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The Chorionic Sculpture in Eggs of some Hadeninae (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae) from Ukraine

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Dolinskaya I. V. The chorionic sculpture in eggs of some Hadeninae (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae) from Ukraine. Summary. The eggs of 17 species from 12 genera of some Hadeninae from Ukraine (Noctuidae) are described and illustrated with using scanning electron microscopy. The diagnostic characters of genera and species are selected. Долинская И. В. Cкульптура хориона яиц некоторых совок подсемейства Hadeninae (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae) фауны Украины. Резюме. С помощью сканирующего электронного микроскопа изучены и проиллюстрированы яйца 17 видов из 12 родов Hadeninae (Noctuidae) фауны Украины. Выделены диагностические признаки для родов и видов. Ключевые слова: Hadeninae, Noctuidae, Lepidoptera, яйцо, хорион, описание, диагностические признаки, сканирующая электронная микроскопия. Долинська І. В. Скульптура хоріону яєць деяких совок підродини Hadeninae (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae) фауни України. Резюме. За допомогою скануючого електронного мікроскопу вперше вивчено та проілюстровано яйця 17 видів з 12 родів Hadeninae (Noctuidae) фауни України. Висвітлено діагностичні ознаки для родів і видів.
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Українська ентомофауністика 2010, 1(3) : 3–15 Дата публікації: 26.11.2010
Ukrainska Entomofaunistyka 2010 1(3)
ISSN 2078-9653
The Chorionic Sculpture in Eggs of some Hadeninae
(Lepidoptera, Noctuidae) from Ukraine
I. V. Dolinskaya
Schmalhausen Institute of Zoology
National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine,
Bogdan Chmielnicki St.,15
Kiev, 01601 Ukraine
E-mail:dd8v@mail.ru
Dolinskaya I. V. The chorionic sculpture in eggs of some Hadeninae (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae) from Ukraine.Summary. The eggs of 17
species from 12 genera of some Hadeninae from Ukraine (Noctuidae) are described and illustrated with using scanning electron microscopy.
The diagnostic characters of genera and species are selected.
Keywords: Hadeninae, Noctuidae, Lepidoptera, egg, chorion, description, diagnostic characters, scanning electron microscopy.
Долинская И. В. Cкульптура хориона яиц некоторых совок подсемейства Hadeninae (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae) фауны Украины.
Резюме. С помощью сканирующего электронного микроскопа изучены и проиллюстрированы яйца 17 видов из 12 родов Hadeninae
(Noctuidae) фауны Украины. Выделены диагностические признаки для родов и видов.
Ключевые слова: Hadeninae, Noctuidae, Lepidoptera, яйцо, хорион, описание, диагностические признаки, сканирующая электронная
микроскопия.
Долинська І. В. Скульптура хоріону яєць деяких совок підродини Hadeninae (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae) фауни України. Резюме.
За допомогою скануючого електронного мікроскопу вперше вивчено та проілюстровано яйця 17 видів з 12 родів Hadeninae (Noctuidae)
фауни України. Висвітлено діагностичні ознаки для родів і видів.
Ключовi слова: Hadeninae, Noctuidae, Lepidoptera, яйце, хоріон, опис, дiагностичнi ознаки, скануюча електронна мікроскопія.
Introduction
This work continues a series of articles concerning the
morphology of eggs of noctuids from the fauna of Ukraine
(Dolinskaya & Geryak, 2010). Subfamily contains 99
species of 32 genera in Ukraine (Klyuchko et al., 2001).
Detailed line drawings illustrating the eggs of 48 European
species of the subfamily Noctuinae were published by
Döring (1955). A more thorough examination of the chori-
onic structure can be achieved with the use of SEM. Hinton
(1981) illustrated the eggs of 5 European Hadeninae
species. Sannino & Espinosa (1999) examined eggs of
Mamestra brassicae Linnaeus from Italy. Salkeld (1984)
described and illustrated the eggs of 26 Canadian Hadeni-
nae species. The eggs of 4 Chilean species of Hadeninae
were described and illustrated by Angulo & Olivares (1991)
and Rodriguez & Angulo (2007).
Material and Methods
The work is based on the original materials collected
by the author in Ukraine. The eggs were obtained from fe-
males captured in the field. The eggs of 6 species (Orthosia
cerasi Fabricius, O. cruda Denis & Schiffermüller, O. pop-
uleti Fabricius, O.gothica Linnaeus, Tholera decimalis
Poda and Lacanobia w-latinum Hufnagel) were kindly
given by Yu. Geryak (State Natural History Museum, Lviv,
Ukraine. The eggs were examined with the use of scanning
electron microscopy (SEM).
The Hadeninae species have been determinated by Dr.
A. Matov (Zoological Institut, St.Petersburg, Russia), Dr.
Yu. Budashkin (Karadag Reserve,Crimea, Ukraine) and Mr.
Yu. Geryak (State Natural History Museum, Lvov,
Ukraine).
Terminology of the eggs according to E. Salkeld
(1984). The systematic position of Noctuidae follows
Fibiger & Hacker, 2004.
Descriptions
Orthosia cerasi (Fabricius, 1775).
Material. Ukraine, Zakarpatska Region, vic. Beregove, 28.03.2010
(Yu. Geryak).
Characteristics. Egg subspherical (Figs. 1, 2), height
0.5 mm, diameter 0.7 mm (n = 5). Fresh egg pale yellow.
As egg develops, it becomes grey with black spot at apical
part of egg.
Chorion not ridged. It is marked on two thirds surfaces
by cells (longitudinal ridges weakly expressed (Fig. 2). Mi-
cropylar area conspicuous. Rosette with 8–11 petalled cells
(Fig. 3). The rest cells rounded, with clearly expressed,
strong ridges. Cells arranged by regular radial lines. The
quantity of lines increases to egg base. Aeropyles clearly
expressed at walls junctions (Fig. 4).
4
Українська ентомофауністика 2010 1(3)
И. В. Долинская Структура хориона Hadeninae (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae) из Украины
Orthosia cruda ([Denis & Schiffermüller],1775)
Material. Ukraine, Zakarpatska Region, vic. Beregove. 30.03.2010
(Yu. Geryak).
