ArticlePDF Available

An Experimental Study on Hypolipidemic effect of some selected Rûksha Guna drugs

Figures

No caption available
… 
No caption available
… 
No caption available
… 
No caption available
… 
No caption available
… 
Content may be subject to copyright.
AYU-VOL. 30, NO. 2 (APRIL-JUNE) 2009205
An Experimental Study on Hypolipidemic effect of some
selected Rûksha Guna drugs
SANGRAM MISHRA * R. R. DWIVEDI** B. RAVISHANKAR*** B. K. ASHOK****
Institute for Post Graduate Teaching and Research in Ayurveda, Gujarat Ayurved University, Jamnagar.
ABSTRACT : Âyurveda as well as Philosophies accepted the Guna as the basic entity of the Srishti.
Gunas can be classified under various categories like Âdhyâtmika Guna, Gurvâdi Guna, Parâdi Guna,
Vishistha Guna. For the treatment purpose Gurvâdi Gunas are widely used. Among them the Snigdha
Guna and Rûksha Guna are widely used in the Samhitâs. This study has been carried out to establish the
Rûksha property drugs on animals as a hypolipidemic effect on induced hyperlipidemia animals. The
drugs selected were having Rûksha property by Rasa panchaka. The drugs were Vachâ (Acorus calamus
Linn), Kushtha (Saussurea lappa C.B. Clarke), Haridra (Curcuma longa Linn), Daruharidrâ (Berberis aristata
DC), Chitraka (Plumbago zeylanica), Karanja (Pongamia pinnata Pierre). All the drugs are having Lekhana
property and Srotosodhaka karma due to Rûksha property. Based on this promise the test drug (Rûksha
Guna) had been studied on various experimental models such as body weight, weight of liver, heart and
kidney, food intake and faecal out put, water intake, total faecal fat content etc. The selected drugs are the
representative of highest magnitude of Rûksha property which are able to influence Dîpana and Pâchana
property and the test drug was administered with the simultaneous administration of hyperlipidemia inducing
diet, but the biochemical values are found under control.
Key words : Hyperlipidemia, Rûksha Guna, Dîpana, Pachana, Experimental models.
* Ph.D. (Ayu.), Dept. of Basic Principles.
** Professor & H.O.D - Basic Principles.
*** Head -Pharmacology Laboratory.
**** Senior Research Fellow (CCRAS) - Pharmacology
Lab.
INTRODUCTION
The Âyurvedic term “Bheshaja Pariksha” can
be considered as equivalent to the term drug examination
and evaluation. In Âyurveda, the drugs which are not
scientifically explored have been totally condemned, for
example Charaka says, “A drug that is not understood
perfectly is comparable to poison, fire or the thunderbolt,
while the drug which is properly understood is comparable
to ambrosia. (Cha.Su.1/124)1.”
In this clinical science, all concepts are having
their practical utility. One of the concepts is Guna,
which has multifold meanings according to its use, like
in social, cultural, philosophical and literary field2. The
concepts of Âyurveda are expressed with Gunas3.
Gunas can be classified under various categories like
Âdhyâtmika Guna, Gurvâdi Guna, Parâdi Guna,
Vishishta Guna. For the treatment purpose Gurvâdi
gunas are widely used. The functional property of
Snigdha is Sneha, Mrudutâ (softness), Ârdratâ
(malleability)4,5.It stimulates Kapha and normalizes
Vâta and also increases Mala Similarly the functional
property of Rûksha is dryness. It increases Vâta and
normalizes Kapha, decreases Bala, Varna (normal
colour). In the general treatment two principles are
adopted i.e. Santarpana & Apatarpana. The increased
elements are treated by opposite Guna6. So if Rûksha
Guna is increased, then it is to be managed by Snigdha
Guna and vice-versa. So diseases can be treated by
applying the two Gunas and drugs for the required
patient can be selected by applying these Gunas7.
The aim of the present research work is to observe
the effect of Rûksha Guna on Snigdhatâ of animals by
providing some selected Rûksha Guna drugs after
increasing the Snigdha Guna in the animals. It was
thought worthwhile to supplement the concept with
experimental studies in laboratory animals. There are
chances that certain factors like status of Agni (metabolic
activity) and changes in organs with biochemical
parameters may be assessed more specifically with
objective manner in animals.
Aims and Objectives:
The present study was undertaken with the
following aims and objectives17:
1. To assess the effect of Rûksha Guna through various
experiments in the animals.
2. Pharmacological evaluation of test drug formulation
to assess its effect on lipid profile of albino rats for
possible use as hypolipidaemic agent.
3. To assess the action of test drug on Dîpana Pâchana
activity in experimental animals.
AYU-VOL. 30, NO. 2 (APRIL-JUNE) 2009, pp. 205-210
206
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Procurement of test drug : The test
formulation “Medicinal group A” contains following
drugs viz. Vachâ, Kushtha, Haridrâ10,
Dâruharidrâ, Chîtraka8, and Karanja7, 11,12 in equal
amount. All the drugs were procured from Pharmacy
of I.P.G.T. & R.A., Gujarat Ayurved University,
finely powdered and processed with Karanja tvak
decoction and tablets of 500mg each were prepared
by adopting standard procedure.
Animals : Wister strain albino rats of either sex
weighing between 170-290g were selected for the
study from the animal house attached to the institute.
They were housed at 22 ± 2ºC with constant humidity
50 - 60%, on a 12th natural day and night cycles.
