic development and natural processes. Unfortunately, the Lagos, Nigeria shoreline is always subjected to varied morphological changes in response to small (short term) and large-scale (long term) events as triggered by natural processes and human development. Thus, there is the need to accommodate these changes through a combination of the relative permanence of urban infrastructure and shoreline defense efforts. The study assesses the evolution of the Lagos coast over 20 years, with reliance on archived Google Earth imageries dated between 2001 and 2020 to estimate and visualize the magnitude of erosion and accretion along the Lagos coastline with a focus on sections extending from the east mole to Victoria Island end, which form part of the Eti-Osa Local Government Area (LGA). This was achieved using the Analyzing Moving Boundaries Using R (AMBUR) software package, an R programming language add-in. Over the 20-year period, the Lagos shoreline cumulatively records a mean rate of change of + 0.93 m/year, mean erosion rate of − 1.94 m/year, and mean accretion rate of + 4.84 m/year. Focusing on Victoria Island where shoreline change is observed to be the highest, a mean shoreline change rate of + 6.24 m/year, depicting accretion activities is observed. Victoria Island also recorded a mean erosion rate of − 5.2 m/year and a mean accretion rate of 81.99 m/year. The high accretion rate and positive mean rate of change for Victoria Island and the entire Lagos coast results from land reclamation activities undertaken within the period of study. Further analysis of temporally segmented data into pre-reclamation, reclamation, and post-reclamation periods at Victoria Island reveals that eastward of Victoria Island is an active and unabated erosional activity resulting in disappearing beaches and urban developmental structures during the post-reclamation period. A post-reclamation period overall mean rate of − 4.73 m/year, with maximum erosion rate of 51.25 m/year are recorded for Victoria Island over a pre-reclamation period overall mean rate of − 1.41 and a maximum erosion rate of − 11.8 m/year. Therefore, an appropriate land use and land cover management plan needs to be adopted along the Lagos shoreline region, especially for Victoria Island.
... Eti-Osa LGA which was next to Epe in total area of mangroves in 1984 had this asset decimated from 15% to 5% between 1984 and 2002, and it reduced further to about 3% in 2014. Within Epe ( Table 3 ) This growth in built-up area on areas of ecological assets and marginal lands is consistent with findings in Okude and Ademiluyi [47] , and Obiefuna et al. [24,48] . Equally, the finding amplifies the concerns on the consequences of development in such areas as raised in those studies and in Aliu [19] . ...
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Lekki Peninsula, which is home to the nouveau riche, is one of the barrier islands of the barrier-lagoon system of the Lagos coastline. The peninsula has been undergoing rapid urbanization since 1980 in total disregard of its physical characteristics. This study assessed landscape dynamics in the peninsula from 1984 - 2014 and evaluated risks to development from potential storm surge flooding. The datasets included baseline data on geographical indicators/island characteristics, satellite imageries and ancillary data. Storm surge flooding hazards and areas at risk were assessed in a Planar GIS environment and with two-dimensional (2D) hydrodynamic simulation using the Cellular Automation Evolutionary Slope and River (CAESAR) model. Results reveal that the Lekki Peninsula which was a green zone had grown from about 0.5% built-up area in 1984 to about 18% built-up area in 2014. This growth was due to urban expansion and occurred mostly in areas of ecological assets including mangroves, swamps and vegetation. The highest growth in built-up area occurred in Eti-Osa Local Government Area (LGA). Generally, the peninsula has a low-lying topography with 37% of its area lying between 0.5 - 3m while 63% is between 3 - 5m above mean sea level. Potential inundation simulation with the CAESAR model for selected storm surge levels reveal that at surge heights of 4m and 5m, 25% (mostly in Eti-Osa) and 37% respectively of the peninsula are flooded with the latter choking off Epe Expressway on both ends. Initial ingress of inundation occurred in Eti-Osa LGA. In comparison to Planar GIS water levels, the CAESAR model reflected more realistic flood extents. The base flood elevation (BFE) and design flood elevation (DFE) are recommended to improve the sustainability and resilience of future developments along with the recognition of natural processes in future policy and development of the peninsula.
