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Abstract

Clinical mastitis results in considerable economic losses for dairy producers and is most commonly diagnosed in early lactation. The objective of this research was to estimate the economic impact of clinical mastitis occurring during the first 30 days of lactation for a representative US dairy. A deterministic partial budget model was created to estimate direct and indirect costs per case of clinical mastitis occurring during the first 30 days of lactation. Model inputs were selected from the available literature, or when none were available, from herd data. The average case of clinical mastitis resulted in a total economic cost of $444, including $128 in direct costs and $316 in indirect costs. Direct costs included diagnostics ($10), therapeutics ($36), non-saleable milk ($25), veterinary service ($4), labor ($21), and death loss ($32). Indirect costs included future milk production loss ($125), premature culling and replacement loss ($182), and future reproductive loss ($9). Accurate decision making regarding mastitis control relies on understanding the economic impacts of clinical mastitis, especially the longer term indirect costs that represent 71% of the total cost per case of mastitis. Future milk production loss represents 28% of total cost, and future culling and replacement loss represents 41% of the total cost of a case of clinical mastitis. In contrast to older estimates, these values represent the current dairy economic climate, including milk price ($0.461/kg), feed price ($0.279/kg DM (dry matter)), and replacement costs ($2,094/head), along with the latest published estimates on the production and culling effects of clinical mastitis. This economic model is designed to be customized for specific dairy producers and their herd characteristics to better aid them in developing mastitis control strategies.
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... Ultimately, BM contributes to potential financial losses to the farmer and the dairy industry. The anticipated losses to BM are related to 31% in milk production, 24% treatment costs, 18% wasted milk, 4% excess labor demand, and 23% premature culling [41,42]. A total annual cost due to BM has been estimated as USD 19.7 to USD 32 billion in the global dairy industries [36]. ...
... Annual economic losses due to BM are projected to be USD 2 billion in the United States [36], USD 0.31 billion in Canada [35], USD 0.8 billion in Colombia [37], USD 1.3 billion in Australia [39,40], USD~1.55 billion in the EU [39], USD~0.77 billion in Japan [33,34], USD~0.002 billion in Bangladesh [32], and USD~0.8 billion in India [31]. A single case of clinical mastitis may lead to an economic loss that ranges between USD 128 and USD 444 [41,42]. According to these data, mastitis has a significant economic impact on dairy cattle production. ...
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Bovine mastitis (BM) is one of the most common diseases of dairy cattle, causing economic and welfare problems in dairy farming worldwide. Because of the predominant bacterial etiology, the treatment of BM is mostly based on antibiotics. However, the antimicrobial resistance (AMR), treatment effectiveness, and the cost of mastitis at farm level are linked to limitations in the antibiotic therapy. These scenarios have prompted the quest for new preventive options, probiotics being one interesting alternative. This review article sought to provide an overview of the recent advances in the use of probiotics for the prevention and treatment of BM. The cellular and molecular interactions of beneficial microbes with mammary gland (MG) cells and the impact of these interactions in the immune responses to infections are revised. While most research has demonstrated that some probiotics strains can suppress mammary pathogens by competitive exclusion or the production of antimicrobial compounds, recent evidence suggest that other probiotic strains have a remarkable ability to modulate the response of MG to Toll-like receptor (TLR)-mediated inflammation. Immunomodulatory probiotics or immunobiotics can modulate the expression of negative regulators of TLR signaling in the MG epithelium, regulating the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines induced upon pathogen challenge. The scientific evidence revised here indicates that immunobiotics can have a beneficial role in MG immunobiology and therefore they can be used as a preventive strategy for the management of BM and AMR, the enhancement of animal and human health, and the improvement of dairy cow milk production.
... Those studies found various degrees of positive relationships between animal welfare indicators and economic outcomes, indicating the advantages of describing and estimating the economic effects of animal health and welfare. Although stochastic partial budget analysis can be applied in a variety of decision-making situations for farmers (31)(32)(33)(34)(35)(36)(37), there are some limitations to this method. First, it is restricted to evaluating only two alternatives and one of the alternatives is related to current operations. ...
... Although stochastic partial budget analysis has been improved in this regard, caution is needed when using prior information for the analysis. In this context, it is a strength that this study used data from real studies (27,37) as well as knowledge from experienced farm advisors. Even though the assumptions adopted in this study were likely to be reliable, there was a large variation in most input variables on commercial farms. ...