They were fed with diet Amrut brand rat pellet feed
supplied by Pranav Agro Industries and tap water
ad libitum. The experiments were carried out in
accordance with the directions of the Institutional
Animal Ethics Committee (IAEC).
Dose selection & schedule : The dose of the
test drug was calculated by extrapolating the human
dose to animals based on the body surface area ratio
by referring to the standard table of Paget & Barnes,
(1969)9. The test drug was suspended in tap water
(360mg/ml) and administered orally at a volume of
0.5 ml/100g body weight.
Statistical analysis : The data generated during
the study was subjected to students‘t’ test for unpaired
data to assess the statistical significance. A ‘p’ value
less than 0.05 were considered as statistically
significant.
Experimental procedure : The experiment was
carried out by the method designed by Ravishankar
B. et al. with slight modifications 13, 14 ,15, 16. It is
carried out in two phases viz. Phase I and Phase II.
Phase - I : Preliminary study :
The selected rats of either sex were assigned
to 3 groups. The first group receiving tap water
served as normal control group, second as cholesterol
control group to which only hyperlipidaemic diet (The
hydrogenated vegetable oil and cholesterol extrapure
powder made in to suspension (20%) in coconut oil
in the dose of 0.5 ml/100 g body weight) was
administered and the third group was administered
with test drug along with hyperlipidaemic diet . Initial
weights of selected animals were taken and they
were placed in individual metabolic cages used which
had special arrangements for preventing admixture
of food with the faecal material. Also faecal material
could be collected as the urine was drained out with
the specific arrangements.
Phase - II : Therapeutic study :
This phase of the study was started on 6th day
and continued till 16th day. At this phase also the food
consumption, faecal output and water intake were
assessed as mentioned in preliminary study and
hyperlipidaemic diet was continued (given at evening
hours). The test formulation was administered
(morning hours) from 6th day and continued up to
15th day. On the 16th day after overnight fasting, the
rats were sacrificed by stunning and severing of
jugular vessels, blood was collected and sent for
biochemical investigations. From the sacrificed
animals, liver, kidney and heart were dissected out
and weight was noted and transferred to (including
aorta) fixing solution (10% formalin). The tissues
were processed for histo-pathological examinations
following standard procedure23 to note down
cytoarchitectural disturbances if any. Other
parameters studied were changes in body weight,
weight of liver, heart and kidney, food intake and
faecal out put, water intake and total faecal fat
content and also serum biochemical parameters like
serum total cholesterol21, serum triglyceride21, serum
LDL cholesterol21, Blood sugar18, serum urea19,
serum creatinine22, and serum alkaline phosphatase20
activity.
OBSERVATIONS AND RESULTS
The results obtained in the present study are
given in the form of consolidated statement in the
following table. (Table No. 1)
Table No. 2 shows the effect Medicinal group
A on food consumption, food conversion ratio and
faecal output in Wistar rats. The data presented by
Mean ± SEM where 6 animals in each group. A ‘p’
value less than 0.05 is considered as statistically
significant.
Table No. 3 shows the effect Medicinal group
A on various biochemical parameters of Wistar rats.
The data presented by Mean ± SEM where 6 animals
in each group. A ‘p’ value less than 0.05 is considered
as statistically significant. A ‘p’ Value less than 0.001
is considered as statistically highly significant.
Hypolipidemic effect of Rûksha Guna Drugs : Mishra S. et. al.
AYU-VOL. 30, NO. 2 (APRIL-JUNE) 2009207
TABLE NO. 1 : CONSOLIDATED STATEMENT OF THE OBSERVATION AND RESULTS :
Parameters Cholesterol control* Medicinal group A**
1. Body weight —- NSI
2. Liver weight NSE NSE
3. Heart weight NSE NSE
4. Kidney weight SI NSE
5. Biochemical parameters
a. Blood sugar SI NSE
b. Serum triglyceride SI NSE
c. Total cholesterol SI NSE
d. Serum creatinine SI NSE
e. Serum uric acid SI NSE
f. Alkaline phosphatase SI NSE
g. Serum total protein NSE NSE
6. Total lipid content in faecal matter —- NSE
7. Food conversion ratio NSE NSE
8. Food consumption NSE NSE
9. Faecal output NSE NSE
10. Water intake —- NSE
*- In comparison to normal control group; ** - In comparison to cholesterol control group
NSE - No significant effect; SI- Significant increase
TABLE NO. 2 : EFFECT OF TEST DRUG MEDICINAL GROUP A ON FOOD CONSUMPTION, FOOD CONVERSION RATIO AND
FAECAL OUTPUT :
Parameters Control Cholesterol control Test drug
Food consumption (g)
Preliminary phase 17.86 ± 00.66 13.46 ± 02.38 14.31 ± 01.95
Therapeutic phase 16.40 ± 00.85 14.41 ± 02.01 15.59 ± 02.32
Faecal output (g)
Preliminary phase 02.81 ± 00.14 02.52 ± 00.51 02.95 ± 00.49
Therapeutic phase 02.31 ± 00.10 02.10 ± 00.38*02.38 ± 00.47
Food conversion ratio
Preliminary phase 06.41 ± 00.31 06.08 ± 01.03 05.41 ± 01.19
Therapeutic phase 08.41 ± 00.52 07.99 ± 01.41*07.92 ± 01.38
: Decrease, * p < 0.05, Data : Mean ± SEM
TABLE NO. 3 : THE EFFECT OF TEST DRUG MEDICINAL GROUP A ON BIOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS :
Parameters Control Cholesterol control Test drug
S. Triglycerides(mg/dl) 64.66 ± 04.77 107.50 ± 09.91** 100.08 ± 04.39
S. Cholesterol (mg/dl) 64.16 ± 06.56 88.67 ± 06.35* 79.80 ± 06.83
S. Creatinine(mg/dl) 00.66 ± 00.03 00.87 ± 00.04 ***00.82 ± 00.03
S. Uric acid (mg/dl) 01.28 ± 00.06 02.12 ± 00.17*** 02.28 ± 00.32
ALP activity(IU/L) 149.83 ± 12.59 245.00 ± 20.23** 232.80 ± 33.48
: Decrease, : Increase, * p < 0.05, ** p< 0.01, *** p< 0.001
DISCUSSION
Experimental models have been selected based
on the presumption that the Agni is the main factor for
the conversion of Snigdha to Rûksha. For assessment
of role of Rûksha Guna the Dîpana - Pâchana activities
were considered appropriate. For this purpose three
experimental models were selected viz. food
consumption ratio, water intake and faecal output.