... Similarly, Bakare et al. (2011) noted that the wetland in Ijebu-Ode had witnessed tremendous changes due to infilling of wetland for infrastructural development and this has resulted in loss of biodiversity, invasion by alien plant species and pollution of the wetland. These findings were in agreement with reports from different parts of Nigeria including Lagos (Okude & Ademiluyi, 2006;Taiwo & Areola, 2009) and Kaduna (Saleh et al., 2014). Outside Nigeria, the trend of land use/land cover change was similar to the findings of this study Abonyo et al. (2007) reported a decrease in grasslands and forest areas between 1960 and 2006 and attributed this trend to increasing rate of urbanization in Kampala, Uganda. ...
Article
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The many widely reported significant environmental changes in sub-Saharan communities caused by population change and expansion of built-up areas have seldom been documented in detail. Poor documentation of environmental changes and their effects may contribute to poor governance and planning in parts of the region. This study examined change in the form and attributes of areas under different land cover in a relatively homogenous Yoruba ethnic group community in Southwestern Nigeria. It used a mix-method approach of remote sensing and social surveys analysis. Landsat images covering the area for 1986, 2000 and 2016 were evaluated for land use/cover change, and the impact of the changes were assessed with social surveys (questionnaire administration and key informant interviews). Results showed a 212.2% increase in the built-up area and a corresponding decrease in forest and surface water area (streams) by 74.4% and 66.3%, respectively. Coping strategies were weak and overtly reactive, as there appeared to be no evidence of any previous plan for response to such degrading effects. The study concluded that urbanization exhibits degrading effects on land and water attributes in the area, and therefore recommends improved monitoring of the region through relevant policy and institutional investitures.
... Matching the pattern of malaria parasite prevalence [25], distribution density of the Anopheles species increases from the sub-tropical Middle Belt region to the tropical southern regions with high rainfall and coastal plains (Fig 3). Especially South West and South East where Lagos state, smallest by landmass but the most populated, and most urbanised [39,49] ...
Article
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Malaria is a major infectious disease that still affects nearly half of the world’s population. Information on spatial distribution of malaria vector species is needed to improve malaria control efforts. In this study we used Maximum Entropy Model (MaxEnt) to estimate the potential distribution of Anopheles gambiae sensu lato and its siblings: Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto, and Anopheles arabiensis in Nigeria. Species occurrence data collected during the period 1900–2010 was used together with 19 bioclimatic, landuse and terrain variables. Results show that these species are currently widespread across all ecological zones. Temperature fluctuation from mean diurnal temperature range, extreme temperature and precipitation conditions, high humidity in dry season from precipitation during warm months, and land use and land cover dynamics have the greatest influence on the current seasonal distribution of the Anopheles species. MaxEnt performed statistically significantly better than random with AUC approximately 0.7 for estimation of the Anopheles species environmental suitability, distribution and variable importance. This model result can contribute to surveillance efforts and control strategies for malaria eradication.
... This is attributed to increase in urban population which triggers a simultaneous increase in both financial and infrastructural investment and improvement in the quality of life of urban dwellers. Other studies have reported similar trend in Landsat TM/ETM+ derived LULC change in many urban areas and cities such as Lagos (Okude & Ademiluyi, 2006), Instanbul (Musaoglu et al., 2006), Shanghai , Lokoja (Oluseyi et al., 2009) ...
Article
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The study estimated annual and temporal variation in per capita Land Use/Land Cover Change (LULCC) in Makurdi, Northcentral Nigeria. A total of four Landsat TM/ETM+ images were acquired in April of 1991, 1996, 2001 and 2006 for the study. A total of five LULC types namely water, forest, undergrowth/wetland, cultivated land and built-up land were derived from the Landsat images using supervised classification method. The per capita LULCC was derived by dividing the areas of LULC types by the actual population data. The result showed that built-up land recorded the highest long-term gain in area by 179km2 (130%), with an increment of 8.7% per anum, and undergrowth/wetland lost 119km2 (32%) in area with a decrease of 2.1% per annum from 1991 to 2006. The per capita LULCC of built-up land has increased from 575m2/person (1991) to 1059m2/person (2006), representing an increment of 481m2/person (83%). The undergrowth/wetland recorded the highest decrease in per capita LULCC from 1542m2/person (1991) to 836m2/person (2006), representing a decline by 706m2/person (46%). The study concludes that undergrowth/wetland is the most vulnerable LULC type due to urbanisation, and sustainable urban planning should be practised to conserve the natural cover materials in the study area.
