Conference PaperPDF Available

MAnGve: a step towards deploying Agile Governance

Abstract

Context: Agility at the business and organizational levels presents a challenge for many enterprises. Business agility demands the ability to sense and respond to changes in competitive environments, whereas organizational agility demands the dexterity to sense broader market opportunities and respond with changes that are organization-wide. These challenges require an information and communication technologies (IT) environment flexible and customizable simultaneously with the coordination across multiple organization units, also demands effective and responsive governance in order to deliver value faster, better, and cheaper to the business. Objective: This presentation introduces an agile framework called MAnGve, as an alternative to implement and improve governance processes and service management on an agile lifecycle. In addition, we describe the MAnGve’s application in the context of the Brazilian government. Method: Adopting an in-depth case study approach, we privileged the participant observation in which the research is conducted within the company itself, and where the status of the researcher is not highlighted. The case study was based on observation, interviews with the different actors of the company, as well as by the metrics generated by the results achieved upon the application of the framework. Results: After only two tides (complete lifecycle of the framework), along eight months, the involved team had been capable to implemented three governance processes and one service management function (service desk). At the same time, the team evolved from an operation based on "firefighting" to a maturity stage, where they are able to express their initiatives in terms of service management. Conclusion: Indeed, the framework's application generated a set of positive and concrete evidences, such as: i) guiding the team: “where to begin?”, “how to adapt?”, and “what to prioritize?”; ii) reducing the costs, timing and external dependencies. Those evidences lead the authors to believe that the MAnGve’s application can be replicated upon other organizations, achieving similar positive results. Moreover, those results encourages future works in which through a relational integration mechanism as well as a better understanding of the agile governance arrangements can help the organizations to attain greater enterprise agility and support their overall strategy.
1
MAnGve: a step towards deploying Agile Governance
Alexandre J. H. de O. Luna1,2, Ivaldir H. de Farias Junior1, Philippe Kruchten2,
Hermano Moura1
1 Informatics Center (CIn). Federal University of Pernambuco (UFPE). Av. Jornalista
Anibal Fernandes, s/n, Cidade Universitária, 50740-560, Recife, PE, Brazil.
2 Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering (ECE). The University of British
Columbia (UBC). 2332 Main Mall. Vancouver, BC, V6T 1Z4, Canada.
ajhol@cin.ufpe.br, ihfj@cin.ufpe.br, pbk@ece.ubc.ca, hermano@cin.ufpe.br
Abstract. Context: Agility at the business and organizational levels presents a challenge for many
enterprises. Business agility demands the ability to sense and respond to changes in competitive
environments, whereas organizational agility demands the dexterity to sense broader market
opportunities and respond with changes that are organization-wide. These challenges require an
information and communication technologies (IT) environment flexible and customizable
simultaneously with the coordination across multiple organization units, also demands effective
and responsive governance in order to deliver value faster, better, and cheaper to the business.
Objective: This presentation introduces an agile framework called MAnGve, as an alternative to
implement and improve governance processes and service management on an agile lifecycle. In
addition, we describe the MAnGve’s application in the context of the Brazilian government.
Method: Adopting an in-depth case study approach, we privileged the participant observation in
which the research is conducted within the company itself, and where the status of the researcher
is not highlighted. The case study was based on observation, interviews with the different actors
of the company, as well as by the metrics generated by the results achieved upon the application
of the framework. Results: After only two tides (complete lifecycle of the framework), along eight
months, the involved team had been capable to implemented three governance processes and one
service management function (service desk). At the same time, the team evolved from an operation
based on "firefighting" to a maturity stage, where they are able to express their initiatives in
terms of service management. Conclusion: Indeed, the framework's application generated a set of
positive and concrete evidences, such as: i) guiding the team: where to begin?”, how to
adapt?”, and what to prioritize?”; ii) reducing the costs, timing and external dependencies.
Those evidences lead the authors to believe that the MAnGve’s application can be replicated
upon other organizations, achieving similar positive results. Moreover, those results encourages
future works in which through a relational integration mechanism as well as a better
understanding of the agile governance arrangements can help the organizations to attain greater
enterprise agility and support their overall strategy.
