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How do I look? Focusing attention on the outside body reduces responsiveness to internal signals in food intake

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Abstract

The current study investigates the relationship between focusing on body appearance and the ability to adjust food consumption according to feelings of satiety. Based on a resource perspective, we propose that focusing on outward appearance negatively affects people's ability to respond to satiety signals. Specifically, we argue that focusing on appearance takes up attentional resources required for sensing and relying on physiological satiety cues in food consumption. The findings of two experiments support this and show that focusing on appearance through a short mirror exposure (Experiment 1) or by looking at advertisements of models (Experiment 2) interferes with people's ability to compensate for previous consumption (Experiment 1) and leads them to rely less on satiety signals in their eating behavior (Experiment 2). These findings suggest that an emphasis on outer body appearance reduces people's reliance on satiety cues.

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... There is emerging empirical support for this model. For example, in a recent experimental study of adult participants, van de Veer, van Herpen, and van Trijp (2015) found that focus on body appearance negatively affected the ability to respond to satiety signals. Further, Cowdrey and Park (2012) found that ruminative brooding on eating, weight, and shape concerns was uniquely associated with eating disorder symptoms above and beyond depression and anxiety symptoms among healthy adult females. ...
... More research needs to explore the roles of positive body image and mindful self-care in the treatment of eating disorders . Currently, there are several theoretical papers and texts; a growing group of qualitative studies conducted with nonclinical participants with positive body image; a collection of studies of body appreciation among nonclinical participants and participants that present with risk factors such as body dissatisfaction, self-objectification, and eating disordered behaviors; and a few experimental studies integrating mindful self-care (mindful exercise , self-compassion in eating disorder treatment; e.g., Albertson et al., 2014; Calogero & Pedrotty, 2004; Cook-Cottone, 2006 Cook-Cottone et al., 2008; Cowdrey & Park, 2012; Frisén & Holmqvist, 2010; O'Hara et al., 2014; Tylka, 2011 Tylka, , 2012 van de Veer et al., 2015; Wood-Barcalow et al., 2010). Future work should be done with attention to the physical risk inherent in eating disorders and include medical and nutritional aspects of treatment. ...
... However, some effortful processes may also be at work for this effect. The thin sculptures may influence individuals by making them explicitly think about their own weight (Van de Veer, van Herpen, & van Trijp, 2015). ...
... The use of dieting cues that involve little effort on the part of the individual also seems to be an effective strategy regarding the general lack of attention individuals pay to their everyday eating behavior. That is because when attention lies elsewhere, cognitive resources for the control of food intake are impaired (Van de Veer et al., 2015), but effortless influences can take place. The use of environmental cues for an improved eating behavior is further a more efficient method than mindfulness interventions, such as mindful attention exercises related to food. ...
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Thin, human-like sculptures by the artist Alberto Giacometti, applied as environmental cues, have been found to facilitate dieting by reducing chocolate intake and promoting healthy snack choices. However, the processes underlying this “Giacometti effect” have been left unexplored so far. The present study therefore first examines the effortlessness of the effect. More specifically, it aims to determine whether the sculptures reduce unhealthy food intake when only few cognitive resources for their influence are available. For this purpose, the participants in a chip tasting were given the cognitive load task of memorizing either 10 or two digits during the tasting. The results indicate that the sculptures reduced participants’ chip intake independent of the cognitive load. Thus, they influenced participants’ eating behavior even when only few cognitive resources were available. The results also indicate that the sculptures reduced chip intake only when the participants liked the chips. The sculptures could thus exert their influence when individuals were motivated to eat and the dieting cues were useful. The finding that the Giacometti sculptures, applied as environmental dieting or health cues, influenced individuals when only few cognitive resources were available, could indicate a crucial advantage for the application of these cues in complex, real-world settings.