Characteristics. Egg subspherical, height 0.45–0.5
mm, diameter 0.7–0.8 mm (n = 5).
Distinctions from the previous species it is not
recorded (Fig. 5).
Orthosia populeti (Fabricius, 1781)
Material. Ukraine, Zakarpatska Region, vic. Beregove, 30.03.2010
(Yu. Geryak).
Characteristics. Egg subspherical, height 0.65–0.7
mm, diameter 0.9 mm (n = 5).
Distinctions from the previous species it is not
recorded (Fig. 6).
Orthosia gothica (Linnaeus, 1758)
Material. Ukraine, Zakarpatska Region, vic. Beregove. 30.03.2010
(Yu. Geryak).
Characteristics. Egg subspherical, height 0.55–0.6
mm, diameter 0.7–0.8 mm (n = 5).
Distinctions from the previous species it is not
recorded (Figs. 7, 8, 9).
Orthosia incerta (Hufnagel, 1766)
Material. Ukraine, Cherkaska Region, Kaniv Nature Reserve, 2009
(I. Dolinskaya).
Characteristics. Egg subspherical, diameter 0.6–0.8
mm (n = 5). Fresh egg pale yellow. As egg develops, it be-
comes grey-white with pale brown spot at micropylar area
and pale brown stripe on perimeter apical part of egg. Be-
fore caterpillar emergence egg becoming taupe.
Remark. Longitudinal ridges much less distinct than
at other species (Fig. 10).
Egira conspicillaris (Linnaeus, 1758)
Material. Ukraine, Cherkaska Region, Kaniv Nature Reserve.
12.05.2009 (I. Dolinskaya).
Characteristics. Egg subspherical, height 0.4–0.45
mm, diameter 0.7–0.75 mm (n = 5). Fresh egg grey-white,
then grey at micropylar area. Before caterpillar emergence
egg becoming taupe.
Chorion not ridged. It is marked on two thirds surfaces
by cells with weakly expressed longitudinal ridges (Fig. 11).
Micropylar area conspicuous. Rosette with 12–13 petalled
cells (Fig. 12). Secondary cells long and narrow. The rest
cells clearly expressed, polygonal, short and broad. Cells
arranged by regular radial lines. The quantity of lines in-
creases to egg base. Aeropyles clearly expressed at walls
junctions (Fig. 13).
Oviposition. Eggs laid in single-layer tight clusters
where they pressed one to another.
Tholera decimalis (Poda, 1761)
Material. Ukraine, Zakarpatska Region, Rakhiv District, vic. Lug,
17.09.2009 (Yu. Geryak).
Characteristics. Egg subspherical (Figs. 14–16),
height 0.7–0.8 mm, diameter 0.9–1.0 mm (n = 5). Chorion
white, translucent, micropylar area pale brown.
Chorion faintly ridged. It is marked on two thirds sur-
faces. Micropylar rosette with 17–19 long and narrow
petalled cells and with 3–4 micropylar openings. Secondary
cells long and narrow, very weakly expressed (Fig. 17).
There are 20–2 longitudinal ridges, radiate from secondary
cells. Columnar cells typical, broad and short with weakly
expressed longitudinal ridges and transverse walls (Fig. 18).
Along all surface of longitudinal ridges and transverse walls
densely placed small aeropyles. Chorion wrinkled every-
where (Fig. 19).
Anarta trifolii (Hufnagel, 1766)
Material. Ukraine, Crimea, Karadag Nature Reserve. 4.07.2006 (I.
Dolinskaya); Cherkaska Region, Kaniv Nature Reserve, 28.05.2008,
4.05.2009 (I. Dolinskaya).
Characteristics. Egg subspherical (Fig. 20), height
0.5mm, diameter 0.6–0.8 mm (n =5).
Fresh egg pale citron colour. As egg develops, at mi-
cropylar area of egg appears vinous spot and the same stripe
on perimeter apical part of egg. Before caterpillar emer-
gence egg becoming taupe with brown spot at apical part
of egg. Chorion white, translucent, white.
Chorion ridged. It is marked on two thirds surfaces.
Micropylar rosette elevated with 15–19 long and narrow
petalled cells with folded floors and with 6 micropylar
openings. Secondary cells typical, long, narrow and pointed
(Fig. 21). There are 14–18 of the 39–43 elevated, broad lon-
gitudinal ridges radiate from pointed outer ends of second-
ary cells. Transverse walls narrow, much less distinct that
ridges. Aeropyles clearly expressed. Chorion sharply wrin-
kled everywhere (Fig. 22).
Oviposition. Eggs laid solitary.
Polia nebulosa (Hufnagel, 1766)
Material. Ukraine, Volynska Region, Lyubishevskiy District, vic.
Svalovichi. 18.06.2005; Crimea, Karadag Nature Reserve. 21.06.2006 (I.
Dolinskaya).
Characteristics. Egg subspherical (Fig. 23), height
0.65–0.7 mm, diameter 0.75–0.8 mm (n = 10). Fresh egg
light green to white. As egg develops, it becomes light green
to grey with grey spot at apical part of egg. Before caterpil-
lar emergence egg becoming grey with black spot at apical
part of egg (caterpillar). Chorion white, translucent.
Chorion ridged. It is marked on two thirds surfaces.
Micropylar rosette with 10–11 petalled cells and with 7 mi-
cropylar openings. Secondary cells polygonal. There are
11–13 of the 28–30 elevated longitudinal ridges radiate
from outer ends of secondary cells. Transverse walls broad
as ridges, but much less distinct than ridges. Aeropyles
slightly expressed. Cells have smooth floors (Fig. 24).
I. V. Dolinskaya Chorionic sculpture in Hadeninae (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae) from Ukraine 5
Ukrainska entomofaunistyka 2010 1(3)
Figs. 1–6. Eggs of Hadeninae: 1–4. Orthosia cerasi. 5. Orthosia cruda. 6. Orthosia populeti.
Scale: 100 µ (1, 2, 5, 6); 10 µ (3, 4).
6
Українська ентомофауністика 2010 1(3)
И. В. Долинская Структура хориона Hadeninae (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae) из Украины
Figs. 7–12. Eggs of Hadeninae: 7–9. Orthosia gothica; 10. Orthosia incerta; 11–12. Egira conspicillaris.