Keywords Information Systems, Agile Governance, IT management, IT Governance, Service
Management, Software Engineering.
1. Overview
Governments and corporations are increasingly realizing the emerging importance of Information and
Communication Technologies (ICT) as catalyst factor of the driving aspects of change, renewal and
implementation cycle of their business. These organizations are deepening the perception about how the
Information Technologies (IT
1
) capabilities are becoming key factors of success in the evolving of their market
competitiveness and the achievement of their institutional mission [Gallagher and Worrell 2007; Tallon 2008].
1
“IT” and “ICT” in this study will be used as synonyms, and understood as the means by which are covered the infrastructure, services
and software as well as the organizational capabilities established to support the business.
2
1.1. Introduction
In recent years, IT has seen an increase in investment and research focus in both the academic and the professional
environments. These initiatives have entailed efforts to improve management models and to implement practices
that make enterprises more competitive.
Competitiveness is related with the idea to make more, better and faster, with less resources [Janssen and Estevez
2013]. At the same time, governance is closely related with the ability to steer (to guide, to govern) an
organization, which may be a company, a government or a society [Bloom 1991]. In other words, governance is a
key driver to “make things happen” on organizational environment. On the other hand, to achieve good governance
demands capabilities such as flexibility, responsiveness and adaptability, as well as an effective and responsive
sense of coordination across multiple business units. Actually, these capabilities belong to the agility paradigm in
consonance with several authors, such as [Matt 2007], [Chen et al. 2008], [Li 2010].
Moreover, [Kruchten 2011] define agility as: “the ability of an organization to react to changes in its
environment faster than the rate of these changes”. In fact, this definition uses the ultimate purpose or function of
being agile for a business, unifying and standardizing agile and lean approaches as simply "agile", rather than
defining agility by a labeled set of practices or by a set of properties defined in opposition to the agile manifesto
approach [Beck et al. 2001]. Going beyond, a “good governance” requests particularly “organizational agility”,
which is stated by [Thomsett 2013] as: “the ability of an organization to respond quickly and effectively to
unanticipated events in its environment”.
As a result, agility became an important business aspect, and according to [Luftman et al. 1993], business agility
is: "the ability to change the direction of the environment and respond efficiently and effectively to that change".
In consonance with this definition, we distilled a new definition to business agility for use in this study as: “the
ability to deliver value
2
faster, better, and cheaper to the business”.
In line with these concepts, agile governance” becomes the application of agile capabilities
3
on governance
issues
4
in order to improve business agility, what we believe that can result in significant economic outcomes for
companies and governments. In the subsequent sections this paper gives an overview of the related theoretical
background, the related work, benefits to be achieved by the audience, the agenda summary, the suggested
audience's profile and a short Bio of the speaker.
1.2. Background and Related Work
In this scenario, IT governance, through which corporate governance
5
is applied, has emerged as an option to the
effective management and control of IT services in organizations, ensuring the payback of investments and the
improvement and innovation of business processes [IT Governance Institute 2001].
Through the influence of factors related to market regulation, such as the Sarbanes-Oxley Act [Congress of the
United States of America 2002] and the Basel Accords [Bank for International Settlements 2010], the use of
governance is also motivated by other objectives, such as: i) reducing the costs of business unavailability; ii)
assurance of continuity of business processes; iii) guarantee of IT investments payback; and, iv) increasing
organizational competitiveness [Weill and Ross 2004].
Ribeiro and Barata [2011] pointed out that to face competition; enterprises have adopted more efficient
organizational dynamics that enable them to respond to socio-economic pressures while tackling profitable but
volatile business opportunities. This led to the emergence of several types of networked interactions: supply
chains, extended enterprises, virtual enterprises, collaborative networks, among others. Overall, agility is
fundamental as the establishment of such networked organizations is not trivial. Partners will share profits, risks
and responsibilities and ultimately the performance and success of the entire structure will always be dragged
down by the less agile participant [Brown et al. 2013; Royce and Cantor 2013].