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Ante- and post-mortem inspections of food-producing animals at slaughter are mandatory activities carried out in many countries to ensure public health, animal health, and meat quality. In finishing pigs, lung lesions are the most frequent defects found in meat inspections. It is possible to implement managerial strategies on-farm to reduce the occurrence and spread of respiratory diseases, but such strategies come with additional costs that could impede implementation. This study assessed the economic impact of two strategies aimed at reducing the prevalence of lung lesions in finishing pigs at slaughter by improving the health conditions of the animals during the production cycle. First, a farrow-to-finish pig farm with 355 sows was modeled based on the current standard practice for finishing pig production in Sweden, using economic data, meat inspection data and biological variables from the literature and expert opinions. A partial budget analysis was then performed in which the baseline farm was compared with two hypothetical strategies aimed at reducing the occurrence and spread of respiratory diseases during pig production: (S1) avoiding mixing of litters after weaning and (S2) keeping purchased pregnant gilts separated from sows during gestation, farrowing and lactation. Both these strategies intended to reduce the occurrence of respiratory disease in finishing pigs at slaughter gave an average gain in annual net income (33,805 SEK in S1 and 173,160 SEK in S2, equal to 3,146€ and 16,113€, respectively, at the time of analysis), indicating that both were economically sustainable under the assumed conditions. The impact analysis of the two strategies revealed that the reduced prevalence of lung lesions when adopting one of the strategies was the most influential factor in net benefit change on the farm. Overall, the results suggest that with the increasing prevalence of lung lesions in Swedish pig production (as also observed worldwide in recent years), adopting an effective strategy to decrease respiratory infections will become more relevant and economically beneficial.
... An increase in the number of somatic cells in milk in cases of mastitis is a common and expensive disease in dairy cows that shows varying degrees of severity and reduces the quantity and quality of milk produced (Heikkilä et al. 2012;Rollin et al. 2015). Streptococcus agalactiae, a member of the Lancefield B group, is an important cause of chronic infectious bovine mastitis (Herlina et al. 2015). ...
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Permatasari DA, Anggraeni F, Budiarto, Meles DK, Hamid IS, Puspitasari Y, Effendi MH, Khairullah AR, Wardhana DK, Ugbo EN. 2022. Prevalence and antimicrobial resistance in Streptococcus agalactiae isolated from raw milk in Pasuruan and Lumajang districts, East Java, Indonesia. Biodiversitas 23: 5050-5055. Milk and dairy products are nutritionally important in the diet worldwide. The microbiological quality of raw milk is essential for the quality of the final dairy product. The presence of Streptococcus agalactiae is frequently associated with high somatic cell counts in milk and decreased milk yield. Streptococcus agalactiae infections have major consequences for public health. This study aimed to identify the prevalence and antimicrobial resistance of Streptococcus agalactiae isolated from raw milk in Pasuruan and Lumajang, East Java, Indonesia. Raw milk samples were collected from three sub-districts in Pasuruan (Tutur, Grati and Purwosari) and three sub-districts in Lumajang (Senduro, Karangbendo, and Tekung). California mastitis test (CMT) was performed to confirm the presence of somatic cells, S. agalactiae was identified using standard microbiological methods, and antibiotic resistance was determined by Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method using Mueller-Hinton agar. Results showed that 89 (79.46%) out of 112 dairy cows were positive for CMT, which indicated the presence of mastitis. Bacteria isolation was performed on CMT-positive samples and four samples were showed the presence of S. agalactiae (4.49%). Based on the sensitivity test against various antibiotics, it was observed that S. agalactiae isolates were resistant to ampicillin (75%), and erythromycin (50%), and were sensitive to cefotaxime (100%), tetracycline (75%), and chloramphenicol (100%). This research reported that Streptococcus agalactiae organism is one bacterium that is implicated in mastitis infections. Therefore, monitoring the antibiotic susceptibility profiles of this organism is needed in veterinary medicine, in order to make an appropriate choice of drug for treatment, improve high cure rates and minimize the increase of drug resistance.
... anorexia, or both, in addition to alteration of milk aspect and quarter swelling (Ruegg and Erskine, 2020). Clinical mastitis was included when the occurrence was during the first 30 DIM (Rollin et al., 2015). Metritis was defined as the presence of red-brown fetid vaginal discharge combined with hyperthermia (≥39.5°C) and anorexia in the first 20 DIM (Sheldon et al., 2006). ...