Scale: 100 µ(7, 10–12); 10 µ (8, 9).
I. V. Dolinskaya Chorionic sculpture in Hadeninae (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae) from Ukraine 7
Ukrainska entomofaunistyka 2010 1(3)
Figs. 13–18. Eggs of Hadeninae: 13. Egira conspicillaris; 14–18. Tholera decimalis.
Scale: 100 µ(13–17); 10 µ (18).
8
Українська ентомофауністика 2010 1(3)
И. В. Долинская Структура хориона Hadeninae (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae) из Украины
Figs. 19–24. Eggs of Hadeninae: 19. Tholera decimalis; 20–22. Anarta trifolii; 23–24. Polia nebulosa.
Scale: 10 µ (19, 22); 100 µ(20, 21, 23–24).
I. V. Dolinskaya Chorionic sculpture in Hadeninae (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae) from Ukraine 9
Ukrainska entomofaunistyka 2010 1(3)
Oviposition. Eggs laid in single-layer tight clusters
where they pressed one to another.
Lacanobia thalassina (Hufnagel, 1766)
Material. Ukraine, Cherkaska Region, Kaniv Nature Reserve.
18.08.2005 (I. Dolinskaya).
Characteristics. Egg subspherica, height 0.5–0.6 mm,
diameter 0.6–0.7 mm (n = 5). Fresh egg pale yellow. Before
caterpillar emergence egg becoming purple.
Chorion not ridged. It is marked on anterior half of egg
by cells (longitudinal ridges indistinct expressed) and
smoothed on the remaining surface (Fig. 25). Micropylar
rosette with 16–18 long and narrow petalled cells and with
5–7 micropylar openings. Secondary cells long, polygonal
(Fig. 26). Cell remaining egg surface short and broad.
Aeropyles slightly expressed. Cells have smooth floors
(Fig. 27).
Oviposition. Eggs laid in single-layer tight clusters
where they pressed one to another.
Lacanobia w-latinum (Hufnagel, 1766)
Material. Ukraine, Dnipropetrovska Region. 2.07.2002 (Yu. Geryak).
Characteristics. Egg subspherical, height 0.55mm, di-
ameter 0.7mm (n = 5). Chorion sculpture as like as previous
species (Fig. 28) but the cells of micropylar rosette with
folded floors (Fig. 29).
Oviposition. Eggs laid in single-layer tight clusters
where they pressed one to another.
Hada plebeja (Linnaeus, 1761)
Material. Ukraine, Volynska Region, Lyubishevskiy District, vic.
Svalovichi. 16.06.2005 (I. Dolinskaya).
Characteristics. Egg subspherical (Fig. 30), height
0.4–0.5 mm, diameter 0.5–0.8 mm (n = 5). Fresh egg pale
yellow. As egg develops, it becomes pale brown and then
brown. Хорион полупрозрачный.
Chorion ridged. It is marked on two thirds surfaces
(Fig. 31). Micropylar rosette conspicuous, elevated with
16–19 long and narrow petalled cells, which have folded
floors. Secondary cells slightly expressed, long and narrow
(Fig. 32). There are 12 of the 41–44 longitudinal ridges ra-
diate from outer ends of secondary cells. Transverse walls
unmarked on anterior quarter of egg and slightly expressed
on remaining egg surface. Longitudinal ridges elevated,
broad, conspicuous. Aeropyles slightly expressed (Fig. 33).
Mamestra brassicae (Linnaeus, 1758)
Material. Ukraine, Cherkaska Region, Kaniv Nature Reserve.
13.08.2005 (I. Dolinskaya).
Characteristics. Egg subspherical (Fig. 34), height
0.5mm, diameter 0.5–0.9 mm (n = 5). Fresh egg pale yel-
low. As egg develops, it becomes brown- yellow. Before
caterpillar emergence egg becoming taupe or black.
Chorion white, translucent.
Chorion ridged. It is marked on two thirds surfaces. Mi-
cropylar rosette conspicuous, elevated with 11–15 petalled
cells and with 5 micropylar openings. The cells floors folded.
Secondary cells slightly expressed, long and narrow. There
are 13–15 of the 34–37 longitudinal ridges radiate from outer
ends of secondary cells. Longitudinal ridges elevated, broad,
slightly wavy. Transverse walls filiform, clearly expressed,
especially in area of 2–8 series of cells, much less distinct
that ridges (Fig. 35). Aeropyles slightly expressed. Chorion
wrinkled everywhere (Fig. 36).
Oviposition. Eggs laid in single-layer tight clusters
where they pressed one to another.
Sideridis turbida (Esper, 1790)
Material. Ukraine, Volynska Region, Lyubishevskiy District, vic.
Svalovichi. 15.06.2005 (I. Dolinskaya).
Characteristics. Egg subspherical (Fig. 37), height 0.4
mm, diameter 0.6–0.7 mm (n = 5). Fresh egg pale yellow.
As egg develops, it becomes pale brown with pale pink tint.
Before caterpillar emergence egg becoming brown (cater-
pillar). Chorion white, translucent.
Chorion ridged. It is marked on two thirds surfaces. Mi-
cropylar rosette elevated, conspicuous, with 13–16 long and
narrow petalled cells and with 4–5 micropylar openings.
Base of cells convex in the middle and concave near walls
(Fig. 38). Secondary cells indistinct, long and narrow. There
are 11–13 of the 32–35 broad longitudinal ridges radiate
from outer ends of secondary cells. Transverse walls fili-
form, much less distinct that ridges (Fig. 39). Aeropyles
clearly expressed. Chorion wrinkled everywhere (Fig. 40).
Oviposition. Eggs laid as one-layered line bands (10–
15 eggs), where they tightly pressed one to other.
Conisania luteago ([Denis & Schiffermüller], 1775)
Material. Ukraine, Crimea, Karadag Nature Reserve. 15.07.2006 (I.
Dolinskaya).
Characteristics. Egg subspherical (Fig. 41), height
0.7–0.8 mm, diameter 0.9–1.0 mm (n = 2). Fresh egg white,
then it becomes pale citron colour. Before caterpillar emer-
gence egg becoming grey with purple–grey spot at apical
part og egg. Chorion translucent, white with pale brown mi-
cropylar area.