In practice, the design and maintenance of the IT systems for enterprise agility can be a challenge when the
competitiveness of organization’s products and services is depending of the application of models and frameworks
that have no guidance details of how to implement and deploy the necessary management instruments and
governance mechanism [Luna et al. 2013]. Consequently, the challenges become even greater when dealing with
these matters on a global software development and distributed environment, where cultural differences, awareness
and communication style, if not treated properly can lead to conflicts. Arguably, in Global Development
Environments governance issues are even more relevant and necessary, as well as its implementation even greater
challenging [Dubinsky et al. 2011].
2
“An informal term that includes all forms of value that determine the health and well-being of the firm in the long run.” [BD 2013]
3
“The power or ability to do something.” [OED 2013]
4
“An important topic or problem for debate or discussion.” [OED 2013]
5
“is the set of processes, policies, rules, laws and institutions that affecting the way as a corporation is directed, administered or
controlled” [Cadbury 1992]
3
Several authors [Luna et al. 2010; Qumer and Henderson-Sellers 2008; Roosmalen and Hoppenbrouwers 2008;
Sun et al. 2005] have pointed out the lack of methods, techniques and tools to help people and enterprises to
achieve the business goals, means by the governance issues, in an agile way independent from the business area.
At same time, many authors [Banihashemi and Liu 2012; Bartenschlager and Goeken 2010; Heston and Phifer
2011; Radnor and Johnston 2013] claim that the governance practices, models, guides and frameworks are most of
them bureaucratic, time consuming and having no guidance details of how to implement and deploy the necessary
management instruments and governance mechanism, such as ITIL [Mendel 2004], COBIT [Gerke and Ridley
2009], among others. These processes, models, guides and practices will be denominated “ conventional or
traditional governance”, by this study, according the shortcomings identified in their context.
Over the last few years, Agile methodologies [Dybå and Dingsøyr 2008] have been gaining traction in industry
and adding competitiveness and dynamism to the process of software development, through initiatives where the
principles of communication and collaboration are essential Dubinsky and Kruchten [2009]. Moreover, Dubinsky
and Kruchten [2009] and Dubinsky et al. [2010] highlight that Software Development Governance (SDG) has
emerged in the last few years to deal with establishing the structures, policies, controls, and measurements for
communication and for decision rights, to ensure the success of software development organizations.
Recently, agile governance has been proposed [Cheng et al. 2009; Luna et al. 2010; Qumer 2007], which
provides the wide application of principles and values of Agile Software Development [Beck et al. 2001] to the
conventional governance processes. Luna [2009] has developed a framework for agile governance, in order to
implement and improve governance in organizations, called MAnGve. This framework is focused to the
deployment process, as a catalyzer to accelerate the deployment of governance. The MAnGve framework is
designed to alleviate the lack of practical focus found in conventional governance models [MAnGve 2009]. The
MAnGve is a framework based on an agile life cycle, seeking to translate the principles, values and practices from
Agile Software Development to IT governance paradigm. However, altogether the agile governance phenomena
still remain unexplored in depth, and are currently the focus of the first author's doctoral research.
1.3. Benefits
The audience will have the opportunity to experience and discuss the following topics upon the context of
framework and its case study:
What is MAnGve framework and how it can be useful?
Where to begin the implementation of governance in the enterprise?
How to adapt/customize the existing bodies of knowledge to the reality of their business?
What should be prioritized to achieve results as quickly as possible?
How to implement effective and responsive governance in order to deliver value faster, better, and
cheaper to the business?
1.4. Agenda
During the presentation we will address the following topics:
Agile Governance: this session will introduce the Agile Governance paradigm, its origins and meta-
principles.
MAnGve overview: at this topic we will present the framework overview, lifecycle, architecture,
components, practices and roles.
A practical case study: in this section we will characterize the target organization, discuss the
motivation to adopt the framework, present the results and discuss the benefits achieved.