These three models were suggested earlier by Dwivedi
R. R., Dixit U. D. and Ravishankar B. to assess the
effect of test drug on Agni and the same has been
incorporated in this present study to assess the functions
of Pitta in general as well as on Agni too. As Agni is
related to Dîpana and Pâchana effect of body, so the
208
study was done with the relation to Dîpana and Pâchana.
This protocol is in use for more than over a decade and is
considered as a good model for assessing Dîpana and
Pâchana effects there by helpful in assessing the status
of Agni13,14,15,16.
Effect on body weight : A moderate increase in
the body weight was observed in test drug treated group
in comparison to cholesterol control group but it is not up
to significant level due to variation in data. The test drugs
are Rûksha by Guna and Lekhana and Pâchana in nature.
It also indirectly indicate the increase in the Pâchana
effect on the food consumed (Table-2). In normal
conditions, Pâchana property increases the food
assimilation, leading to increase in body weight, but in
hyperlipidaemic conditions the Pâchana drugs will act on
excessive fat, the net result is comparative decrease in
the rate of body weight gain. Thus in the present study a
19.62% higher body weight gain rate was observed in
test drug administered group in comparison to cholesterol
control.
Enhanced food intake is considered to indicate
increased Dîpana property. Decreased faecal out put
without concomitant increase in the food conversion ratio
(Table -2) is considered to indicate increase in the
Pâchana property. Dîpana property is mainly concerned
with food breakdown and digestion. If there is decrease
in food digestion, there may be reflex inhibition in food
intake. Pâcana property is concerned with assimilation
of digested food into body constituents. Any change in it
will be reflected by the changes in food conversion ratio
and body weight.
Analysis of the data shows increase (08.94%) in
food intake at therapeutic phase in the test drug
administered group in comparison to cholesterol control
group but the observed increase is not statistically
significant. That means the test Drugs have a good
Dîpana property by which it could increase the food intake
property.
Faecal output : The perusal of the data generated
shows that test drug administration decreased the faecal
output up to 19.32% in comparison to cholesterol control
group, but it was not sufficient to reach statistically
significant level in both preliminary phase and therapeutic
phase in comparison to cholesterol control group.
Decreased faecal output with concomitant increase in
the food conversion ratio is considered to indicate increase
in the Pâchana property.
This type of activity may be indicative of the
Rûksha Guna present in the test drugs. The increase in
food intake without affecting the food conversion ratio
and decreasing faecal output (Table-2) is suggestive of
the increased Dîpana. But since there was an increase
in the weight gain pattern in hyperlipidaemic rats, the
drugs were not able to act on metabolism to cause
comparative body weight reduction with respect to normal
rats.
Effect on total lipid content in faecal matter :
A marginal to moderate 2.00% decrease in total lipid
content in faecal matter was observed in test drug treated
group at drug free preliminary phase and therapeutic phase
respectively in comparison to control. It clearly shows
the drug has moderate action on fat metabolism and it
expels the fat through faeces showing an action of
Srotoshodhana and Sramsana activity with the assimilation
activity of Pâchana property.
Effect on water intake : During preliminary phase
a moderate and statistically non significant decrease in
water intake was observed in test drug treated group in
comparison to control group. Decrease in water
consumption may be related to increase in the Snigdha
property in the body.
Effect on organ weight : Analysis of the data
shows increase in both absolute and (8.87%) relative liver
weight in the test drug administered group in comparison
to cholesterol control group, but the observed increase is
not statistically significant. The test drug did not affect
both absolute and relative weight of the heart and kidney
to significant extent in comparison to cholesterol control
group. The only inference which can be drawn on the
basis of the available data is that Rûksha Guna has
influence on organ's weights. As Snigdha property diet
(Cholesterol provocating diet i.e. Cholesterol and Ghee)
administered simultaneously with the Rûksha Guna test
drug and the Snigdha Guna developed in the organs would
have been counteracted by the test drug.
Biochemical parameters : The next set of
parameters that was taken into consideration is the effect
of Test Drug administration on the Serum Lipid Profile.