... There are various predictions (based on scenarios) of likely increase in coastal erosion and inundation of densely populated low-lying areas, such as the Victoria Island in Nigeria, the Nile delta in Egypt, and the Greater Banjul Area in The Gambia [1,11,12]. In Nigeria, the coastline erosion rate of approximately 30 m per year was observed in 2005, and relating this rate of erosion to the economic and cultural losses to the communities is alarming [13]. ...
... km which is on the high side (http://www.lagosstate.gov.ng). The metropolitan area of Lagos has only 37% of the land area of Lagos State (Figure 2) but over 80% of the population of the state resides in it (Ogunleye and Alo, 2010 Lagos has grown spatially from a traditional core settlement of about 3.85 km 2 in 1881 (Okude and Ademiluyi, 2006) to a huge Metropolis of over 3,577.28 km 2 in 2010 (Lagos State Government, 2014). ...
Article
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An insight into rainfall-runoff studies especially within a densely populated area such as Lagos becomes imperative in the light of global acceptance in building sustainable and resilient cities. The location of Lagos alongside other anthropogenic activities makes it difficult for rain water to drain off quickly into the surrounding Lagoons. Therefore this study was concerned with analyzing and establishing relationships between rainfall events and their implications on runoff generation within Lagos Metropolis. Monthly data on rainfall and temperature were obtained from Ikeja and Lagos Roof weather stations, while monthly river discharge data for Yewa River were obtained from Ogun-Oshun River Basin Development Authority, Abeokuta. The data on rainfall and temperature were used in computing water budget model for both stations. The model revealed that May and June are months of soil moisture recharge and that the months of water surplus are July, September and October with July leading the way as the month for the most surplus water received. Period of surplus rainwater are very crucial as they could serve as seasons for rainwater harvesting which most often than not helps in agricultural planning and reducing the risk of flood events especially in highly urbanized cities. This study therefore suggested sustainable solutions in channeling the increase in the volumes of runoff in order to create a city that is resilient and eco-friendly.
... Previous studies revealed that the state has been experiencing rapid spatial growth. For instance, it grew from 3.85 km 2 in 1881 to 46.6 km 2 [9] in 1911; 52.3 km 2 in 1921 to 66.3 km 2 in 1931; 69.9 km 2 in 1952 to 69.9 km 2 in 1963; 85.44 km 2 in 1986 to 96.53 km 2 in 1990 [10]; and to 950.72 km 2 in 2006 [11,12]. Ikeja Local Government Area is located within 30° 30' West and latitude, 70°30' North. ...
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Current planning strategies for future urban development often target issues such as housing, transport, water, and infrastructure; but very few strategies comprehensively consider the urban climate and its interaction with the built environment as well as the resultant effects. Thus, this research investigated the climate change impacts in an urban area with a view to recommend measures to manage the emerging effects of climate change. For the purpose of this study, the study area is Ikeja local government area-a rapidly growing urban centre with an annual growth rate of 50%. The research design adopted for the study was survey research which involved site visitation for data collection, and analysis. The local government was subdivided into 3 development zone from which the sample size of 450 was drawn using simple random sampling technique. Data was sourced from the respondents using questionnaire, spatial data was sourced from trusted online sources, alongside other secondary data. Collected data from questionnaire was analysed using Statistical Package for social sciences (SPSS) version 22 while the spatial data was analysed using ArcGIS version 10.5. The result of the analysis revealed that Ikeja Local Government Area was densely populated. Majority of its residents are educated with 43.8% of the respondent having tertiary education. According to the study, identified climate change impacts on households include flooding, health risk, high temperature and dryness of well. The results from the GIS land cover analysis revealed that built up area in Ikeja local government have increased form 10.75% of the total coverage of the local government in 1980 to 92.11% in 2019. Accordingly, the climate of the area is expected to be significantly impacted. Thus, it was recommended that the local government need to develop information based system to manage urban growth in the area, initiate vulnerability assessment of the city and engage in public awareness on the importance of land use planning in mitigating effect of climate change.