... In a study of female undergraduates, body appreciation predicted intuitive eating(Avalos & Tylka, 2006), though it remains to be seen whether this pattern would replicate in clinical samples. Recent research revealed that a focus on one's physi- cal appearance may interfere with eating in response to physiological satiety cues (vande Veer, van Herpen, & van Trijp, 2015)-perhaps focusing less on physical appearance (and instead on respect for one's body more broadly, not narrowly defined by appearance) may increase intuitive eating practices. Theoretically, it could be intuitive eating that helps facilitate body appreciation if, as an individual begins to eat more intuitively, they being to appreciate their body more because they are paying more attention to its cues. ...
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Objective: Eating disorder recovery research has emphasized the absence of symptoms over the presence of adaptive aspects like positive body image and healthy eating attitudes. The current study examined how body appreciation and intuitive eating related to eating disorder recovery using a comprehensive recovery definition (physical, behavioral, and cognitive recovery). Method: Data were collected from 66 women with an eating disorder history and 31 controls with no history of eating pathology. Participants completed an online survey followed by a phone interview. Results: The fully recovered group did not differ from controls on body appreciation, with both groups endorsing significantly higher levels of body appreciation than the partially recovered and current eating disorder groups. Similarly, the fully recovered group did not differ from controls on overall intuitive eating, with both groups endorsing significantly higher levels of overall intuitive eating than the partially recovered and current eating disorder groups. Discussion: Positive psychological constructs such as body appreciation and intuitive eating relate to eating disorder recovery status. Understanding recovery within a strengths-based framework may inform intervention and relapse prevention.
... Marchiori & Papies (2014) showed that a mindfulness based intervention effectively reduced effects of hunger on unhealthy food consumption. And the other way around, van de Veer et al. (2015) showed that focussing on outer body appearance takes up resources needed for relying on physiological cues resulting in higher food intake. Being mindful when eating might affect the development of satiation during the consumption phase and possible affects the end of an eating episode. ...
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... More research needs to explore the roles of positive body image and mindful self-care in the treatment of eating disorders. Currently, there are several theoretical papers and texts; a growing group of qualitative studies conducted with nonclinical participants with positive body image; a collection of studies of body appreciation among nonclinical participants and participants that present with risk factors such as body dissatisfaction, self-objectification, and eating disordered behaviors; and a few experimental studies integrating mindful self-care (mindful exercise, self-compassion in eating disorder treatment; e.g., Albertson et al., 2014;Calogero & Pedrotty, 2004;Cook-Cottone, 2006Cook-Cottone et al., 2008;Cowdrey & Park, 2012;Frisén & Holmqvist, 2010;O'Hara et al., 2014;Tylka, 2011Tylka, , 2012van de Veer et al., 2015;Wood-Barcalow et al., 2010). Future work should be done with attention to the physical risk inherent in eating disorders and include medical and nutritional aspects of treatment. ...
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Objectification theory contends that women self-objectify as a result of internalizing an external observer's perspective of their physical selves. Self-objectification has been examined as both a stable enduring trait and as a context dependant state. The present study attempted to trigger state self-objectification by relatively subtle manipulation of the immediate physical and social environment. Participants were 96 female undergraduate students who completed questionnaire measures and cognitive tasks in a 2 (a subtle objectifying environment versus a standard environment) x 2 (an appearance compliment versus no comment) x 2 (high versus low trait self-objectification) design. It was found that, for women high on trait self-objectification, the objectifying physical environment enhanced state self-objectification, and the appearance compliment enhanced body shame. The findings demonstrate that subtle situational factors not requiring women to explicitly focus attention on their own bodies can elicit self-objectification and its proposed consequences, particularly among women high in trait self-objectification.
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The effects of viewing media-portrayed idealized body images on eating, self-esteem, body image, and mood among restrained and unrestrained eaters were examined. Study 1 found that restrained eaters (i.e., dieters), but not unrestrained eaters, rated both their ideal and current body sizes as smaller and disinhibited their food intake following exposure to idealized body images. These results suggest that restrained eaters are susceptible to a “thin fantasy” brought about by viewing ideal body images. Study 2 found that strengthening thinness attainability beliefs can further enhance the thin fantasy demonstrated by restrained eaters following exposure to idealized body images. Study 3 examined whether demand characteristics moderate these effects of media-portrayed idealized body images. As predicted, when explicit demand characteristics were present, participants reported feeling worse following exposure to thin models. The complexities of the media’s role in the development and maintenance of body dissatisfaction and dieting behavior are discussed.