Administration of cholesterol along with coconut oil and
hyderogenated oil lead to significant hyperlipdemic
condition as reflected in the form of significant elevation
in total cholesterol and triglyceride level in these rats in
comparison to normal control. Test drug with sufficient
magnitude of Rûkshatâ are expected to reverse this
hyperlipidemic condition. If this presumption is correlated
with findings of this study then this would be an ideal
protocol to ascertain Rûkshatâ in a drug. Analysis of the
result indicates that the test drug produced weak to
moderate decrease in serum triglyceride (Table-3) and
serum cholesterol (Table-3) levels. With the simultaneous
Hypolipidemic effect of Rûksha Guna Drugs : Mishra S. et. al.
AYU-VOL. 30, NO. 2 (APRIL-JUNE) 2009209
administration of hyperlipidemic diet with test drug, it has
been observed that the biochemical parameters were
under control with decreasing result, which is not
statistically significant. It shows the Test Drug tablet has
a good magnitude of Rûkshatâ as a property.
The other important changes occurring during
Hyperlipedemic state are increased blood sugar level,
increased serum creatinine level (Table-3), increased
alkaline phosphatase activity and increased serum uric
acid level (Table-3). These changes can be attributed to
increased Snigdhatâ of the diet. In the present study as
observed in the case of serum lipid level, marginal
antagonism of elevation in most of these parameters was
observed in test drug administered group. That is marginal
reversal of the increase in the activity or level of the
above parameters except serum uric acid. This can be
taken to represent presence of Rûksha Guna in the test
drug.
Effect on serum creatinine : In hyperlipidemic
rats moderate elevation in serum creatinine level is
observed in comparison to normal rats. This increase is
indicative of disturbance in the kidney functioning. This
observation along with the fact that hyperlipidemia leads
to increase in kidney weight would suggest that higher
level of Snigdhatâ in the body is detrimental to the kidney
function. In treated group a marginal decrease on serum
creatinine level (05.74%) was observed in comparison
to cholesterol control group. This may be considered to
represent presence of Rûkshatâ in it.
Effect on Alkaline phosphatase : The test
formulation exhibited weak attenuation of Alkaline
phosphatase elevation by combating the Snigdhatâ,
indicating Rûkshatâ property in it (Table-3).
Effect on Serum uric acid : Effect of test drug
on serum uric acid shows a marginal increase (07.54%)
in test formulation treated group in comparison to
cholesterol control group. The raise can be attributed to
two reasons- as already mentioned it is indicative of
increased metabolism of uric acid and the second is it
reflects the status of kidney functioning. It can be
suggested that increased Snigdhatâ influences purine
metabolism and impairs kidney function. The changes in
the weight of the kidney, increased serum creatinine level
and the increased serum uric acid level are all indicative
of disturbance in the kidney function too, of which are
marginally reversed by the test drug indicating presence
of Rûkshatâ in it which can counteract the Snigdhatâ
property, which may be for improper kidney function.
Effect on total protein : The proteins are the chief
solids of the plasma, an increase in total protein is called
hyperproteinaemia and it may occur due to high level of
plasma globulins. The serum total protein level is
increased during inflammation due to the increased protein
synthesis. In test formulation treated group an apparent
marginal decrease was observed in comparison to
cholesterol control group. The decrease was found to be
statistically non-significant. This indicates measurement
of serum protein level is not likely to provide information
about the Snigdhatâ or Rûkshatâ attributes in a test
formulation.
Histopathological study :
Mild micro fatty changes were observed in the
liver sections obtained from rats fed hyperlipidemic diet.
In test drug administered group these changes were
absent. Kidney sections obtained from different groups
exhibited normal cytoarchitecture. There were no
differences in the microscopic profile. The heart shows
administration of hyperlipidemic diet leading to mild to
moderate myocarditis as could be seen in cholesterol and
coconut oil fed group. These changes were found to be
attenuated in test drug administered groups.
CONCLUSION
The selected drugs are the representative of
highest magnitude of Rûksha property which are able to
influence Dîpana and Pâchana activity. The test Drug
was administered with the simultaneous administration
of hyperlipidemia induced diet, but the Biochemical values
are in under control. It is indicative of Rûksha Guna which
can counteract the Snigdhatâ of body. The test drugs
were able to maintain the normal tissue profile of the
organs though the hyperlipidemia induced diet was
administered.
Though the test drug conceptually, is supposed to
have highest magnitude of Rûksha property, it was not
found sufficient to antagonize the probable highest level
of Snigdhatâ achieved through administration of
hyperlipidemic diet. Nevertheless, tendency towards
reversal of Snigdhatâ is observed in many biochemical
parameters. Based on this premise it can be suggested
that it may at least, moderately counteract to Vaikrita
Sneha in hyperlipidemia state.
REFERENCES
1. Agnivesha,’Charaka Samhitâ’, revised by Charaka and
Drdhabala with ‘Âyurveda Dîpikâ’ commentary, by
Chakrapânidatta, edited by Vaidya Jâdavaji Trikamaji Âchârya,
Krishnadas Academy, Gopal Mandir Lane,Varanasi -221 001,
(India), reprint 2000, Sûtra Sthâna 1/124 Ibidem pg.23.
2. Shree Jibanananda Vidyasagara Bhatacaryana - Sabdastomo
Mahânidhi 3rd edition Kolkota- 1893 p- 143.
3. Sabdastomo Mahanidhi by Sri Jibanananda Vidyasagar
Bhatacarjyana 3rd edition Published at Kolkata -1893 pg. 453.
4. Medinîkosha by Srî Medinikara published by Chaukhambha
Sanskrit Series Office Banarasa City- 1940 Stanza - 19/42.