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Wetland ecosystems play a key role in maintaining water quality. Twelve swamps of Nilgiris district were selected based on altitude and land use to study the physicochemical properties of swamp soil, water and the adjoining stream water which fed the swamps. The Scirpus spp. was the dominant species in all swamps followed by Cyperus spp. and Kyllinga spp. Soils were strongly acidic, free from salinity, rich in organic carbon (1.5-2.8%), low to medium in available nitrogen (224-476 kg ha⁻¹), high in available phosphorous (39-67 kg ha⁻¹) and low in available potassium (11-197 kg ha⁻¹). Both the swamp and adjoining stream water quality was determined as being of adequate quality for drinking and irrigation as evidenced from the hydrochemical parameters. Agriculture and habitation land uses contribute higher nutrient load to the stream as well as swamp water as compared to the tea plantation, mixed forest and shola forest. Swamp water was more than three times higher in nutrient load than the streams which fed them because of temporal stagnation of water in the swamps which favors slow accumulation of nutrients. The effect of land use to govern the swamp water quality outperformed the altitude effect. A blend of policy, social and institutional mechanisms is needed for their conservation and making management priorities for ecological protection of Nilgiris Biosphere Reserve.
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The GAR is the flagship report of the United Nations on worldwide efforts to reduce disaster risk. GAR2019 has a particular focus on the systemic nature of risk, and the transformations to systems-based thinking that must occur if we are to deal with 21st century threats to human and ecosystems health and wellbeing. The GAR is published biennially by the UN Office for Disaster Risk Reduction (UNDRR), and is the product of the contributions of nations, public and private risk-related science and research, amongst others. The GAR contributes to achieving the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction and the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development.
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The paper attempts to understand the links between city development in Lagos, with particular reference to growth of slums, and risks from climate change. The impacts and vulnerabilities of residents of selected poor urban communities along the coast of Lagos to the increasing risks of floods arising from climate change are assessed. An impact and vulnerability assessment within an integrated assessment framework that includes both natural and human sub-systems interactions is adopted for the study. Quantitative and qualitative methods including the analysis of acquired data sets, administration of household questionnaires, interviews with key informants and focus group discussions are employed to generate primary data.
Thesis
This study examines the overall effectiveness of BRT among passengers of the transport system in relation to the following socioeconomic indicators: personal safety, income, and level of employment, using as a case study, the period between 2007 and 2014, with emphasis on Lagos State. The importance of a good transport system to urban development cannot be over-emphasized. To address the issue of public transport in Lagos state, the Bus Rapid Transit scheme, also known as BRT-Lite was introduced for over seven years now (2007-2016). Therefore, there is the need to examine the extent to which this scheme has been able to address the urban transportation challenges in Lagos. The study engages both primary and secondary sources, including field surveys, personal interviews, and questionnaires. A total of 180 questionnaires were administered to analyze the opinion of randomly selected respondents directly connected with the BRT bus in the six (6) Local Government Areas (Kosofe, Ikeja, Surulere, Mainland, Mushin, Lagos Island) along its dedicated lane from Mile 12 to Moshalashi, and CMS, through simple random sampling technique, and analyzed using descriptive analysis and inferential statistics. Hypotheses tested for the relationship which exists between BRT and socioeconomic development. The finding is that there is a significant relationship between BRT transport system and socioeconomic development of Lagos state. The result also revealed that BRT contributes significantly to socioeconomic development of Lagos State. Hence, it is observed that the BRT scheme has impacted positively on the transportation system in Lagos metropolis. Thus, there is a significant relationship between BRT and socioeconomic indicators for development that was used in this research. Consequently, the study recommends that the Lagos State Government implement effective measures to improve the performance of BRT in Lagos State. The study emphasizes the need to expand the system to cater for haulage, the disabled members of the society, the transportation of infants on pushchairs as well as the aged in order to alleviate the transportation challenges in the society. Keywords: Transportation, Development, Bus Rapid Transit (BRT), Lagos
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This paper considers the risks from and vulnerabilities to flooding in four urban poor communities close to the coast in Lagos, Nigeria. Drawing on interviews with inhabitants and key informants and also on group discussions, it documents the scale and frequency of flooding in these settlements and the impacts, as well as the individual, household and community responses. It also considers the factors that have contributed to increasing flood risks in Lagos, including the uncontrolled expansion of the built-up area, the lack of infrastructure and the failure not only to expand stormwater drainage but also to maintain existing drainage systems. The paper also considers changes in the frequency and intensity of rainstorms on Lagos Island between 1971 and 2005, which suggest that on average these have become less frequent but more intense.