Conclusion: finally, we will address the relevance of this initiative to the industry and government, and
discuss important aspects such as: effectiveness, facility for replication, strength of evidence, implications
for research and practices, limitations and future works.
2. Audience
This topic is essential to CEOs, CIOs, CFOs, executives, managers, government agents; team leaders, IT
professionals who wish to make their organizations more competitive and profitable, as well as scholars and
researchers who have special interest on related topics. They are busy, restless, and impatient, and usually read
books about business, governance and management, looking for tools to improve the results of their corporations.
No previous knowledge about technologies is required. However, knowledge about processes, services and
management may help the attendant to take better advantage of the content of the session.
3. Speaker’s Bio
Alexandre Luna is Ph.D. candidate of computer science at the Federal University of Pernambuco (UFPE), Center
of Informatics (CIn), Brazil; as well as a Visiting Scholar of Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering
(ECE) at The University of British Columbia (UBC), in Vancouver, Canada. He holds a M.Sc. in computer
4
science, a MBA in IT management and a B.Eng. in Chemical Engineering. He holds certification in ITIL, COBIT,
CSM and he is PMI member. He is a Consultant Analyst of Governmental Agency of Information Technology of
the Pernambuco (ATI-PE). He is a researcher of the Project Management Research Group (GP2) from CIn-UFPE,
of the Software Engineering Architecture Laboratory (SEAL) Research Group from ECE-UBC, and of the
Research Group in Technology on Health (TIS) at the Clinics Hospital (HC-UFPE). His main research interests
include: Agile Governance, IT Governance, Information Systems, Agile Methodologies, Software Engineering,
Project Management, Telemedicine, e-Business, Service Management and MAnGve.
References
Banihashemi, S. and Liu, L. (2012). “LEAN GOVERNANCE”: A PARADIGM SHIFT IN INTER-ORGANIZATIONAL RELATIONSHIPS (IORS)
GOVERNANCE. In Proceedings for the 20th Annual Conference of the International Group for Lean Construction.
Bank for International Settlements (2010). Third Basel Accord.
Bartenschlager, J. and Goeken, M. (2010). (POP-013) [S62] IT strategy Implementation Framework-Bridging Enterprise Architecture and IT Governance. In
Americas Conference on Information Systems (AMCIS) 2010 PROCEEDINGS.
BD (2013). Business Dictionary - definitions and meanings. http://www.businessdictionary.com/, [accessed on May 6].
Beck, K., Beedle, M., Bennekum, A. Van, et al. (2001). Manifesto for Agile Software Development. http://agilemanifesto.org/, [accessed on May 1].
Bloom, A. (1991). The Republic of Plato. 2nd. ed. Harper Collins Publishers. p. 509
Brown, A. W., Ambler, S. and Royce, W. (may 2013). Agility at scale: economic governance, measured improvement, and disciplined delivery. In Software
Engineering (ICSE), 2013 35th International Conference on. . Ieee.
Cadbury, A. (1992). The Financial Aspects of Corporate Governance.
Chen, R.-S., Sun, C.-M., Helms, M. M. and Jih, W.-J. (Kenny) (oct 2008). (SCD-0069) [S86] Aligning information technology and business strategy with a
dynamic capabilities perspective: A longitudinal study of a Taiwanese Semiconductor Company. International Journal of Information Management, v. 28,
n. 5, p. 366378.
Cheng, T.-H., Jansen, S. and Remmers, M. (2009). (POP-015) [S63] Controlling and monitoring agile software development in three dutch product software
companies. In 2009 ICSE Workshop on Software Development Governance. . Ieee.
Congress of the United States of America (2002). AT THE SECOND SESSION. Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002. . 2002, p. 66.
Dubinsky, Y. and Kruchten, P. (2009). (POP-038) 2nd workshop on software development governance (SDG). 2009 31st International Conference on
Software Engineering - Companion Volume, p. 455456.