Article
Self-objectification is the act of viewing the self, particularly the body, from a third-person perspective. Objectification theory proposes numerous negative consequences for those who self-objectify, including decreased performance through the disruption of focused attention. In the current study, we examined whether women in a state of self-objectification were slower to respond to a basic Stroop color-naming task. Results showed that regardless of the type of word (color words, body words, or neutral words), participants in a state of self-objectification exhibited decreased performance. This study lends further evidence to objectification theory and highlights the negative performance ramifications of state self-objectification.
Article
In recent studies of the structure of affect, positive and negative affect have consistently emerged as two dominant and relatively independent dimensions. A number of mood scales have been created to measure these factors; however, many existing measures are inadequate, showing low reliability or poor convergent or discriminant validity. To fill the need for reliable and valid Positive Affect and Negative Affect scales that are also brief and easy to administer, we developed two 10-item mood scales that comprise the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS). The scales are shown to be highly internally consistent, largely uncorrelated, and stable at appropriate levels over a 2-month time period. Normative data and factorial and external evidence of convergent and discriminant validity for the scales are also presented. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
This study compared the impact of different forms of distraction on eating behaviour with a focus on the mechanisms behind this association and the link between the amount consumed and changes in the desire to eat. Participants (n=81) were randomly allocated to four conditions: driving, television viewing, social interaction or being alone in which they took part in a taste test. Measures of the desire to eat (ie. Hunger, fullness, motivation to eat) were assessed before and after the intervention. The results showed that those watching television consumed more than the social or driving conditions. Food intake was associated with a decreased desire to eat for those eating alone, but was unrelated to changes in the desire to eat for those driving. Watching television also created a decrease in the desire to eat commensurate with food intake whereas social eating resulted in the reverse relationship. The results are discussed in terms an expanded model of mindless eating and it is argued that eating more requires not only distraction away from the symptom of hunger but also sufficient cognitive capacity left to attend to the process of eating.
Article
Notes that self-awareness theory has generated a considerable amount of research activity; however, the most widely used manipulation of self-focus—the mirror—has not been satisfactorily validated. Exp I was an attempt to do so. At the same time an attempt was made to validate the Self-Consciousness Scale (SCS), an instrument designed to measure chronic dispositions to be self-attentive. 79 female undergraduates responded to a sentence completion blank either in an empty room or while facing a mirror. Results indicate that the mirror does manipulate, and the private subscale of the SCS does measure, self-attention. Exp II, with 81 female undergraduates, was a replication of the 1st study, but using an audience instead of a mirror. Results indicate that audience presence also heightens self-attention. Implications for attentional analyses of social behavior are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Fredrickson and Roberts (1997) proposed objectification theory as an integrative framework for understanding how women's socialization and experiences of sexual objectification are translated into mental health problems. This article reviews the past decade of research grounded in objectification theory and highlights needed directions for future scholarship in this area. Specifically, this article reviews research organized according to the following themes: (a) self-objectification and its proposed consequences, (b) sexual objectification experiences as a proposed precursor, and (c) disconnections from bodily functions. An overview of emerging objectification theory research with men is also provided. The review concludes with needed directions for future theoretical and research efforts aimed to advance the psychology of women.