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Lagos is Africa's most populous megacity and one of the world's fastest-growing urban areas. Lagos city's land use and land cover (LU/LC) classes have changed dramatically in recent decades as a result of its continuing population growth and other human and anthropogenic activities. The UN 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development must be adopted in order to preserve the available land cover classes in Lagos. Goal 11 of the Sustainable Development Goals aims to make cities and human settlements more inclusive, safe, resilient, and long-term. The use of remote sensing and geographic information systems (GIS) to track the progress of SDG 11 is an essential strategy. Remote sensing and geographic information systems were used to model and analyze the data in this study. To achieve this aim, remotely sensed data, such as Landsat 7 ETM+ and 8 OLI, was used to determine the rate of changes in Lagos from 2010 to 2020 by adopting the Maximum Likelihood Classifier (MLC) and then project the likely changes that may occur by 2025 and 2030. Observed ground truthing information was adopted for validation and for checking the accuracy of the classification. The result shows that from 2010 to 2015 and to 2020, built-up area had increased from 11.73% to 12.81% and finally to 29.51%, while agricultural land declined by 11.84% to 3.37% and then to 2.99%. Water bodies and wetland percentages decreased from 19.00% and 19.50% in 2010 to 17.39% and 8.48% in 2015, and to 18.37% and 16.92% in 2020. Forest land and bare land classes have also changed from 25.4% and 12.52% in 2010, to 33.37% and 24.58% in 2015, and to 18.10% and 14.11% in 2020. The study shows that remote sensing and GIS are excellent tools for monitoring the environment and for the development of a sustainable city.
Chapter
A study on the possible inundation limit in SE coast of India was carried out using various physical, geological and satellite imageries. The coastal inundation hazard map was prepared for this particular region as it was affected by many cyclones, flooding, storm surge and tsunami waves during the last six decades. The results were generated using various satellite data (IRS-P6 LISS3; LANDSAT ETM; LANDSAT-5 ETM; LANDSAT MSS) and digital elevation models (ASTER GLOBAL DEM), and a coastal vulnerability index was generated for the entire coastal stretch of Nagapattinam region in SE coast of India. The coastal area which will be submerged totally due to a 1–5 m rise in water level due to any major natural disaster (tsunami or cyclone) indicates that 56–320 km2 will be submerged in this particular region. The results suggest that nearly 7 towns and 69 villages with 667,477 people will be affected and indicate that proper planning needs to be done for future development. Keywords: Inundation, Cyclone, Tsunami, Risk analysis, CVI, Southeast coast of India.
Article
This article argues that Lagos, a megacity geographically located in southwestern Nigeria, also exists in other places and spaces. Such a global presence is not insignificant for the circumstances that enable it to transcend its physical locale to operate in the imagination. This article contends that particular artworks centred on the specific urban space – Lagos – but circulating internationally generate meaning between physical places creating a globally imagined Lagos. It does so highlighting work by three Lagosian artists with broad and varied international careers. It analyses Uche Okpa-Iroha’s photographic series Under Bridge Life (2009), Emeka Ogboh and Kristian Kowatsch’s soundwork Oshodi Stock Exchange (2014), and Abraham Oghobase’s photographic series Untitled (2012) for what they reveal about: the movement of people into and about Lagos, the instability that frames Lagosian daily life, the over-crowding of the city, cross-cultural interactions and the formation of networks. Drawing on phenomenological studies of place and Ariella Azoulay’s photographic theories of civil imagination, the essay demonstrates the ways that the pieces considered here offer marked political commentary on the conditions of life in the city itself, and situate Lagos in the larger world, establishing, reaffirming, and reshaping the networks in which we are all entwined.
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Nagapattinam coast remained highly vulnerable to the vagaries of natural disasters for a long time. Keeping in view the demands of the society, this research work has been undertaken to assess the vulnerability of the Nagapattinam coastline, which extends from Porto Novo in the north to Adhiramapattinam in the south. CVI was computed and a comparison was made between classical and sigmoidal CVI. Static inundation analysis was done for the sea level rises by 1m, 2m, 3m, 4m and 5m, and the towns and villages expected to be severely affected were mapped. Aquifer Vulnerability Index was calculated using GALDIT model to study the vulnerability of Nagapattinam coastal aquifers to saline water intrusion. Finally, a multi-hazard zonation map was prepared to demarcate areas that are affected by all the identified hazards. Suitable management strategies are proposed to mitigate the risks.