5. Charaka Samhitâ Sûtra Sthâna 1/62 Ibidem pg.17.
6. Charaka Samhitâ Sûtra Sthâna 1/53 Ibidem pg.14.
7. Database, P. C. Sharma, M.B. Yelene, T. J. Dennis, Published
by -Central Council for Research in Âyurveda and Siddha.2000
Vol -I P- 469- 472.
8. Alpana Ram Effect of plumbago zeylanica in hyperlipidaemic
rabbits and its modification by vitamin E, Dept of Pharmacy,
Lal Bahadur Shastri College, Jaipur, India, Indian Journal of
Pharmacology. 1996 Sept; 28(3): 161-6.
9. Paget G.E., Bernes J.M. (1969), Evaluation of drug activities,
pharmacometrics (Laurence D. R. Bacharacha A.C. Vol-1
P-135-146.
10. Halim Eshrat M. Ali HussainHypoglycemic, hypolipidemic and
antioxidant properties of combination Of curcumin from curcuma
longa, linn, and partially purified product from abroma augusta,
linn. In streptozotocin induced diabetes .Indian Journal of
Clinical Biochemistry, 2002, 17 (2) 33-43.
11. P. C. Sharma, M. B. Yelene, T. J. Dennis, Published by -
Central Council for Research in Âyurveda and Siddha. Vol -I,
P-152-155.
12. Sharma PV. Dravya Guna Vigyana Vol II Varanasi: Chaukhambha
Bharati Academy, 1993:359-61.
13. Balaji Potbhare, Prof. R. R. Dwivedi et.al-Concept of Snigdha
Guna and Applied study to evolve some objective parameters”,
(B.P.), IPGT & RA, G.A.U., Jamnagar, 2005, (Ref - Sl no- 180
Research in Ayurveda by Dr M.S. Baghel ).
14. Buchake Anand et. al. -“An assessment of the activities of Rûksha
Guna w.s.r. to Sthaulya”, (D.G.), IPGT & RA, G.A.U.,
Jamnagar2002 (Ref -Sl no-341-Research in Ayurveda by Dr
M.S. Baghel L-2718).
15. Umesh Kumar Sapra et. al.“ A clinical study of hyperlipidaemia
and the effect of panchatikta ghana in its management-a double
blind study”, (K.C.), IPGT & RA, G.A.U., Jamnagar2007.
16. Supriya Bhalerao, Prof. R. R. Dwivedi et. al. -“A comprehensive
study of Gunas and evolution of some objective parameters in
the context of Snigdha and Rûksha Gunas.” (B.P.), IPGT & RA,
G.A.U., Jamnagar1998 Sl no- 147 (Ref -Research in Ayurveda by
Dr M.S. Baghel L- 2421).
17. Mishra Sangram, Prof. R. R. Dwivedi et. al.- Fundamental and
applied study of Snigdha and Ruksa gunas with special reference
to Rasa- raktagata Sneha (Hyperlipidemia) (PhD thesis
Submitted).
18. Teitz, N.W.Fandamentals of Clinical chemistry(243),
W.B.Saunders & Co.Philidelphia PA 1976.
19. Tiffany,T.O. Jansen., Burtis C.A. Overton J.B and Scott C.D.
Clin.Chem, 18:829. 1972.
20. Tris-Carbonate Buffer, Kinetic Wilkinson J.H. and Winsten S.,
Clin Chem. 15 (487), 1969.
21. Roeschlau P., Bernt E., and Gruber W.A., Clin Chem., Clin
Biochem 12(226) 1974. (Erba biochemical test kit manual).
22. Jafe’s method Slot, C. Scand.J. Clin. Lab. Invest 17, 381. 1965.
23. Raghuramulu, N., Nair, M.K., Kalyanasundaram,S. (Eds). A
Manual of Laboratory Techniques. National Institute of Nutrition
(NIN)-, Hyderabad, India. 1983 P.246-253.