Article
Summary1Introduction2Physiological mechanisms of satiation and satiety2.1 Physiological mechanisms of satiation2.1.1 Gastric mechanisms of satiation2.1.2 Intestinal mechanisms of satiation2.2 Physiological mechanisms of satiety2.2.1 Gut hormones – episodic signals of satiety2.2.2 Tonic satiety signals2.3 The integration of satiety signals in the brain2.3.1 Anorexigenic pathways in the hypothalamus2.3.2 Orexigenic pathways in the hypothalamus2.3.3 Other areas of the brain involved in satiation and satiety2.3.4 Reward pathways3Measuring satiation and satiety3.1 Measuring satiation3.2 Measuring satiety3.2.1 Free living vs. laboratory studies3.2.2 Preload studies3.2.3 Self-reported measures of satiety3.2.4 Measuring food intake3.2.5 Quantifying satiety3.3 Confounders in satiety research3.3.1 Physiological confounders3.3.2 Behavioural confounders4The effects of foods and drinks on satiety4.1 Protein and satiety4.2 Carbohydrates and satiety4.3 Fibre and satiety4.4 Intense sweeteners and satiety4.5 Fat and satiety4.6 Liquids and satiety4.7 Alcohol and satiety4.8 Energy density and satiety5The effect of external factors on satiation and satiety5.1 Palatability5.2 Variety5.3 Portion size5.4 Sleep5.5 Physical activity5.6 Television viewing and other distractions5.7 Social situations6Satiation, satiety and weight control6.1 Obesity genes and satiety6.2 Physiological differences in satiation and satiety responses in obese people6.3 Behavioural differences in the response to satiation and satiety in obesity7Conclusions SummaryIn the context of the rising prevalence of obesity around the world, it is vital to understand how energy balance and bodyweight are controlled. The ability to balance energy intake and expenditure is critical to survival, and sophisticated physiological mechanisms have developed in order to do this, including the control of appetite. Satiation and satiety are part of the body's appetite control system and are involved in limiting energy intake. Satiation is the process that causes one to stop eating; satiety is the feeling of fullness that persists after eating, suppressing further consumption, and both are important in determining total energy intake.Satiation and satiety are controlled by a cascade of factors that begin when a food or drink is consumed and continues as it enters the gastrointestinal tract and is digested and absorbed. Signals about the ingestion of energy feed into specific areas of the brain that are involved in the regulation of energy intake, in response to the sensory and cognitive perceptions of the food or drink consumed, and distension of the stomach. These signals are integrated by the brain, and satiation is stimulated. When nutrients reach the intestine and are absorbed, a number of hormonal signals that are again integrated in the brain to induce satiety are released. In addition to these episodic signals, satiety is also affected by fluctuations in hormones, such as leptin and insulin, which indicate the level of fat storage in the body.Satiation and satiety can be measured directly via food intake or indirectly via ratings of subjective sensations of appetite. The most common study design when measuring satiation or satiety over a short period is using a test preload in which the variables of interest are carefully controlled. This is followed by subjects rating aspects of their appetite sensations, such as fullness or hunger, at intervals and then, after a predetermined time interval, a test meal at which energy intake is measured. Longer-term studies may provide foods or drinks of known composition to be consumed ad libitum and use measures of energy intake and/or appetite ratings as indicators of satiety. The measurement of satiation and satiety is complicated by the fact that many factors besides these internal signals may influence appetite and energy intake, for example, physical factors such as bodyweight, age or gender, or behavioural factors such as diet or the influence of other people present. For this reason, the majority of studies on satiation and satiety take place in a laboratory, where confounders can be controlled as much as possible, and are, therefore, of short duration.It is possible for any food or drink to affect appetite, and so it is important to determine whether, for a given amount of energy, particular variables have the potential to enhance or reduce satiation or satiety. A great deal of research has been conducted to investigate the effect of different foods, drinks, food components and nutrients on satiety. Overall, the characteristic of a food or drink that appears to have the most impact on satiety is its energy density. That is the amount of energy it contains per unit weight (kJ/g, kcal/g). When energy density is controlled, the macronutrient composition of foods does not appear to have a major impact on satiety. In practice, high-fat foods tend to have a higher energy density than high-protein or high-carbohydrate foods, and foods with the highest water content tend to have the lowest energy density. Some studies have shown that energy from protein is more satiating than energy from carbohydrate or fat. In addition, certain types of fibre have been shown to enhance satiation and satiety. It has been suggested that energy from liquids is less satiating then energy