Dubinsky, Y., Kruchten, P., Finkelstein, A., et al. (2010). (POP-047) [S74] Software Development Governance (SDG) Workshop. In ICSE ’10 Proceedings
of the 32nd ACM/IEEE International Conference on Software Engineering - Volume 2.
Dubinsky, Y., Ravid, S., Rafaeli, A. and Bar-Nahor, R. (aug 2011). Governance Mechanisms in Global Development Environments. 2011 IEEE Sixth
International Conference on Global Software Engineering, p. 614.
Dybå, T. and Dingsøyr, T. (aug 2008). Empirical studies of agile software development: A systematic review. Information and Software Technology, v. 50, n.
9-10, p. 833859.
Gallagher, K. P. and Worrell, J. L. (14 jul 2007). (SPL-0035) [S114] Organizing IT to promote agility. Information Technology and Management, v. 9, n. 1,
p. 7188.
Gerke, L. and Ridley, G. (2009). Tailoring CobiT for Public Sector IT Audit: An Australian Case Study. In: Klinger, K.[Ed.]. Information technology
governance and service management: frameworks and adaptations . 1st. ed. Hershey: Information Science Reference (an imprint of IGI Global). p. 101
125.
Heston, K. M. and Phifer, W. (2011). (SCO-001) [S90] The multiple quality models paradox: how much “best practice”is just enough? Journal of Software
Maintenance and Evolution, n. July 2009, p. 517531.
IT Governance Institute (2001). Board briefing on IT governance. 2nd. ed. Rolling Meadows: IT Governance Institute. p. 66
Janssen, M. and Estevez, E. (jan 2013). Lean government and platform-based governanceDoing more with less. Government Information Quarterly, v. 30,
p. S1S8.
Kruchten, P. (2011). (SCO-006) [S92] Contextualizing agile software development. Journal of Software: Evolution and Process, p. 11.
Li, J. (2010). (I3E-0147) [S47] A Study on the First Layer Assessment Variables of Logistics Quick Response Capability. In 2010 Second International
Conference on Multimedia and Information Technology. . Ieee.
Luftman, J., Lewis, P. and Oldach, S. (1993). Transforming the enterprise: The alignment of business and information technology strategies. IBM Systems
Journal, v. 32, n. 1, p. 24.
Luna, A. J. H. de O. (2009). MAnGve: A model for Agile Governance in ICT. Federal University of Pernambuco.
Luna, A. J. H. de O., Costa, C. P., De Moura, H. P. and Novaes, M. A. (2010). (POP-009) [S60] Agile Governance in Information and Communication
Technologies: Shifting Paradigms. JISTEM Journal of Information Systems and Technology Management, v. 7, n. 2, p. 311334.
Luna, A. J. H. de O., Kruchten, P. and De Moura, H. P. (aug 2013). GAME: Governance for Agile Management of Enterprises: A Management Model for
Agile Governance. In 2013 IEEE 8th International Conference on Global Software Engineering Workshops. . Ieee.
MAnGve (2009). MAnGve.org - Portal of the Movement for fostering Agile Governance. http://www.mangve.org/, [accessed on May 6].
Matt, D. T. (2007). (I3E-0125) [S43] Design of changeable assembly systems-a complexity theory based approach. In IEEE Industrial Engineering and
Engineering Management.
Mendel, T. (2004). ITIL’s Final Breakthrough: From “What” to “How.”CSO Online, p. 13.
OED (2013). Oxford English Dictionary. http://oxforddictionaries.com, [accessed on May 30].
Qumer, A. (2007). (POP-001) [S54] Defining an Integrated Agile Governance for Large Agile Software Development Environments: A Systematic Review
and Analysis. In XP’07 Proceedings of the 8th international conference on Agile processes in software engineering and extreme programming .
Qumer, A. and Henderson-Sellers, B. (2008). (POP-054) [S75] A framework to support the evaluation, adoption and improvement of agile methods in
practice. Journal of Systems and Software, v. 81, n. 11, p. 18991919.
Radnor, Z. and Johnston, R. (nov 2013). Lean in UK Government: internal efficiency or customer service? Production Planning & Control, v. 24, n. 10-11, p.