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The objective of the present study was to quantify the relationships between prepartum nonesterified fatty acid (NEFA) concentrations and the development of subsequent diseases or culling and to identify the optimal thresholds allowing identification of animals at high risk of developing postpartum diseases or being culled. A total of 1,299 Holstein cows from 50 commercial herds located around Saint-Hyacinthe (QC, Canada) were enrolled in this observational study. Blood samples were collected from enrolled cows between 1 and 14 d before calving for serum NEFA quantification. Data concerning postpartum diseases and culling were collected from computerized record systems. The association between prepartum NEFA concentrations and postpartum diseases and culling was quantified using generalized linear mixed models, accounting for parity, season, week of sampling, and herd. Optimal NEFA thresholds were evaluated with receiver operator characteristic curves analysis for all diseases and then confirmed with generalized linear mixed models, considering NEFA as a categorical variable (high or low). Prepartum serum NEFA concentrations were associated with diseases diagnosed during the first 30 d in milk (DIM) and culling within the first 50 DIM. The optimal NEFA threshold associated with diseases was ≥290 µmol/L for retained placenta, ≥300 µmol/L for metritis and abomasal displacement, and ≥280 µmol/L for clinical mastitis and hyperketonemia. The level associated with the occurrence of at least one of these diseases in the first 30 DIM was ≥280 µmol/L, but it was ≥260 µmol/L for culling in the first 50 DIM. No relationship was found between NEFA concentrations and reproductive tract diseases (purulent vaginal discharge or cytological endometritis) or subclinical intramammary infection. Despite the strong relationship between prepartum NEFA concentrations and many diseases, the NEFA optimal threshold accuracy found in our study was low. In conclusion, our results demonstrate a relationship between NEFA concentrations in the 14-d period before calving and the subsequent development of diseases and culling. Prepartum NEFA concentrations thresholds between ≥260 and 300 µmol/L appear to be a strategic choice. However, considering the low accuracy, their use at the cow level should be performed with caution.
Article
Which reduced-mixing strategy maximizes economic output during a disease outbreak? To answer this question, we formulate an optimal-control problem that maximizes the difference between revenue, due to healthy individuals, and medical costs, associated with infective individuals, for SIS disease dynamics. The control variable is the level of mixing in the population, which influences both revenue and the spread of the disease. Using Pontryagin's maximum principle, we find a closed-form solution for our problem. We explore an example of our problem with parameters for the transmission of Staphylococcus aureus in dairy cows, and we perform sensitivity analyses to determine how model parameters affect optimal strategies. We find that less mixing is preferable when the transmission rate is high, the per-capita recovery rate is low, or when the revenue parameter is much smaller than the cost parameter.
Article
This randomized controlled trial on 4 commercial grazing dairy farms investigated whether pegbovigrastim (PEG) treatment affected partial net return as calculated from milk revenues and costs for feed, medical treatments [clinical mastitis, uterine disease, and other diseases (i.e., any medical treatment that was not intended for clinical mastitis or uterine disease)], inseminations, and culling during a full lactation in grazing dairy cows. We also explored the effect of potential interactions of PEG treatment with parity, prepartum body condition score, and prepartum nonesterified fatty acids concentration on partial net return, milk revenues, and the costs mentioned above. Holstein cows were randomly assigned to 1 of the 2 following trial arms: a first PEG dose 9.4 ± 0.3 (mean ± standard error) days before the calving date and a second dose within 24 hours after calving (PEG: primiparous = 342; multiparous = 697) compared with untreated controls (control: primiparous = 391; multiparous = 723). The effect of PEG treatment on the outcomes of interest expressed per year was tested using general linear mixed models. Results are presented as least squares means ± standard error. Overall, PEG treatment increased the partial net return, resulting in an economic benefit per cow per year of $210 ± 100. The cost of treatment of clinical mastitis was lower for PEG treated cows compared with control cows ($9 ± 3). The largest nonsignificant difference was seen for the cost of culling; additionally, PEG treatment numerically reduced the cost of culling by $145 ± 77.
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Platelet concentrate (PC) is an alternative therapy to treat mastitis in dairy cattle and is an alternative treatment for reproduction problems such as endometritis. Unfortunately, double-centrifugation processing methods described are time-consuming, require specialized laboratory equipment, and are usually done in a heterologous way, which risks herd health. To overcome this limitation, we evaluated single-step bovine PC processing methods readily applicable to a farm setting using an autologous conditioned plasma (ACP) production system. We investigated the hematologic findings, cytokines, and growth factors of the obtained PC samples. Autologous conditioned plasma was prepared using whole blood (WB) from 4 cows (group 1) using single-step centrifugation and 16 different processing methods. The 2 protocols that yielded the highest ratio of platelet to white blood cell (WBC) concentration were ACP-1 [720 × g (2,200 rpm), 5 min] and ACP-2 [929 × g (2,500 rpm), 3 min]. They were subsequently reproduced and compared using WB from 8 cows (group 2). Hematologic findings were quantified, IL-1β (cytokine) and growth factors [platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), transforming growth factor (TGF)-β, bovine fibroblast growth factor (b-FGF)] were measured, and enrichment factors were compared between samples and processing methods. Hematological characteristics and platelet enrichment varied markedly among tested protocols and all were statistically different from WB. Protocol ACP-2 resulted in significantly greater platelet enrichment (mean 169% of WB) than ACP-1 (125% of WB). We found no significant difference between the 2 ACP preparation protocols with regard to leukocyte reduction (7.53–9.75% WBC compared with WB) or growth factor enrichment (124–125% PDGF, 95–100% TGF-β, 102–104% b-FGF, and 56–74% IL-1β compared with WB). In conclusion, both ACP protocols yielded a platelet concentration shown to promote healing for clinical applications in cattle, and the ACP-2 protocol resulted in a greater degree of platelet enrichment. Therefore, this protocol could be used for ACP production for clinical applications in cattle.