from solids. However, evidence for this is inconsistent, and it may be the mode of consumption (i.e. whether the liquid is perceived to be a food or drink) that influences its effect on satiety. Alcohol appears to stimulate energy intake in the short-term, and consuming energy from alcohol does not appear to lead to a subsequent compensatory reduction in energy intake.The consumption of food and drink to provide energy is a voluntary behaviour, and, despite the existence of sophisticated physiological mechanisms to match intake to requirements, humans often eat when sated and sometimes refrain from eating when hungry. Thus, there are numerous influences on eating behaviour beyond satiation and satiety. These include: the portion size, appeal, palatability and variety of foods and drinks available; the physiological impact on the body of physical activity and sleep; and other external influences such as television viewing and the effect of social situations.Because satiation and satiety are key to controlling energy intake, inter-individual differences in the strength of these signals and responsiveness to their effects could affect risk of obesity. Such differences have been observed at a genetic, physiological and behavioural level and may be important to consider in strategies to prevent or treat obesity.Overall, it is clear that, although the processes of satiation and satiety have the potential to control energy intake, many individuals override the signals generated. Hence, in such people, satiation and satiety alone are not sufficient to prevent weight gain in the current obesogenic environment. Knowledge about foods, ingredients and dietary patterns that can enhance satiation and satiety is potentially useful for controlling bodyweight. However, this must be coupled with an understanding of the myriad of other factors that influence eating behaviour, in order to help people to control their energy intake.
Article
The perception of internal bodily signals (interoception) plays a relevant role for emotion processing and feelings. This study investigated changes of interoceptive awareness and cardiac autonomic activity induced by short-term food deprivation and its relationship to hunger and affective experience. 20 healthy women were exposed to 24 h of food deprivation in a controlled setting. Interoceptive awareness was assessed by using a heartbeat tracking task. Felt hunger, cardiac autonomic activity, mood and subjective appraisal of interoceptive sensations were assessed before and after fasting. Results show that short-term fasting intensifies interoceptive awareness, not restricted to food cues, via changes of autonomic cardiac and/or cardiodynamic activity. The increase of interoceptive awareness was positively related to felt hunger. Additionally, the results demonstrate the role of cardiac vagal activity as a potential index of emotion related self-regulation, for hunger, mood and the affective appraisal of interoceptive signals during acute fasting.
Article
The objectification of women by our society can become internalized by women, resulting in negative psychological outcomes. Using Fredrickson and Roberts’ (1997) objectification theory, we tested a model of the relationships between self–objectification and disordered eating and depressive symptoms in a sample of undergraduate women (n= 384). One postulate of self–objectification theory is that self–objectification can lead to a lack of internal awareness, which may mediate the relationship between self–objectification and restrictive eating, bulimic, and depressive symptoms. Results of structural equation modeling suggest that self–objectification has a direct relationship to restrictive eating, bulimic, and depressive symptoms. The mediational role of internal awareness was relevant for depressive symptoms but not for restrictive eating or bulimic symptoms. Depressive symptoms did, however, mediate the relationship between self–objectification and bulimic symptoms. The relevance of our findings to the understanding of objectification theory are discussed and future areas of research recommended.
Article
Although there has been considerable empirical support for Objectification Theory (Fredrickson & Roberts, 1997), findings have been mixed regarding self-objectification's relationship to interoceptive awareness, an awareness of one's internal physical and emotional states. We examined whether interoceptive awareness mediated the relationship between self-objectification and disordered eating attitudes, exploring more specifically the relative contributions of difficulties recognizing feelings of hunger and satiety versus emotions. College women (N= 195) completed measures assessing self-objectification, interoceptive awareness, awareness of emotions, and disordered eating attitudes. Self-objectification correlated significantly more strongly with interoceptive awareness when internal cues about hunger and satiety were assessed. The relationship between self-objectification and disordered eating attitudes was partially mediated by interoceptive awareness. Results revealed that interoceptive awareness may best be captured by a measure that includes lack of awareness of both hunger and satiety and emotional states. Research and clinical implications of these findings are discussed.