903915.
Ribeiro, L. and Barata, J. (2011). (ACM-0093) [S10] Re-thinking diagnosis for future automation systems: An analysis of current diagnostic practices and
their applicability in emerging IT based production paradigms. Computers in Industry, v. 62, n. 7, p. 639659.
Roosmalen, M. W. (Matthijs) Van and Hoppenbrouwers, S. J. B. A. (Stijn) (2008). (POP-058) [S76] Supporting Corporate Governance with Enterprise
Architecture and Business Rule Management: A Synthesis of Stability and Agility. In Proceedings of the International Workshop on Regulations Modelling
and Deployment (ReMoD’08) held in conjunction with the CAiSE'08 Conference.
Royce, W. and Cantor, M. (2013). Economic Governance of Software Delivery. IEEE Software, v. PP, n. 99, p. 11.
Sun, Y., Zhang, Z. and Valota, O. (2005). (I3E-0024) [S28] A Methodology to form agile strategies in manufacturing organisations. In Proceedings. 2005
IEEE International Engineering Management Conference, 2005. . Ieee.
Tallon, P. P. (2008). (SCO-090) [S106] Inside the adaptive enterprise: an information technology capabilities perspective on business process agility.
Information Technology and Management, v. 9, n. 123, p. 2136.
Thomsett, R. (2013). The Five Keys to Organizational Agility: From Agile to Agility. In Executive Report, Cutter Consortium.
Weill, P. and Ross, J. W. (2004). IT Governance: How Top Performers Manage IT Decision Rights for Superior Results. Harvard Business School
Publishing India Pvt. Limited.
Chapter
Although Agile Software Development (ASD) has proven to be an important set of methods that promotes simplicity issues, there are difficulties in defining simplicity. In order to develop a conceptual model of simplicity from the agile teams perspective, a literature review was conducted covering models related to simplicity in different research areas. Based on that, a conceptual model was developed, which was then triangulated through a focus group with six ASD experts. Five simplicity perspectives in the context of ASD were identified. From the agile teams perspective, simplicity is defined as the theoretical virtue disposing the team towards an analytic attitude that leads agile projects to be successful. The conceptual model of simplicity in agile software development is an invitation to practitioners to do what they already do, but to do so more consciously. This consciousness can make a substantial difference in real situations.
Article
Full-text available
The main role of software development governance is to achieve a strategic alignment with the business. Exploring governance in software development environments is an important evolutionary step for software engineering. The implementation of governance through tools and techniques provides teams and organizations with the ability to effectively steer the business of software development.
Article
Full-text available
This article draws on service operations and Lean management in considering the relationship between internal service processes and customer service in public sector organisations. It draws on extensive evidence from two case studies of large UK Government departments to illustrate that whilst public service organisations recognise that methodologies such as Lean improves their internal processes to date they have not linked this to value or customer service. This article presents a model which shows that public service organisations are driven towards internal operations improvement due to the efficiency agenda leading to a process focus, rather than a market driven approach focusing on the customer. This article argues that although this starting point is not necessarily bad in order to sustain improvement after initial gains there is a need to focus on both process and customer. This article therefore contributes and extends the discussion on the adaptation of Lean for a public sector context.
Thesis
In recent years, ICT - Information and Communication Technologies has been a subject of increasing investment and research from both academic and non-academic organizations, demanding high efforts in developing business models and implementation of practices which allows more competitiveness to organizations. In this scenario ICT Governance has emerged as an option to manage effectively ICT initiatives, to ensure the return on the investment and add improvements to business processes. However, one of the main shortcomings of the ICT governance models is referred to a unexisting practical approach to enable implementation and improvement of processes and services in the field of ICT Governance. In order to propose an alternative to this problem, this master thesis introduces the basis of the Agile ICT Governance and Agile Model which supports the ICT Governance - MAnGve that is based on the principles, values and practices of Agile Methodologies from Software Engineering, focusing on actions that promote the elimination or mitigation of the gap between the ICT and business. Finally this model was refined and validated through the application of a Case Study in an Government Organization of the State of Pernambuco - Brazil, generating satisfactory results, throughout two iterations of applying the model. As result a function and three ICT governance processes have been deployed and have been improved during the two cycles, in a range of eight months, leading the organizational unit involved from a management model based on ICT "fire fighting" to a state of maturity that allows direct their efforts in the management of services terms.