Chorion ridged-cellular. Apical third of egg cellular and
remaining ridged. Micropylar rosette with 13–14 petalled.
Cells apical third of eggs arranged irregularly on chorion,
various under the form and size (Fig. 42). Remaining egg
surface looks like narrow and long columnar cells with con-
spicuous longitudinal ridges. Aeropyles slightly expressed
(Fig. 43).
Oviposition. Eggs laid solitary.
Mythimna albipuncta ([Denis & Schiffermüller], 1775)
Material. Ukraine, Cherkaska Region, Kaniv Nature Reserve. 19.08.
2005 (I. Dolinskaya).
10
Українська ентомофауністика 2010 1(3)
И. В. Долинская Структура хориона Hadeninae (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae) из Украины
Figs. 25–30. Eggs of Hadeninae: 25–27. Lacanobia thalassina; 28–29. Lacanobia w-latinum; 30. Hada plebeja.
Scale: 100 µ(25, 30); 10 µ (26–29).
I. V. Dolinskaya Chorionic sculpture in Hadeninae (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae) from Ukraine 11
Ukrainska entomofaunistyka 2010 1(3)
Figs. 31–36. Eggs of Hadeninae: 31–33. Hada plebeja; 34–36. Mamestra brassicae.
Scale: 100 µ(32–34); 10 µ (31, 35–36).
12
Українська ентомофауністика 2010 1(3)
И. В. Долинская Структура хориона Hadeninae (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae) из Украины
Figs. 37–42. Eggs of Hadeninae: 37–40. Sideridis turbida; 41–42. Conisania luteago.
Scale: 100 µ(37, 41); 10 µ (38–40, 42).
I. V. Dolinskaya Chorionic sculpture in Hadeninae (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae) from Ukraine 13
Ukrainska entomofaunistyka 2010 1(3)
Figs. 43–48. Eggs of Hadeninae: 43. Conisania luteago; 44–46. Mythimna albipuncta; 47–48. Leucania obsolete.
Scale: 100 µ(43, 44, 46, 47); 10 µ (45, 48).
14
Українська ентомофауністика 2010 1(3)
И. В. Долинская Структура хориона Hadeninae (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae) из Украины
Characteristics. Egg subspherical (Fig. 44), diam-
eter 0.6–0.7 mm (n = 5). Fresh egg yellow –white.
Chorion ridged. It is marked on two thirds surfaces.
Micropylar rosette elevated, with 13–14 petalled cells.
Base of cells convex in the middle and concave near
walls. Secondary cells typical, long, narrow and pointed
(Fig. 45). There are 10–11 of the 24 elevated longitudinal
ridges radiate from pointed ends of secondary cells.
Along all surface of longitudinal ridges densely placed
aeropyles with large roller-like edges (Fig. 46). Trans-
verse walls narrow, much less distinct that ridges. Col-
lumnsr cells broad and short.
Oviposition. Eggs laid in single-layer tight clusters
where they pressed one to another.
Remark. Secondary cells similar to Anarta trifolii.
Leucania obsoleta (Hübner, 1803)
Material. Ukraine, Crimea, Karadag Nature Reserve. 15.06.2006
(I. Dolinskaya).
Characteristics. Egg semi-oval, diameter 0.7 mm
(n = 5). Fresh egg pale yellow. In three days after laying
egg becomes citron colour. Before caterpillar emergence
egg becoming grey. Chorion white, transparent.
Chorion not ridged. It is marked on anterior quarter
of egg by cells and smoothed on the remaining surface
(Figs. 47, 48). Micropylar rosette with 10–12 long and nar-
row petalled cells. Base of cells convex in the middle and
concave near walls (рис.49). Cells of 5–7 series short and
broad with folded floors and narrow walls. Cells arranged
by regular radial lines. Aeropyles slightly expressed.
Oviposition. Eggs are laid by clusters, are disposed
chaotically one on the other.
Discussion
Based on the data above, the three types of sculpture,
cellular, ridged-cellular and ridged, are typical for studied
species of the subfamily Hadeninae.
Cellular sculpture is typical for species from four
studied genera, Orthosia cerasi, O. cruda, O. populeti,
O. gothica, O. incerta, Egira conspicillaris,Lacanobia
thalassina, L.w-latinum and Leucania obsolete.
Cellular sculpture marked either on two thirds sur-
face (Egira conspicillaris, species from genus Orthosia),
or on anterior quarter — anterior half of egg surface. Leu-
cania obsolete, species from genus Lacanobia).
There are no differences between Egira conspicil-
laris and species genus Orthosia.
Leucania obsolete sculpture in form 7–8 series of
cells. Micropylar rosette with 10–12 cells.
Lacanobia thalassina and L.w-latinum in form 12–
14 series of cells. Micropylar rosette with 16–18 cells.
Ridged-cellular sculpture is typical for species
Conisania luteago. Apical third of egg cellular and re-
maining ridged.
Ridged sculpture is typical for species from seven
studied genera Tholera decimalis, Anarta trifolii,
Polia nebulosa, Hada plebeja, Mamestra brassicae,
Sideridis turbida and Mythimna albipuncta.
Hada plebeja. Transverse walls unmarked on ante-
rior quarter of egg and slightly expressed on remaining
egg surface.
Mamestra brassicae. Transverse walls filiform and
clearly expressed in area of 2–8 series of cells. On remain-
ing egg surface they more broad and diffuse.
Sideridis turbida. Transverse walls filiform, conspic-
uous.
Tholera decimalis. Sculpture weakly expressed.
Columnar cells are typical — broad and short. Along all
surface of longitudinal ridges and transverse walls densely
placed small aeropyles
Anarta trifolii and Mythimna albipuncta. Secondary
cells are typical, long, narrow and pointed. However every
species have typical diagnostic characters.
Anarta trifolii. There are 14–18 of the 39–43 longi-
tudinal ridges radiate from secondary cells. Chorion
sharply wrinkled everywhere.
Mythimna albipuncta. There are 10–11 of the 24 lon-
gitudinal ridges radiate from secondary cells. Along all
surface of longitudinal ridges densely placed aeropyles
with large roller-like edges.