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Land Surface Temperature (LST) is one of the key environmental parameters affected by land cover change. Lagos State has been experiencing an increase in surface temperature due to growing areas of impervious surfaces caused by anthropogenic urban sprawl. While the change in LST has been established, its continuous monitoring and relationship with continuing Land Cover (LC) changes have become imperative for appropriate management and policy actions. This study investigated the effect of land cover change on LST in the rapidly urbanising Lagos metropolis. Using spatio-temporal Landsat imageries with their thermal bands and ancillary data, land cover and LST changes were assessed from 1984-2015. The spatial patterns of LST and LC were derived to examine the response of LST to urban growth. Findings confirmed urban sprawl in previously rural areas northward of the metropolis in LGAs such as Ikorodu, Kosofe and those fringing the state's border with Ogun State. This also confirmed new growth areas as occurring west of the metropolis in Amuwo-Odofin LGA. The results further showed that the rapid urbanisation in Lagos metropolis has altered the surface thermal environment as indicated by increased LST. Built-up area and bare land accounted for the highest increase in LST (as high as 1.5℃ in some areas) while wetlands and other vegetated areas played a vital role in moderating the surface temperature in areas they still occupy. This provides reasonable evidence for the appropriate authorities to institute requisite policies and actions towards moderating urban sprawl while ramping up the development of urban green infrastructure to counter global warming.
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Globally, landcover today is altered principally by direct human use resulting into incidental impacts. The paper analyzed land cover changes of Dadin Kowa, from 1962 to 2005. The method adopted in this research is the use of Remote sensing and Geographical Information System techniques to evaluate land cover changes using sequential normal black and white aerial photographs for 1962(1:9,000), 1971(1:10,000), 1991(1:6,000) and 2005 satellite imagery of 0.6m Quick Bird resolution. Landcover were identified, interpreted, digitized and classification scheme developed. Each landcover area, their magnitude, rates of change was calculated. The absolute measure technique of percentages was employed in the analysis of data collected. Results revealed that between 1962 to 2005 there was an overwhelming increase in built-up area from 14.02ha or 01.66% in 1971 to 195.83ha or 23.21% in 1991 and to an increase of 413.23ha in 2005, at the expense of agricultural area showing a strong lateral expansion of urban areas at the expense of agricultural land use, vegetation cover and rock outcrops. Results from Pearson Moment Product Correlation Statistics showed that there was no correlation between the size of each land cover and the rate of change between 1962-1971 and 1971-1991. It was also established that there was correlation between the size of each landcover and the rate of change between 1991 and 2005. It was concluded that Changes were due to the increased population mobility, urban expansion, socio economic activities and security challenges. It was therefore, recommended that town planners should monitor development activities within Dadin Kowa so as to make it a better place to live and work in, as a fast growing settlement among others.
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Land use and land cover change is a vital parameter in assessing the impact of both natural and anthropogenic activities on the environment. Significant Post-Tsunami changes have been noticed in the Little Andaman Island. Traditionally assessing the changes in land use and land cover is a difficult and time consuming task. State-of- the art technology, like remote sensing and GIS technique is apt for confronting the challenges of changes on land due to natural and anthropogenic activities, with pin pointed accuracy, in a short time frame of reference. The present investigation focuses on the changes in land use and land cover in the Little Andaman Island, during 2003 - 2010. In a span of 8 years the settlement area has increased by 859.4 ha. The reserved forest area (681 ha) has reduced due to deforestation in 2010. Only 71.1 ha of mangrove forest have been unaffected, out of 5295.45 ha as enumerated in the year 2005. Tsunami has also inundated 3463.3 ha of mangrove but, the inundated water resided with time in the year 2010 the 3116.28 ha of mangrove regenerated. The results from this study are useful, as basic information, in developing comprehensive long term rehabilitation programs.