Conference Paper
Agility at the business and organizational levels presents a challenge for many enterprises. Business agility demands the ability to sense and respond to changes in competitive environments, whereas organizational agility demands the dexterity to sense broader market opportunities and respond with changes that are organization-wide. These challenges require an information and communication technologies (ICT or IT) environment flexible and customizable simultaneously with the coordination across multiple organization units, also demands effective and responsive governance in order to deliver faster, better, and cheaper value to the business. Driven by these challenges, the goals of the candidate's PhD thesis is to conceive, define, and evaluate a management model for agile governance on global development environments. Preliminary insights suggest the model's format should be a corporative game, applying constructs of gamification, fun theory and game theory, generating a practical approach to facilitate the implementation of a collaborative and adaptive culture, in order to establish relational integration mechanisms as well as a better understanding of how these arrangements can help the organizations to attain greater enterprise agility and support its overall strategy.
Conference Paper
Agility without discipline cannot scale, and discipline without agility cannot compete. Agile methods are now mainstream. Software enterprises are adopting these practices in broad, comprehensive delivery contexts. There have been many successes, and there have been disappointments. IBM's framework for achieving agility at scale is based on hundreds of successful deployments and dozens of disappointing experiences in accelerating software delivery cycles within large-scale organizations. Our collective know-how points to three key principles to deliver measured improvements in agility with high confidence: Steer using economic governance, measure incremental improvements honestly, and empower teams with disciplined agile delivery. This paper elaborates these three principles and presents practical recommendations for achieving improved agility in large-scale software delivery enterprises.
Article
Agility without objective governance cannot scale, and governance without agility cannot compete. Agile methods are mainstream, and software enterprises are adopting these practices in diverse delivery contexts and at enterprise scale. IBM's broad industry experience with agile transformations and deep internal know-how point to two key principles to deliver sustained improvements in software business outcomes with higher confidence: measure and streamline change costs, and steer with economic governance and Bayesian analytics. Applying these two principles in context is the crux of measured improvement in continuous delivery of smarter software-intensive systems. This article describes more meaningful measurement and prediction foundations for economic governance. The Web extra at http://youtu.be/ghAM8ifyeVI is a video in which Walker Royce, author, IEEE Software editorial board member, and IBM Chief Software Economist, describes how to reason about software delivery governance with lean principles.
Article
Governments from all over the world are looking for ways to reduce costs while at the same time to stimulate innovation. While pursuing both objectives, governments face a major challenge—to operate in a connected environment, engage stakeholders and solve societal problems by utilizing new methods, tools, practices and governance models. As result, fundamental changes are taking place on how government operates. Such changes are under the larger umbrella of ‘lean government’ (l-Government). Lean government is a new wave which is appearing as a response to traditional approaches—like electronic government (e-Government) and transformational government (t-Government), and aims at reducing the complexity of the public sector by simplifying and streamlining organizational structures and processes, at the same time at stimulating innovation by mobilizing stakeholders. In l-Government, public organizations introduce platforms facilitating innovation and interactions with other public organizations, business and citizens, and focus on their orchestration role. Experimentation, assessment and gradual improvement based on user requirements are key factors for realizing l-Government.
Article
Since most of today's industrial products are characterized by high complexity and numerous customer- specific variants, adaptive production system concepts are needed to meet the quickly changing market and customer requirements. At the same time, these production systems have to be highly competitive in terms of cost per unit. Most research activities have been concentrated on manufacturing system design so far. However, in assembly system design there is still a need for methodological support. This paper introduces a methodology that helps to systematically identify and reduce complexity in assembly systems and to redesign them according to the objectives of high changeability and efficiency.