Polia nebulosa. Transverse walls broad as ridges, but
much less distinct than ridges.
Acknowledgements
I am obliged to Yu. Geryak (State Natural History Mu-
seum, Lviv, Ukraine) for presented dry females of Noctu-
idae. I am grateful to A. Matov (Zoological Institute of the
Russian Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg), Yu. Bu-
dashkin (Karadag Nature Reserve, Crimea, Ukraine) and
Yu. Geryak for their assistance in definition of Noctuidae.
I express my gratitude to M. Ponomarenko, E. Belayev (In-
stitute of Biology and Soil Science, Vladivostok, Russia),
S. Sinev, A. L’vovskiy, A. Matov (Zoological Institute,
St.Petersburg, Russia) and S. Passoa (The Ohio State Uni-
versity, United States) for providing me with literature. I
wish to express my thanks to Yu. Budashkin for his assis-
tance during our field work in Ukraine and granting us his
stationary facilities.
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rope (Notodontidae, Nolidae, Arctiidae, Lymantriidae, Erebidae, Mi-
cronoctuidae and Noctuidae). Esperiana, 11, 83–172.
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y aparato genital femenino de la mariposa Chabuata castanea (Lep-
idoptera: Noctuidae). Revista de biologia tropical, 55(2), 659–664.
Salkeld, E. H. (1984). A catalogue of the eggs of some Canadian Noctuidae
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brassicae (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae). Il Tabacco, 7, 13–24.
Received 25.10.2010 Accepted 18.11.2010 Published 25.11.2010 © 2010 Irina Dolinskaya
... Thickness, translucent or transparent chorion was found in the most of notodontid subfamilies and the outgroup species-Erebidae, Noctuidae, Nolidae (Dolinskaya, 2010(Dolinskaya, , 2011b(Dolinskaya, , 2014aDolinskaya & Ponomarenko, 2013), Sphingidae, Brahmaeidae (Pljushch & Dolinskaya, 2001) that were examined. Based on the foregoing, I consider this state (thickness, translucent or transparent chorion) is plesiomorphic relative to the solid, opaque chorion. ...
... This type of the exit opening was found in the most of notodontid subfamilies that were examined. This state of the character is also found in the most outgroup species -Noctuidae (Dolinskaya, 2010(Dolinskaya, , 2011(Dolinskaya, b, 2014aDolinskaya & Geryak, 2010;Dolinskaya & Ponomarenko, 2013), Erebidae (Dolinskaya, 2014b;Dolinskaya & Pljushch, 1999). Basis of this studies this state of the character is considered plesiomorphic relative to other states. ...
Article
On the basis of comparative-morphological analysis of 43 genera and 92 species of Palaearctic Notodontidae, as well as the study of the eggs of outgroup species, complexes of characters that are diagnostic, taxonomic or phylogenetic are singled out. It is shown that the egg characteristics are of great taxonomic value at species and generic levels. Some characters are useful for grouping genera. In general, a complex of characters should be used, because different species or genera often share the same characters. Possible apomorphic and plesiomorphic states of the different characters are discussed in relation to the different taxa. The results of this study are discussed with reference to recently published classifications of Notodontidae. As a result of the studies, the keys for identification to the eggs of 43 genera and 92 species of notodontid moths from the Palaearctic region are presented. Reliable diagnostic characters that do not disappear with the injury of eggs or with eggs preserved in alcohol were used. Characters including egg shape, egg and chorion colour, the shape of gnawed holes in eggs when caterpillars hatched, chorionic sculpture, the type of oviposition, foodplants, and geographic distribution of the genera and species were applied. Occasionally, characters that are typical for live eggs, which vary during development, were used. These are characters of egg colour and pattern. The keys are illustrated with photographs made using a digital camera and a scanning electron microscope.
... The shape and color of the eggs also correspond to what has been described for other species of the genus (Salkeld 1984, Merzheevskaya 1988, Zerbino 1991Angulo et al 2006, Dolinskaya 2010, Korycinska 2012. ...
... The interspecific similarity of the eggs, allied to the occurrence of a conspicuous ornamentation, characterized by thin lines seen only with high magnification hinders the specific identification, even under electron microscopy, Mythimna (P.) unipuncta (Salked 1984). However, this feature makes it easy to distinguish them from others Noctuidae (Peterson 1961, Merzheevskaya 1988, Dolinskaya 2010, Korycinska 2012. ...
Article
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Mythimna (Pseudaletia) sequax Franclemont, 1951 (Lepidoptera: Noctuidade) is the most important armyworm in the American tropics and subtropics. In this study, we describe the external morphology of the immatures and adults, based on larvae fed on quicuio grass (Pennisetum clandestinum Hochst. ex Chiov - Poaceae). The external morphology of the eggs, larvae, pupae, and adults is described and illustrated. Important taxonomic structures of the larvae are described, including hypopharynx, spinneret, and mandible. Adult structures that allow the differentiation of the species, such as male genitalia and scent brushes, are also described. The results are compared and discussed based on morph functionality and with publications on the congeneric species.
... En años recientes, los estudios sobre huevos de mariposas y en particular de su capa más externa -el exocorion-se realizaron con el empleo de dos técnicas de visualización: el empleo de microscopio electrónico de barrido (MEB) y la tinción con cloruro de metiltionina (azul de metileno) con observaciones en microscopio estereoscópico (Nieves-Uribe et al. 2016a). Estos trabajos se efectuaron en Noctuidae (Dolinskaya y Geryak 2010;Dolinskaya 2010Dolinskaya , 2011Dolinskaya y Ponomarenko 2013), Hesperiidae (Hernández-Roldán et al. 2012), Pieridae (Eitschberger y Ströhle 1990;Hernández-Mejía et al. 2013, 2014aNieves-Uribe et al. 2016a,b, 2018aLlorente-Bousquets et al. 2018), Nymphalidae (Heliconiini: Dell'Erba et al. 2005Biblidinae: Nieves-Uribe et al. 2015, 2016d, 2017a,b, 2019Satyrinae: Thomson 1992, García-Barros y Martín 1995, Lycaenidae (Downey y Allyn 1981, Munguira et al. 2015, y Riodinidae (Downey y Allyn 1980). Los huevos en la mayoría de estos estudios, así como otros donde se abarcan principalmente ciclos de vida, se obtienen mediante la observación y recolección de oviposiciones de huevos fecundados en el campo o en el laboratorio (v. ...