Article
Study 1 tested whether yoga practice is associated with greater awareness of and responsiveness to bodily sensations, lower self-objectification, greater body satisfaction, and fewer disordered eating attitudes. Three samples of women (43 yoga, 45 aerobic, and 51 nonyoga/nonaerobic practitioners) completed questionnaire measures. As predicted, yoga practitioners reported more favorably on all measures. Body responsiveness, and, to some extent, body awareness significantly explained group differences in self-objectification, body satisfaction, and disordered eating attitudes. The mediating role of body awareness, in addition to body responsiveness, between self-objectification and disordered eating attitudes was also tested as proposed in objectification theory (Fredrickson & Roberts, 1997). Body responsiveness, but not awareness, mediated the relationship between self-objectification and disordered eating attitudes. This finding was replicated in Study 2 in a sample of female undergraduate students. It is concluded that body responsiveness and, to some extent, body awareness are related to self-objectification and its consequences.
Article
Objectification theory explicates a model in which women are socialized to view their own bodies as objects to be evaluated. In the current study, we used a 2 (self-objectification condition: swimsuit versus sweater) × 2 (gender) factorial design to examine whether body-related thoughts continued after women were removed from a self-objectifying situation. Results showed that, compared to participants in the other three groups, women in the self-objectification condition listed more body-related thoughts during a free response task given after they had re-dressed. The amount of shame experienced during self-objectification mediated the relationship between self-objectification condition and lingering body-related thoughts. This study adds to the understanding of how the process of self-objectification works to maintain women’s focus on their appearance.
Article
Objectification theory (Fredrickson and Roberts, Psychology of Women Quarterly, 21, 173–206, 1997) contends that experiences of sexual objectification socialize women to engage in self-objectification. The present study used an experimental design to examine the effects of media images on self-objectification. A total of 90 Australian undergraduate women aged 18 to 35 were randomly allocated to view magazine advertisements featuring a thin woman, advertisements featuring a thin woman with at least one attractive man, or advertisements in which no people were featured. Participants who viewed advertisements featuring a thin-idealized woman reported greater state self-objectification, weight-related appearance anxiety, negative mood, and body dissatisfaction than participants who viewed product control advertisements. The results demonstrate that self-objectification can be stimulated in women without explicitly focusing attention on their own bodies.
Article
The present research had two goals: (1) to document how health advice is framed on the covers of women’s health magazines, and (2) to investigate whether exposure to appearance frames (i.e., do something in order to look better) affected women’s body-related self-perceptions compared to health frames (i.e., to do something in order to feel better). Study 1, a content analysis of 426 cover headlines on the five highest-circulating women’s health magazines in the United States, revealed that appearance frames were just as prevalent as health frames. Study 2, an experiment conducted on 103 U.S. undergraduate women, showed that those assigned to appearance frames reported more body shame and appearance-related motivation to exercise than women assigned to health frames. KeywordsFraming-Health magazines-Health advice-Self-objectification-Body shame
Article
The present study aimed to investigate the relationship between orientation to outward appearance, body awareness, symptom perception, and gender, from Pennebaker’s competition of cues model (1982). We expected a negative relationship between orientation to outward appearance and body awareness, and a positive one between body awareness and symptom perception. Furthermore, we hypothesized that both relationships would be stronger for women than for men. Respondents were 250 male and 275 female college students (mean age 20.4). Questionnaires were administered reflecting all concepts under study. Women compared with men appeared to be more oriented to and less satisfied with their outward appearances, and they were higher in body awareness, symptom perception, and external information. No sex differences were found in negative affectivity; there was a trend toward a difference regarding somatization. Orientation to outward appearance, external information and somatization had positive effects on body awareness, that were unaffected by gender. Body awareness and symptom perception were positively related, without any gender-effect. Women’s as well as men’s symptom perception was, additionally, positively related to somatization, negative affectivity, and body dissatisfaction. It was concluded that, in students, the internal and outward body are experienced as a unity. The results further indicate that the competion of cues model is valid only under certain conditions.