<Y^Z] Δ√}√|_
·v¥ «tJ fitØv ∫Ïfi√≤* wv√ Y√Û…√≤™∑™…s>≤<Iwv …Lμ√Ë …} —wv …Lfi√≤«√MIwv G˙fifiA
Δ|«L√I <Iπ√, G√}. G√}. <ÂË≤Z], l]. }<Ë_|wv} —Ë| l]. w≤v. G_√≤wv
«tJ Δ`<˝> wv√ IÍ∑ G¢oMË Y§ $ G√fitË≤÷Z w≤v G<o™}Øv G^fi Z_÷A μ] ÛΔwv√≤ ¢Ë]wv√} wv}o≤ Y§ $ …Lfi√≤« w≤v GAtΔ√} «tJ w≤v
GA≤wv GE÷ Y§* ©§Δ≤, ΔI√©, Δ|¢w`v<o, Z_÷A, Δ√<YMfi I≤* G∑« G∑« Δ|Zμ÷ Y§* $ <ΙwvMΔ√ w≤v @‚≤Ffi Δ≤ «tË√÷<Z «tJ√≤* wv√
G<pwv√<pwv …Lfi√≤« Y§ $ ÛAI≤* Δ≤ ¢Aap G√§} ·v¥ «tJ fitØv G√§B<p wv√ Δ|<Yo√ I≤* ΔË√÷<pwv …Lfi√≤« Y§ $ fiY G˙fifiA, ¢Aap «tJ
fitØv G√§Bp …L≤™}o Y√Û…}™∑™…s>≤<Iwv ÎÍY√≤* …} Y√Û…√≤<∑<…s>≤<Iwv …Lμ√Ë wv}o√ Y§, fiY ¢E√<…o wv}A≤ w≤v <∑fi≤ ™wvfi√ «fi√ $ }Δ
…|Îwv w≤v GAtΔ√} ·v¥ «tJ }xA≤ Ë√∑≤ G√§Bp <∑fi≤ «fi≤ $ fiE√ - ËÎ√, wtv˛>, Y™}∫√, Z√ÔY™}∫√, <Î⁄wv, wv}|© Δμ] G√§Bp
·v¥ «tJ w≤v wv√}J ∑|”Awv√}wv G√§} ΔL√≤o√≤_√≤pwv wvI÷ wv}o≤ Y§* $ fiY …}]¥J <Ë<μı …L√fi√≤<«wv I√Awv√≤* …} G√p√™}o Y§,
©§Δ≤ _}]} wv√ G√wv√}, fiw`vo wv√ Ë©A, UZfi G√§} Ë`ÿv, <∑fi√ «fi√ μ√≤©A G√§} l√Y} <Awv√∑√ I∑, <…fi√ «fi√ …√A],
I∑ I≤* ËΔ√ wvK I√⁄√ G√<Z $ Δμ] G√ËFfiwv ·v<p} …}]¥J, ©]Ë}√Δ√fiA]wv …}]¥J μ] ™wv— «— $ …™}J√I I≤* …L√‰ Y¯G√
™wv <∑fi√ «fi√ G√§Bp ·v¥ «tJ }xA≤ Ë√∑≤ G√§B<pfi√≤* wv√ …L<o<A<pMË wv}o√ Y§ G√§} ÛΔI≤* Z]…A …√ÎA w≤v «tJ μ] Y§* $
…}]<¥o G√§Bp w≤v Δ√E Δ√E GMfi√<pwv ËΔ√fitØv μ√≤©A μ] <Zfi√ E√, ÛΔw≤v l√Z μ] ©§<Ëwv }√Δ√fi<Awv I√⁄√ <Afi|<⁄o
}Y] G√§} Ë`<Ù AY]* …√fi] «fi] $ fiY ·v¥ «tJ√≤* wvK wv√It÷wvo√ wv√ ¢A≤Y√<p®fi I≤* …Lμ√Ë Z_√÷o√ Y§ $

Hypolipidemic effect of Rûksha Guna Drugs : Mishra S. et. al. 210
... Since synthetic modern drugs have been shown to have side effects, clinical importance of the Ayurvedic drugs in the treatment of hyperlipidemia has been received considerable attention in recent years [1][2][3][4] . Various Ayurvedic preparations have been reported to have hypolipidemic and hypocholesterolemic properties [1][2][3][4] . ...
... Since synthetic modern drugs have been shown to have side effects, clinical importance of the Ayurvedic drugs in the treatment of hyperlipidemia has been received considerable attention in recent years [1][2][3][4] . Various Ayurvedic preparations have been reported to have hypolipidemic and hypocholesterolemic properties [1][2][3][4] . Abhrak bhasma is an important Ayurvedic drug used solely or in composite drugs for centuries with claimed efficacy and safety against many diseases/disorders 9 . ...
Article
Full-text available
Lipid profile has diagnostic importance related to cardiovascular diseases which are reflections of the altered lipid metabolism. Abhrak bhasma, an Ayurvedic drug is used as solo or with other Ayurvedic drugs against many diseases/disorders. This mica processed drug is assessed in comparison with pure silica form SiO 2 to differentiate silica effects of abhrak bhasma. To decipher their adverse effects if any as primary response on lipid profile pattern in normal rat, graded doses viz. 10, 20, 30 and 40mg were given as single dose in experimental schedule of 24 hrs. The results showed that abhrak bhasma administration maintained normal level of Total cholesterol, Triglyceride and Free Fatty Acids with no influence on HDL, LDL and VLDL levels in serum. High doses of SiO 2 altered all these levels. The results indicate that low doses of both the drugs share the trend of mode of influence on normal lipids. At high doses SiO 2 influenced LDL levels significantly.
... Various Ayurvedic preparations have been reported to have hypolipidemic and hypocholesterolemic properties. [2,3,4,5] CCl 4 is known to induce Dyslipidemia [6,7] and is used as centrolobular liver fatty degeneration inducing agent. [8] Its single dose (3.00ml/kg body wt) is known to induce centrolobular necrosis in rat [9,10] , which is an appropriate model to test primary response of drug against single dose of CCl 4 induced hyperlipidemia. ...
Article
Full-text available
The serum levels of cholesterol (CHO), triglycerides (TG) and free fatty acids (FFA) were studied to analyse protective effects of abhrak bhasma in graded doses (10, 20, 30 and 40mg/kg body wt given once) against single dose of CCl 4 (3.00ml/kg body wt/sc given once) induced hepatotoxicity, administering (PO) it simultaneously. CCl 4 administration increased CHO, TG, FFA level significantly. Abhrak bhasma successfully protected the normal levels showing variations in minimum dose requirements viz. CHO-30mg, TG-10mg, FFA-30mg. All the above doses maintained the normal levels. SiO 2 treatment showed variance. 10mg and 20mg doses hardly influenced CCl 4 induced elevated CHO and 30 and 40mg doses showed marginally high CHO levels than normal. While CCl 4 mediated increased FFA levels were hardly influenced by SiO 2. Same was true incase of TG where 30 and 40mg dose marginally lowered the TG. Results indicate that tendency of lowering cholesterol is shown by abhrak bhasma and SiO 2 but it is more potent incase of abhrak bhasma influence. Though the protective tendency is shared by SiO 2 , it is not shown by SiO 2 high doses. TG and FFA levels were lowered by abhrak bhasma and not by SiO 2. Thus silica form in abhrak bhasma is more potent than pure amorphous silica form in SiO 2 .