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During 2016-2017, growers at San Juan de Los Planes, El Carrizal, and El Pescadero at Baja California Sur, Mexico experienced serious outbreaks of phytoplasma squash yellowing disease, causing significant economic loss, mostly from low yield and quality of squash, Cucurbita pepo L., for export. In addition, abundant beet leafhoppers, Circulifer tenellus (Baker), presumed to transmit the disease, were observed in each field. Using nested-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of the 16S rRNA gene and comparing in silico patterns, positive Western X-disease phytoplasma of the 16SrIII group was detected. Scanning electron microscopy showed phytoplasmatic particles in sieve tubes of infected plants and insects. Phytoplasma risk based on combined data of insect abundance, disease incidence, and economic threshold was analyzed to evaluate the impact of the disease over time. Only at Los Planes with 128 adult insects per trap and 75.5% incidence of disease was risk of phytoplasma high, while at El Carrizal and El Pescadero, risk was moderate. This is the first evidence of beet leafhoppers transmitting phytoplasma to squash at Baja California Sur. The information will be useful for managing disease in the region and where squash is grown worldwide.
... Alvah Peterson publicó durante la década de 1960 imágenes correspondientes a taxones de 35 familias; también reportó cambios de coloración, así como técnicas de fotografía para huevos (Peterson 1960(Peterson , 1961(Peterson , 1962a(Peterson ,b, 1963a(Peterson ,b, 1964(Peterson , 1965a(Peterson ,b, 1966(Peterson , 1967a(Peterson ,b, 1968(Peterson , 1970. Desde la década de 1970 se produjeron trabajos en Riodinidae y Lycaenidae primero -luego en Noctuidae, con descripciones y análisis morfológicos del corion con base en técnicas de microscopía electrónica de barrido (MEB) (Downey y Allyn 1980, 1981, 1984Dolinskaya y Geryak 2010;Dolinskaya 2010Dolinskaya , 2011Dolinskaya , 2014Dolinskaya y Ponomarenko 2013). Más tarde se extendieron estas exploraciones en huevos de la familia Hesperiidae (Hernández-Roldán et al. 2011 y en mayor número de especies de Lycaenidae paleárticas (Munguira et al. 2015). ...
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Se describe y compara el exocorion de tres especies en la tribu Coeini con ejemplares de México: Historis odius dious, Colobura dirce dirce, y Smyrna blomfildia datis. Se caracterizaron los principales rasgos estructurales del exocorion: color, forma, tamaño, ‘ornamentación’, diferenciación micropilar, perimicropilar, y de la zona de transición, así como estructuras ecuatoriales y basales; bajo la técnica de tinción y el empleo del microscopio electrónico de barrido. Se reconocen caracteres microestructurales autapomórficos en el corion de estos géneros (calgarys, filas), así como especializaciones en la base (puentes y domos). Para una comprensión mayor de estas estructuras, se incluyen esquemas y un glosario con los términos adoptados en este trabajo. Se realiza la comparación de nuestros resultados con descripciones publicadas para estas especies, así como con algunas filogenias de la subfamilia Nymphalinae.
... Alvah Peterson publicó durante la década de 1960 imágenes correspondientes a taxones de 35 familias; también reportó cambios de coloración, así como técnicas de fotografía para huevos (Peterson 1960(Peterson , 1961(Peterson , 1962a(Peterson ,b, 1963a(Peterson ,b, 1964(Peterson , 1965a(Peterson ,b, 1966(Peterson , 1967a(Peterson ,b, 1968(Peterson , 1970. Desde la década de 1970 se produjeron trabajos en Riodinidae y Lycaenidae primero -luego en Noctuidae, con descripciones y análisis morfológicos del corion con base en técnicas de microscopía electrónica de barrido (MEB) (Downey y Allyn 1980Dolinskaya y Geryak 2010;Dolinskaya 2010Dolinskaya , 2011Dolinskaya , 2014Dolinskaya y Ponomarenko 2013). Más tarde se extendieron estas exploraciones en huevos de la familia Hesperiidae (Hernández-Roldán et al. 2011 y en mayor número de especies de Lycaenidae paleárticas (Munguira et al. 2015). ...
Article
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Xylella fastidiosa es una de las enfermedades más importantes a nivel mundial, el manejo de sus vectores es una de las estrategias más viables para su control. La presente investigación se realizó en el Laboratorio de Entomología y Acarología del Departamento de Parasitología Agrícola de la Universidad Autónoma Agraria Antonio Narro (UAAAN). Se evaluaron 21 extractos de plantas sobre Cuerna costalis proveniente de muestreos de vid y nogal, estos se multiplicaron sobre frijol bajo condiciones de laboratorio. Para el establecimiento del ensayo se utilizó el método de prueba 005 del IRAC con ligeras modificaciones, en un arreglo completamente al azar con 8 concentraciones y 10 repeticiones evaluando a las 120 h. La mortalidad se corrigió acorde a Abbott (1925) y se realizó un Análisis Probit, asimismo se determinaron los principales compuestos fitoquímicos presentes en los extractos mediante el espectrofotómetro infrarrojo. Los resultados muestran una alta susceptibilidad a los extractos de uña de gato (Mimosa zygophylla), sangre de drago (Jatropha dioica), pimienta negra (Piper nigrum), canela (Cinnamomum verum), y mezquite (Prosopis laevigata) con una CL50 de 1166, 1275, 1433, 1459, y 1478 ppm, respectivamente. Los metabolitos presentes en la mayoría de los extractos eficientes fueron ácido tartárico, 1,8-cineol, eugenol, grupos de saponinas, flavonoides, y compuestos fenólicos.