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Urban flooding has been and will continue to be a significant problem for many cities across the developed and developing world. Crucial to the amelioration of the effects of these floods is the need to formulate a sound flood management policy, which is driven by knowledge of the frequency and magnitude of impacts of these floods. Within the area of flood research, attempts are being made to gain a better understanding of the causes, impacts, and pattern of urban flooding. According to the United Nations office for disaster reduction (UNISDR), flood risk is conceptualized on the basis of three integral components which are frequently adopted during flood damage estimation. These components are: probability of flood hazard, the level of exposure, and vulnerabilities of elements at risk. Reducing the severity of each of these components is the objective of flood risk management under the UNISDR guideline and idea of “living with floods”. On the basis of this framework, the present research reviews flood risk within the Lagos area of Nigeria over the period 1968–2012. During this period, floods have caused harm to millions of people physically, emotionally, and economically. Arguably over this period the efforts of stakeholders to address the challenges appear to have been limited by, amongst other things, a lack of reliable data, a lack of awareness amongst the population affected, and a lack of knowledge of flood risk mitigation. It is the aim of this research to assess the current understanding of flood risk and management in Lagos and to offer recommendations towards future guidance.
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Succession and Invasion is fundamental of increase in land use and land cover (LULC) changes in the global environment. Despite its global importance, decisions on land use management have considered less attention to the impact of succession and invasion in LULC changes. This research is aimed to evaluate the impact of succession and invasion on LULC change in Dadin Kowa, Jos, Nigeria from 1962-2016 Aerial photographs of the study area (1962 (1: 9,000), 1971(1: 10,000), 1991(1: 6,000), were processed using photogrammetry technique, and the 0.6m resolution Quick Bird satellites imagery for the year 2015 and 2016 were processed using Remote Sensing technique and Geographical Information System techniques was used for the analyses. The results revealed that in between 1962-1971, 1971-91, 1991-2005 and 2005-2016 the built-up area, forest and water bodies invaded agricultural land use and increased gradually from a total of 29.609ha to 90.073ha and to 209.832ha. This increase led to an overwhelming decrease about 380.059ha of agricultural land by 2016. The Land Cover Changes revealed a rapid increase in residential use and a substantial decrease of agriculture and vegetation land use and rock outcrops. It was concluded that one of the biggest problems of LULC change and its management is the ability to reconcile conflicting goals and their uses, and secondly human activities over time modify the direction of succession and invasion resulting into several lasting effects as revealed in this study. Thus, recommending the use of Geospatial techniques for Land use Land cover change detection and analyses. Index Terms- Land Use, Land Cover, Succession
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This paper describes the impacts of notable sea level rise and flooding events in Lagos megacity over the past 10 years, and the consequences of these events to humans and the ecosystem. It examines various integrated approaches adopted by successive governments in managing these impacts. Observations, literature review, personal interviews, focus group discussions, and analysis of secondary data were used to obtain relevant information from a wide range of respondents within the city. Data obtained were mainly analyzed qualitatively. Results show that the major cause of flooding was the uncontrolled expansion of impermeable surfaces due to increasing urbanization in the city. Empirical evidence of sea level rise and flooding recorded in the city include: severe coastal erosion, disruption of traffic, flooding of property, washing away of protective granite boulders, and sea level rise (e.g., of 1.5 m within 2 days in 2006). Both hard and soft measures have been employed to mitigate and adapt to these incidences, such as the construction of shoreline protection to contain sea surges and school advocacy programmes. This study recommends more aggressive capacity strengthening, advocacy programmes, international cooperation and other developmental initiatives to tackle the challenges posed by climate change in Lagos State.
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The effective management of natural resources is one of the key problems studied by geographers, economists and planners. This book by a geographer interrelates research traditions in geography, basic research issues, and natural-resource policy concerns. Professor Mitchell discusses how resource analysis has been influenced by, and has had an influence upon, recent developments in geography. Among the issues dealt with are resource inventory and allocation, perceptions and attitudes to resource use, landscape evalution, concepts of carrying capacity, natural hazards, environmental impact assessment, institutional constraints and opportunities in resource management, resource evaluation, policy formulation, and decision making. These issues are illustrated with examples of resource problems from Europe, North America, Africa, the Soviet Union, Australia, New Zealand, and Asia. A very extensive bibliography is included.
United Nations Environment Programme
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