... Angiosifa contains seven herbs, viz., Cinnamomum zeylanicum, Glychyrizza glabra, Nelumbo nucifera, Hibiscus rosa-sinesis, Sausurrea lappa, Spermacoce hispida and T. arjuna. The hypolipedimic effect of H. rosa-sinensis, 6 S. hispida, 7 N. nucifera, 8 S. lappa 9 and T. arjuna 10 are known, but the synergistic effect of these plants in the formulation has not been elucidated so far. Combinations of these herbs may have an enhanced hypolipidemic effect even with low dose levels of the individual herbs. ...
Article
Objective To study the antihyperlipidemic effect of Angiosifa, a polyherbal formulation (PHF), in Sprague–Dawley (SD) rats. Methods The rats were divided into seven groups, each having five animals: normal controls, high fat diet (HFD)-fed controls and HFD-fed animals treated with atorvastatin (10 mg/kg), petroleum ether extract of the PHF (200 and 400 mg/kg) and methanol extract of the PHF (200 and 400 mg/kg). The test and standard drugs were administered orally once daily for 28 consecutive days. During the experiment, changes in body weight were noted and alterations in biological and biochemical parameters were monitored at regular intervals. Results HFD-fed animals showed significant increases in body weight and total cholesterol, triglyceride and VLDL levels. They also showed a significant reduction in HDL levels compared with the control and drug treatment groups. Animals treated with atorvastatin and methanol extract of PHF showed significant reductions in total cholesterol, triglyceride and VLDL levels compared with HFD-fed animals. But there was no significant hypolipidemic effect in animals treated with petroleum ether extract of PHF, and the ether caused piloerection and led to cannibalism. Conclusion Methanol extract of PHF has a significant hypolipidemic effect against HFD-induced hyperlipidemia in SD rats. The petroleum ether extract of PHF did not show any significant hypolipidemic effect on HFD-fed rats.
... Ayurveda considers B. aristata as of Ruksha guna and it is able to influence Dipana and Pachana properties, which can lead to its use as a hypolipidemic agent [72].It is a traditional natural resource for wound healing [73] having the property as "Vranaropaka" according to ayurveda. Acne vulgaris can be treated with the cream SK-235 (Clarina), which contains B. aristata and other herbs. ...
Article
In the recent years, the interest and research in medicinal plants have increased in a great deal. Ayurvedic medicines and formulations developed from ancient Indian herbal systems are renowned for their various important applications. Berberis aristata - an Indian medicinal plant, which belongs to the family Berberidaceae is an ayurvedic herb used since ancient times. It is also known as Indian berberi, Daruharidra, Daruhaldi, Darvi and Chitra. The plant is useful as anti-pyretic, anti-bacterial, anti-microbial, anti-hepatotoxic, anti-hyperglycaemic, anti-cancer, anti-oxidant and anti-lipidemic agent. B. aristata extracts and its formulations are also useful in the treatment of diarrhoea, haemorrhoids, gynaecological disorders, HIV-AIDS, osteoporosis, diabetes, eye and ear infections, wound healing, jaundice, skin diseases and malarial fever. This review aims to highlight the ethnobotany, pharmacognosy and pharmacological uses of B. aristata which will give insights in developing potentially new bioactives from the plant scaffolds. This review will also highlight the patenting trends, the new compositions developed using the actives from B. aristata and the different assignees involved in filing patents.
Preprint
Full-text available
Hypertriglyceridemia is a rare disorder in childhood. Familial Chylomicronemia Syndrome (FCS) is a rare genetic disease that leads to severe hypertriglyceridemia, often associated with recurrent episodes of pancreatitis. In this syndrome, traditional lipid-lowering drugs are marginally effective. A 6-months-old infant with complaints of recurrent episodes of abdominal colic and pancreatitis, with S. Cholesterol 552 mg% and Triglycerides 6400 mg%, was treated with Ayurvedic medicines. After six months of medication, Serum Cholesterol levels were within normal limits, and within the three years of regular treatment, S. Triglycerides was under 2000 mg%. Recurrent episodes of acute abdominal colic and vomiting reduced significantly. The patient was treated for Kapha Pitta dushti in Rasa and Raktavah srotas (deformity of the Kapha Pitta humors in the tissue nourishment pathway of the first and the second tissue respectively). Laghoo Sootshekhar, Arogyavardhini, Tinospora cordifolia, Cyprus rotundus, Aegle marmelos, Berberis aristata, Vettiveria zizanioides, and Triphala were the medicines used frequently. The three years treatment was safe and effective. Cost-effectiveness was an added feature of this treatment. Clinical experience of this case shows that congenital hyperlipidemia can manage by Ayurvedic medicine.