... En años recientes, los estudios sobre huevos de mariposas y en particular de su capa más externa -el exocorion-se realizaron con el empleo de dos técnicas de visualización: el empleo de microscopio electrónico de barrido (MEB) y la tinción con cloruro de metiltionina (azul de metileno) con observaciones en microscopio estereoscópico (Nieves-Uribe et al. 2016a). Estos trabajos se efectuaron en Noctuidae (Dolinskaya y Geryak 2010;Dolinskaya 2010Dolinskaya , 2011Dolinskaya y Ponomarenko 2013), Hesperiidae (Hernández-Roldán et al. 2012), Pieridae (Eitschberger y Ströhle 1990;Hernández-Mejía et al. 2013, 2014a,b, 2015Nieves-Uribe et al. 2016a,b, 2018aLlorente-Bousquets et al. 2018), Nymphalidae (Heliconiini: Dell'Erba et al. 2005Biblidinae: Nieves-Uribe et al. 2015, 2016d, 2017a,b, 2019; Satyrinae: Thomson 1992, García-Barros y Martín 1995), Lycaenidae (Downey y Allyn 1981, Munguira et al. 2015, y Riodinidae (Downey y Allyn 1980). Los huevos en la mayoría de estos estudios, así como otros donde se abarcan principalmente ciclos de vida, se obtienen mediante la observación y recolección de oviposiciones de huevos fecundados en el campo o en el laboratorio (v. ...
... En años recientes, los estudios sobre huevos de mariposas y en particular de su capa más externa -el exocorion-se realizaron con el empleo de dos técnicas de visualización: el empleo de microscopio electrónico de barrido (MEB) y la tinción con cloruro de metiltionina (azul de metileno) con observaciones en microscopio estereoscópico (Nieves-Uribe et al. 2016a). Estos trabajos se efectuaron en Noctuidae (Dolinskaya y Geryak 2010;Dolinskaya 2010Dolinskaya , 2011Dolinskaya y Ponomarenko 2013), Hesperiidae (Hernández-Roldán et al. 2012), Pieridae (Eitschberger y Ströhle 1990;Hernández-Mejía et al. 2013, 2014aNieves-Uribe et al. 2016a,b, 2018aLlorente-Bousquets et al. 2018), Nymphalidae (Heliconiini: Dell'Erba et al. 2005Biblidinae: Nieves-Uribe et al. 2015, 2016d, 2017a,b, 2019Satyrinae: Thomson 1992, García-Barros y Martín 1995, Lycaenidae (Downey y Allyn 1981, Munguira et al. 2015, y Riodinidae (Downey y Allyn 1980). Los huevos en la mayoría de estos estudios, así como otros donde se abarcan principalmente ciclos de vida, se obtienen mediante la observación y recolección de oviposiciones de huevos fecundados en el campo o en el laboratorio (v. ...
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Phyllophaga ravida Blanchard and Phyllophaga opaca Moser (Coleoptera: Scarabaeoidea: Melolonthidae) are economically important in Mexico. An option for management of the insect pests is use of sex pheromones. To obtain the chemical profile of sex pheromones of both species the posterior section of the genital chamber of females was excised and macerated to release the contents. Eight compounds from P. ravida were identified by retention index and mass spectra: cyclohexane, 1,1′-(2-tridecyl-1,3-propanediyl) bis-; 10-methyl-eicosane; 5-butyl-hexadecane; 3-hexen-2-one; 3,3-diethyl-azetidine-2,4-dione; tetramethyl-oxirane; 3-methyl-2-pentanone; and 2-methoxy-2-methyl-butane. Seven compounds were identified for P. opaca: cholesta-4, 6-dien-3-ol; cholesterol; cholesta-3,5-dien; 2-methyl heptadecane; α-tocopherol succinate; 9,19-cyclolanost-24-en-3-ol, acetate; and lup-20 (29)-en-3-ol, acetate. Some identified chemicals, mainly 3,3-diethyl-azetidine-2,4-dione and 2-methyl heptadecane might be involved in sexual attraction of P. ravida and P. opaca, respectively. Several compounds probably are incorporated from plants into insects during feeding, and further transformed by metabolism.
... Exochorion morphology as a character system in Lepidoptera is currently explored using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) or methylene blue stain (methionine chloride) under an optical microscope. Examples include Noctuidae (Dolinskaya 2010(Dolinskaya , 2011Dolinskaya & Geryak 2010;Dolinskaya & Ponomarenko 2013); Hesperiidae (Hernández-Roldán et al. 2012); Pieridae (Eitschberger & Ströhle 1990;Hernandez-Mejía et al. 2013, 2014a,b, 2015Nieves-Uribe et al. 2016a,b,c, 2018a; Lycaenidae (Downey & Allyn 1981;Munguira et al. 2015); Riodinidae (Downey & Allyn 1980); Satyrinae (Thomson 1992;García-Barros & Martín 1995); Heliconiini (Dell'Erba et al. 2005); Biblidinae (Nieves-Uribe et al. 2015, 2016d, 2017a. The authors of more detailed descriptions in Pieridae (Llorente-Bousquets & Castro-Gerardino 2007Hernández-Mejía et al. 2013, 2014a,b, 2015Nieves-Uribe et al. 2016a,b,c, 2018a and Biblidinae (Nieves-Uribe et al. 2015, 2016d, 2017a have explored exochorion morphology as a character system in Papilionoidea and have compared their results to previously published studies. ...
Article
Full-text available
We studied the chorionic morphology of six species of Hamadryas, and together with previous studies, we compared our results with previously published phylogenies for the genus. Samples were obtained from 19 females collected between 2013 and 2017 whose abdomens were sectioned and preserved for later dissection. Eggs were extracted from those dissections and used for the descriptions and illustrations of the chorion. The Hamadryas egg is of the globose type; it is quasi-spheroidal and has multiple polygonal grids with differentiation in specific zones/regions, and knolls with macrocells in their summits that arise in the apical third. These characteristics are very different from those found in the majority of Biblidinae and for those reported in the literature for Batesia and Panacea, which belong to the same subtribe as Hamadryas (Ageroniina, now Ageroniini). Chorionic characters support a previously suggested division of the genus (februa, feronia and laodamia groups) and they agree with the phylogenetic proposal based on morphological characters. Our study expands previous morphological work focused on this genus and compiles all the information available to date about the exochorion of Hamadryas, which now includes data for 10 species and that of Ectima thecla thecla, the putative sister group of Hamadryas.
