Health Consequences of Nutrition in Childhood and Early Infancy

ArticleinPediatrics & Neonatology 50(4):135-42 · August 2009with8 Reads
DOI: 10.1016/S1875-9572(09)60051-6 · Source: PubMed
Abstract
Medical and scientific studies have proven that the body's metabolic programming can be influenced by diet and nutrition from early infancy. As a result, the incidence and outcome of several metabolic diseases such as obesity, hypertension and cardiovascular disorders have been found to be associated with birth weight, growth and feeding patterns, and the body composition in early childhood. Exclusive or partial breast feeding for at least 6 months is recommended by the World Health Organization, while the European Society of Pediatric Gastroenterology Hepatology and Nutrition Committee on Nutrition recommends the introduction of complementary foods at 4-6 months of age. The fat content of the diet should not be below 25% of the energy intake in order to maintain ideal growth while dietary proteins above 15% of the energy intake is related to future obesity. Long term benefits of breast feeding include a more ideal serum lipid profile and blood pressure, improved neuro-cognitive scores, and a decreased incidence for atopic dermatitis in children who have family members with atopic diseases. Several studies have also acknowledged the long term benefits for neuro-cognitive development from certain nutrients including long-chain polyunstaturated fatty acids and docosahexaenoic acid. Meat intake has proved to be beneficial to psychomotor development. It is suggested that early introduction for complementary foods before 4 months of age is a risk factor for atopic dermatitis; while no strong evidence showed delaying weaning foods can decrease the risk for allergic diseases.
    • "HM is a unique food source that contains all the exacting amounts of required nutrients to support the growth and development of term infants during the first six months of life. The health benefits of HM have been well documented [1]. Current data suggest that the quantity of HM consumed by healthy term infants is on average 0.778 kg human milk/day, with males consuming 0.056 kg/day more than females. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Human milk is the ideal nutrition source for healthy infants during the first six months of life and a detailed characterisation of the composition of milk from mothers that deliver prematurely (<37 weeks gestation), and of how human milk changes during lactation, would benefit our understanding of the nutritional requirements of premature infants. Individual milk samples from mothers delivering prematurely and at term were collected. The human milk metabolome, established by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, was influenced by gestational and lactation age. Metabolite profiling identified that levels of valine, leucine, betaine, and creatinine were increased in colostrum from term mothers compared with mature milk, while those of glutamate, caprylate, and caprate were increased in mature term milk compared with colostrum. Levels of oligosaccharides, citrate, and creatinine were increased in pre-term colostrum, while those of caprylate, caprate, valine, leucine, glutamate, and pantothenate increased with time postpartum. There were differences between pre-term and full-term milk in the levels of carnitine, caprylate, caprate, pantothenate, urea, lactose, oligosaccharides, citrate, phosphocholine, choline, and formate. These findings suggest that the metabolome of pre-term milk changes within 5–7 weeks postpartum to resemble that of term milk, independent of time of gestation at pre-mature delivery The Effect of Gestational and Lactational Age on the Human Milk Metabolome. Available from: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/303379764_The_Effect_of_Gestational_and_Lactational_Age_on_the_Human_Milk_Metabolome [accessed May 23, 2016].
    Full-text · Article · May 2016
    • "Multivariable Poisson regression with robust estimation was used for analysis. results of this intervention and presuming that mode and duration of BF and timing of onset of complementary feeding can influence the future nutritional status of children1011121314151617181920, the present study sought to assess the medium-term impact of the same intervention on child growth and prevalence of overweight at age 4–7 years. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Aim: To update a previous systematic review and meta-analyses about the effect of breastfeeding promotion interventions on child growth. Methods: Studies evaluating the effect of any type of breastfeeding promotion intervention on child weight, length (or height) and weight/height (or BMI) were screened. Papers published between 2006 and 2014 were checked using the following databases: PubMed/Medline, Embase, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Lilacs and Scielo. Results: Sixteen studies were added to 19 other studies identified in the previous review, resulting in 35 studies. Meta-analyses of studies reporting on mean weight, length, weight/length or BMI showed that the interventions had no impact on weight or length/height z scores [pooled effect: 0.03 (95% confidence interval: -0.06;0.12) and 0.03 (95% confidence interval: -0.02;0.08), respectively] and had a modest, but significant, reduction in body mass index/weight-for-height z scores [z score mean difference: -0.06 (95% confidence interval: -0.12;0.00)], which was limited to studies from low and high incomes settings. For all three outcomes there was important heterogeneity among studies, that should be taken into account when interpreting the results. Conclusion: Breastfeeding promotion interventions were not associated with significant changes in weight or length, but led to a modest, albeit significant, reduction in body mass index/weight-for-height z scores. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2015
    • "Multivariable Poisson regression with robust estimation was used for analysis. results of this intervention and presuming that mode and duration of BF and timing of onset of complementary feeding can influence the future nutritional status of children1011121314151617181920, the present study sought to assess the medium-term impact of the same intervention on child growth and prevalence of overweight at age 4–7 years. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The pattern and duration of breastfeeding (BF) and the age at onset of complementary feeding, as well as its quality, have been associated with the prevalence of overweight in childhood. To assess the effect of a pro-BF and healthy complementary feeding intervention, targeted to adolescent mothers and maternal grandmothers, on growth and prevalence of overweight and obesity in children at preschool age. This intervention had a positive impact on duration of BF and timing of onset of complementary feeding. This randomized clinical trial involved 323 adolescent mothers, their infants, and the infants' maternal grandmothers, when they cohabited. Mothers and grandmothers in the intervention group received counseling sessions on BF and healthy complementary feeding at the maternity ward and at home (7, 15, 30, 60, and 120 days after delivery). When children were aged 4 to 7 years, they underwent anthropometric assessment and collection of data on dietary habits. Multivariable Poisson regression with robust estimation was used for analysis. BMI-for-age and height-for-age were similar in the intervention and control groups, as was the prevalence of overweight (39% vs. 31% respectively; p=0.318). There were no significant between-group differences in dietary habits. Although the intervention prolonged the duration of exclusive BF and delayed the onset of complementary feeding, it had no impact on growth or prevalence of overweight at age 4 to 7 years. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00910377.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2015
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