Article
Full-text available
Obesity is a chronic pathological condition resulting from complex interactions between cultural, psychological, environmental and genetic factors. There is intense interest on the role of environmental factors during intrauterine life and early infancy. Obesity has received both national and international attention because of its detrimental impact on health and the enormous economic burden it imposes on the individual. Many obesity problems can be treated successfully by changing lifestyle, diet based on appropriate quality and quantity of foods along with certain exercise. However, some people do not respond to this approach, and treatment every measure may fail to exhibit results. Present article discuss the non conventional Aetiology and certain medico-legal issues associated with obesity along with perspective of Ayurveda in Toxicity induced obesity.
Article
Full-text available
Ayurveda as well as Philosophy accepted the Guna as the basic entity of the Sristi. The Maha Gunas, i.e., Sattva, Raja, and Tama are the prime energy, from where the universe evolves, along with human beings. Dravya and Guna both have a Samavayi relationship in which Gunas reside in Dravya and have a secondary place to it. Guna has multifold meanings according to its use, in social, cultural, philosophical, and literary fields. The concepts of Ayurveda are expressed with Gunas. Samanya and Visesa are usually expressed in terms of Gunas; the classification, description, and function of Dravyas depends upon Guna; Karmas are manifested forms of Guna and Samavaya is the eternal, intimate relation of Dravya and Guna. The principles like Triskandha (Hetu, linga, ousadhi) of Ayurveda also narrated by Gunas, Hetus are narrated in the terms of Guna; the Laksanas are the reflections in the status of Gunas of bodily elements, and Cikitsa is in the form of administration of Viparita Gunas. The increased elements are treated by opposite Guna. So if Ruksa Guna is increased then it is to be managed by Snigdha Guna and vice-versa. So diseases can be treated by applying the Gunas, and drugs for the required patient can be selected by applying these Gunas. In support of the above concept, a study on the persons of Rasa-raktagata Sneha (hyperlipidemia) has been carried out assuming that the condition is an increased state of Snigdha Guna and treatment is done using Ruksa property drugs. Patients were divided into two groups, i.e., treatment group (Ruksa Guna drugs) and control group (placebo). The results were assessed after 45 days with the help of a specially prepared pro forma. All the important hematological, biochemical, and urine investigations were done. According to subjective and objective criteria, significant results were found for Group A as compared to Group B.
Article
Dietary spice components ofCurcuma longa andAbroma augusta have been screened for their protective effect against reactive oxygen species induced lipid peroxidation. They have been found to be efficient antioxidant when administered in combination. The purpose of the study was to investigate the effect of oral administration (300mg/Kg) of the aqueous extract of turmeric whose active ingredient isCurcumin andAbromine powder as a hypoglycemic agent mixed with diet. The effect of this aqueous extract on blood glucose, lipid peroxidation (LPO) and the antioxidant defense system in rat tissues like liver, lung, kidney and brain was studied for 8 weeks in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. The administration of an aqueous extract of turmeric and abromine powder resulted in a significant reduction in blood glucose and an increase in total haemoglobin. The aqueous extract also resulted in decreased free radical formation in the tissues studied.The decrease in thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and increase in reduced glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) clearly showed the antioxidant property of the mixture. It is suggested that these changes initially counteract the oxidative stress in diabetes however, a gradual decrease in the antioxidative process may be one of the factors which results in chronic diabetes. These results indicate that the mixture of the two plants have shown antidiabetic activity and also reduced oxidative stress in diabetes. A combination ofAbroma augusta and Curcuma longa also restored the other general parameters in diabetic animals. The results were statistically analyzed and indicated that combination of herbal extracts showed better efficacy as compared to individual herbal plant extracts used.
  • P Roeschlau
  • E Bernt
  • W A Gruber
Roeschlau P., Bernt E., and Gruber W.A., Clin Chem., Clin Biochem 12(226) 1974. (Erba biochemical test kit manual).
Alpana Ram Effect of plumbago zeylanica in hyperlipidaemic rabbits and its modification by vitamin E, Dept of Pharmacy, Lal Bahadur Shastri College
Alpana Ram Effect of plumbago zeylanica in hyperlipidaemic rabbits and its modification by vitamin E, Dept of Pharmacy, Lal Bahadur Shastri College, Jaipur, India, Indian Journal of Pharmacology. 1996 Sept; 28(3): 161-6.
  • Tris-Carbonate
  • Kinetic Buffer
  • J H Wilkinson
  • S Winsten
Tris-Carbonate Buffer, Kinetic Wilkinson J.H. and Winsten S., Clin Chem. 15 (487), 1969.
Jafe's method Slot, C. Scand
Jafe's method Slot, C. Scand.J. Clin. Lab. Invest 17, 381. 1965.
al-Concept of Snigdha Guna and Applied study to evolve some objective parameters
  • Prof R R Balaji Potbhare
  • Dwivedi
Balaji Potbhare, Prof. R. R. Dwivedi et.al-Concept of Snigdha Guna and Applied study to evolve some objective parameters ", (B.P.), IPGT & RA, G.A.U., Jamnagar, 2005, (Ref -Sl no-180 Research in Ayurveda by Dr M.S. Baghel ).
An assessment of the activities of Rûksha Guna w.s.r. to Sthaulya
  • Buchake Anand
Buchake Anand et. al. -"An assessment of the activities of Rûksha Guna w.s.r. to Sthaulya", (D.G.), IPGT & RA, G.A.U., Jamnagar2002 (Ref -Sl no-341-Research in Ayurveda by Dr M.S. Baghel L-2718).