... Posterior a ellos, el empleo de microscopía electrónica de barrido permitió la exploración de la zona perimicropilar en varios taxones: Downey y Allyn (1980,1981,1984) y Munguira et al. (2015) en Riodinidae y Lycaenidae, respectivamente; Kitching (1985) en Danainae; García-Barros y Martin (1995) en Satyrinae; Freitas y Brown (2004) en Nymphalidae; Dell' Erba et al. (2005) y da Silva et al. (2006) en Heliconiini del sur de Brasil. Más recientemente se ha empleado en Noctuidae ( Dolinskaya 2010Dolinskaya , 2011Dolinskaya y Geryak 2010;Dolinskaya y Ponomarenko 2013), y en Hesperiidae ( Hernández-Roldán et al. 2012). Sin embargo, en ninguno de ellos se detalló la conceptualización de las estructuras del exocorion más significativas para su empleo en sistemática, a distintos niveles de la jerarquía taxonómica. ...
Article
Full-text available
We described and compared the macro and micro exochorionic grid of three species of the genus Colias: C. croceus, C. alfacariensis, and C. lesbia mineira, under methylene blue staining techniques and with the scanning electron microscope (SEM). The size, shapes, as well as diverse aspects of the grid in its region or zones, are different for each species. The differences occur in the micropyle, perimicropylar area, relative thickness between axes and ribs, the arrangement and number of polygons that make up the micro-grid, among other characters we detailed. All these characters are illustrated in drawings and SEM photographs. The results are compared between each species and those of earlier works. © 2018 Southwestern Entomological Society. All rights reserved.
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The original data concerning the diversity of Lepidoptera of the National Park «Prypiat-Stokhid» (NPPS) are given. 415 Lepidoptera species are recorded for the first time in this area. Recently the checklist of Lepidoptera of NPPS includes 648 known species, which belong to 23 families and 12 superfamilies. The superfamilies of the Noctuoidea and Geometroidea are distinguished by the largest taxonomic diversity and together account for more than half of all detected species of Lepidoptera in the NPPS. There are 19 threatened Lepidoptera species found in NPPS. 12 of them are included into the Red Data Book of Ukraine (2009), 5 – into the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (2018), 8 – into the Annexes of Bern Convention. Taking into the consideration the short term of research and especially their unevenness, both spatial and systematical, the level of knowledge of the Lepidoptera fauna of NPPS is still clearly insufficient, and the checklist should be increased substantially due to further research. Key words: Lepidoptera, fauna, NP «Prypiat-Stokhid», checklist, distribution, rare species.
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The Chorionic Sculpture of the Eggs of Some Noctuinae (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae) from Ukraine Descriptions and scanning electron microphotographs of the eggs of 10 species from 7 genera of the subfamily Noctuinae occurring in Ukraine are provided. The diagnostic characters of the genera and species are selected.
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Egg, first larval stage and female genitalia of the moth Chabuata castanea (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Egg, first larval stage, and female genitalia of the widely distributed moth Chabuata castanea are described, based on material from Talcahuano, VIII region, Chile. Egg microestructures are illustrated with scannig electron microscope images which show that egg morphology allows identification to species level.
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Presented, with notes, are 124 plates of SEM illustrations of noctuid eggs representing 14 subfamilies of the Noctuidae: one species of Agaristinae, four species of Pantheinae, six species of Acronictinae, 34 species of Noctuinae, 26 species of Hadeninae, 10 species of Cuculliinae, 14 species of Amphipyrinae, three species of Acontiinae, two species of Euteliinae, two species of Plusiinae, 11 species of Catocalinae, one species of Hypeninae, one species of Rivulinae, and nine species of Herminiinae.
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Summary The morphology of the Mamestra brassicae (Linnaeus, 1758) was studied, by means of laboratory and field observations, at the Tobacco Research Institute in Scafati (Salerno, Southern Italy). Adult has the forewing blackish-gray with the reniform stigma conspicuous, encircled by white points. Typical is the big black slightly curved and pointed spine present on the foretibiae. Egg is subspherical with a flat base and chorion sculpturing composed of 34-40 longitudinal ribs of which 14-19 reach the micropylar area. Newly-born larva is white-pale yellow with bright black head. Anal shield with some peculiar characteristics: it is sclerotized along margins and in correspondence of the D1 setae. Mature larva is quite variable in background colour, ranging from pale green to olive green-black and greyish with pink shades. On the back, except for the green forms, couples of linear, dark, subdorsal spots stand out. In the ocellar position a characteristic subcircular, yellow spot is evident. Pupa is pale brown lucent when newly formed and purplish-brown just before adult emergence. Cremaster is prominent, finely rugose, bearing two long, straight, subparallel spines, ending as a pinhead.
Microstructure of the oxocorion in eggs of some species of noctuids (Lepidoptera: Glossata: Noctuidae)
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Angulo, A. O. & Olivares, T. S. (1991). Microstructure of the oxocorion in eggs of some species of noctuids (Lepidoptera: Glossata: Noctuidae). Anales del Instituto de la Patagonia, Serie Ciencias Naturales, Punta Arenas (Chile), 20(1), 95-100.
Annotated Catalogue of the Noctuid-moths (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae) of Ukraine. Kiev, 1-880 p
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Klyuchko, Z., Plyushtch, I. & Sheshurak, P. N. (2001). Annotated Catalogue of the Noctuid-moths (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae) of Ukraine. Kiev, 1-880 p. [in Russian].
Zur Morphologie der Schmetterlingseier
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Döring, E. (1955). Zur Morphologie der Schmetterlingseier. Akademie Verlag, Berlin, 1-154.
Systematic list of the Noctuoidea of Europe (Notodontidae, Nolidae, Arctiidae, Lymantriidae, Erebidae, Micronoctuidae and Noctuidae)
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Fibiger, M. & Hacker, H. (2004). Systematic list of the Noctuoidea of Europe (Notodontidae, Nolidae, Arctiidae, Lymantriidae, Erebidae, Micronoctuidae and Noctuidae). Esperiana, 11, 83-172.
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Hinton, H. E. (1981). Biology of insect eggs, 1-3, Oxford, Pergamon Press, 1-1125.