Article
Evidence of obese-normal differences in ability to perceive calories and regulate intake has been conflictual. The present study proposed that restrait rather than obesity is the relevant dimension and reexamined these phenomena. Normal weight male subjects were divided on the basis of restraint (dieting), food-deprived, and assigned to one of four preload conditions (high or low calorie, and receiving true or false information about caloric value). Subjects were then allowed to eat sandwich quarters ad libitum in order to assess the effect of the preload on consumption. Restrained subjects who perceived the preload as high calorie ate more sandwiches than those who thought the preload to be low calorie, while unrestrained subjects did the reverse. Restrained subjects who perceived the preload as high calorie also underestimated their sandwich consumption. The place of these findings in eating research and their implications were discussed.
Article
Acute energy and macronutrient intake following an Exercise and Control protocol was compared to determine if active, normal-weight males regulate acute energy intake better, demonstrating more acute accurate energy compensation capabilities, than inactive, normal-weight males after exercise. Males (21.2±1.9 years) of normal percent body fat (10.0-18.0%) and body mass index (23.4±1.7 kg/m(2)), exercising ≥150 min/week (Active: n=10) or ≤60 min/week (Inactive: n=10), completed two protocols, counterbalanced across participants. The exercise protocol (Exercise) was 45-min on a cycle ergometer and the Control protocol consisted of 45-min of reading. Sixty minutes after protocols, an ad libitum meal was provided. Energy and macronutrient intake from the meal was determined. Inactive ate significantly less energy in the ad libitum meal in Exercise as compared to Control, demonstrating acute negative energy compensation (consumed less in the meal while expending more energy in Exercise as compared to Control). Active had no difference in meal energy intake between the protocols, but due to Inactive's reduced acute energy intake in Exercise, Active demonstrated better acute energy compensation than Inactive. No difference in meal macronutrient intake was found. Overall, Active demonstrated better acute energy compensation than Inactive.
Article
Television viewing (TVV) is considered a contributing factor to the development of childhood obesity yet it is unclear whether obesity results, in part, from increased energy intake during TVV. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of TVV on food intake (FI) of boys at a meal and its effect on caloric compensation at the test meal after a premeal glucose drink. On four separate mornings and in random order, boys received equally sweetened preloads containing Splenda sucralose or glucose [1.0 g/kg body weight (BW)] in 250 mL of water 2 h after a standard breakfast. Food intake from a pizza meal was measured 30 min later with or without TVV. Both preload treatment (p < 0.01) and TVV (p < 0.001) affected FI (kcal). TVV increased lunchtime FI by an average of 228 kcal. Glucose suppressed FI in the no TVV condition compared with control, but the effect was not statistically significant during TVV. Body composition and subjective appetite scores were positively associated with FI at the test lunch. In conclusion, TVV while eating a meal contributes to increased energy intake by delaying normal mealtime satiation and reducing satiety signals from previously consumed foods.
Article
The effect of liquid calories on short-term energy compensation is a topic that justifies further investigation. Whilst previous studies appear to vary widely in terms of protocol, design and outcomes, none have placed much focus on possible gender differences in compensation. This study investigated the impact of isocaloric (150kcal) portions of a sucrose sweetened fruit drink (SSD), orange juice (OJ) and semi-skimmed milk (M) on subjective hunger and food intake at a subsequent ad libitum buffet consisting of a large variety of foods, and compared their effects with a calorie free (artificially sweetened) fruit drink control (CTRL). Forty-seven young adults (24 females and 23 males) were provided a standard breakfast which was followed 3h later by the preload beverage and 1h later by lunch. Participants rated hunger, fullness and desire to eat throughout the study period. Compared to the CTRL, males demonstrated a good caloric compensation at lunch following all three treatment beverages, whilst females reduced food intake following M. Total energy intake (energy in preload+energy intake at lunch) by males was similar across all four beverage conditions whilst females showed an increased total energy intake following SSD compared to the CTRL. The study indicates that the consumption of caloric beverages may not be affecting total energy intake in males in the short-term even in the presence of a large selection of palatable foods. On the other hand, females appeared to show a possible dysregulation, which requires further investigation.
Article
Interoceptive awareness is known to be impaired in eating disorders. To date, it has remained unclear whether this variable is related to the construct of interoceptive sensitivity. Interoceptive sensitivity is considered to be an essential variable in emotional processes. The objective of the study was to elucidate this potential relationship and to clarify whether general interoceptive sensitivity is reduced in anorexia nervosa. Using a heartbeat perception task, interoceptive sensitivity was assessed in 28 female patients with anorexia nervosa and 28 matched healthy controls. Questionnaires assessing interoceptive awareness (EDI) and several other variables were also administered. Patients with anorexia nervosa displayed significantly decreased interoceptive sensitivity. They also had more difficulties in interoceptive awareness. In addition to a decreased ability to recognize certain visceral sensations related to hunger, there is a generally reduced capacity to accurately perceive bodily signals in anorexia nervosa. This highlights the potential importance of interoceptive sensitivity in the pathogenesis of eating disorders.
Article
Nisbett's (1972) model of obesity implies that individual differences in relative deprivation (relative to set-point weight) within obese and normal weight groups should produce corresponding within-group differences in eating behavior. Normal weight subjects were separated into hypothetically deprived (high restraint) and non-deprived (low restraint) groups. The expectation that high restraint subjects' intake would vary directly with preload size while low restraint subjects would eat in inverse proportion to preload size, was confirmed. It was concluded that relative deprivation rather than obesity per se may be the cirtical determinant of individual differences in eating behavior. Consideration was given to the concept of "restraint" as an important behavioral mechanism affecting the expression of physiologically-based hungar.
Article
Restrained and unrestrained subjects were given a "vitamin" (placebo) prior to an ad-lib taste test. Subjects were either told nothing about the placebo or told that previous subjects had reported that the vitamin had made them feel either hungry or full. As predicted, restrained subjects, in two separate studies, behaved in accordance with placebo messages, eating more when given "hungry" messages than when given "full" messages. Unrestrained subjects showed an apparent reverse-placebo effect; they ate less ice cream when given "hungry" information than when given "full" information. Hunger ratings did not parallel eating behavior; possible explanations for this discrepancy are considered. We conclude that unresponsiveness to internal hunger state, and an overreliance on external cognitive cues, characterizes restrained but not unrestrained individuals.
Article
In recent studies of the structure of affect, positive and negative affect have consistently emerged as two dominant and relatively independent dimensions. A number of mood scales have been created to measure these factors; however, many existing measures are inadequate, showing low reliability or poor convergent or discriminant validity. To fill the need for reliable and valid Positive Affect and Negative Affect scales that are also brief and easy to administer, we developed two 10-item mood scales that comprise the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS). The scales are shown to be highly internally consistent, largely uncorrelated, and stable at appropriate levels over a 2-month time period. Normative data and factorial and external evidence of convergent and discriminant validity for the scales are also presented.
Article
The extent and time course of caloric compensation for surreptitious dilutions and supplements to the energy value of the diet were examined in free-living normal-weight adults. Ten subjects were provided lunches containing approximately 66% more or less calories than their customary midday meal for 2-wk periods which were interposed between 1-wk baseline or recovery periods. Diet records were kept throughout the study. Total energy intakes did not differ among the three control periods (weeks 1, 4, and 7) or between any of these periods and when subjects were provided the low-calorie meal. Total energy intake was significantly higher relative to all other periods when subjects ingested the high-calorie meal. To the extent that compensation occurred, it was apparent immediately and did not appear to change over the 2-wk study periods. The results suggest that humans compensate more readily for decreases than for increases in caloric intake.