Article
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Article
The present study discusses UHPLC method development allowing to establish ultra-high-resolution separations in gradient mode while operating at the kinetic performance limits, targeting the analysis of complex residual multi-class antibiotic samples in food products. The peak capacity and gradient occupation have been systematically assessed at different flow rates and gradient duration. The small particle size (1.5 µm core-shell particles) used in this study limits the mass-transfer contribution to band broadening when operating at high flow rate. As a result, for high-throughput analysis, high-pressure (1500 bar) operation leads to high resolving power where the gradient steepness dominates the peak capacity generation vs mass-transfer resistance. To reach the highest possible resolving power within a practically acceptable analysis time, one should use coupled-column systems at 1500 bar and adjust the gradient steepness correspondingly. Coupling four columns and applying a shallow gradient at 1500 bar led to a sample capacity of 379 in 140 min, allowing to resolve 71% of the analytes in a mixture composed of 61 milk antibiotics.
Article
Antibiotic administration is crucial to ensure the health and productivity of dairy cattle. Mastitis is a disease that is typically a result of an intramammary infection (IMI), and antibiotic regimens are implemented to aid in curing IMI. Diagnosis is usually by detection of elevated milk somatic cell counts (SCC) and/or presence of culturable pathogens in the milk. Antibiotic treatment success is associated with the SCC at the time of treatment, though this correlation is still poorly understood. The objective of this project was to evaluate pre-treatment SCC and its association with IMI cure incidence following a standard antibiotic treatment. We hypothesized that pre-treatment SCC would be significantly lower in cases where the IMI ultimately cured compared to cases where the IMI failed to cure. Milk samples were collected aseptically from lactating cow quarters experiencing clinical or subclinical mastitis (n = 52). Clinical mastitis was diagnosed by a trained milking technician and subclinical mastitis was diagnosed at the quarter level as a SCC > 200,000 cells/mL and presence of bacterical growth in milk at time of treatment. After collection of the day 0 (D0) milk samples, the SCC was enumerated, and the milk sample cultured. Intramammary antibiotic therapy Cetftiofur hydrochloride (Spectramast® LC) was administered once/day for 5 days. Post-treatment samples were collected 14 d (D14) and 28 d (D28) later. A bacteriological cure was confirmed when both the D14 and D28 samples were free of culturable pathogens. The overall cure rate was 46.2%. Interestingly, the cure rates of antibiotic therapy decreased as pre-treatment SCC increased. Quarters that experienced bacteriological cure demonstrated a lower pre-treatment SCC (507,041 cells/mL ± 127.86 SEM, P = 0.01) compared to cows that did not cure, which had high pre-treatment SCC (1,640,392 cells/mL ± 333.28 SEM). Quarters that failed to cure had higher SCC values 28 days post-treatment in comparison to quarters that cured (P < 0.001). Future studies should investigate whether we can develop unique SCC-dependent mastitis treatment protocols which increase mastitis cure rates and enhance overall mammary health.
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Antimicrobials are frequently used for treatment of bovine mastitis and few studies have examined modern treatment strategies on large US dairy farms. The objective of this study was to describe treatment practices for clinical mastitis occurring in cows on large dairy herds in Wisconsin. Treatments performed on 747 cows experiencing cases of mild, moderate, or severe symptoms of clinical mastitis were recorded on 51 Wisconsin dairy farms. Duplicate milk samples were collected from the affected quarter for microbiological analysis at the onset of clinical mastitis and 14 to 21 d after treatment ended. Cows were treated according to individual farm protocol. Drugs and doses used for treatments were recorded for each case. Among all herds, 5 intramammary (IMM) antimicrobials (amoxicillin, hetacillin, pirlimycin, ceftiofur, and cephapirin) were used to treat cows for clinical mastitis. Of 712 cows with complete treatment data, 71.6% were treated with IMM ceftiofur either solely or combined with other antimicrobials (administered either IMM or systemically). Of cows experiencing severe symptoms of clinical mastitis, 43.8% received IMM treatment concurrent with systemic antimicrobials. Of all cows treated, 23.1% received an additional secondary treatment (either IMM, systemic, or both) because of perceived lack of response to the initial treatment. The majority of IMM treatments were administered to cows with a microbiological diagnosis of no growth (34.9%) or Escherichia coli (27.2%). Half of the cows experiencing cases caused by E. coli were treated using systemic antimicrobials in contrast to only 6.8% of cows experiencing cases caused by coagulase-negative staphylococci. In conflict with FDA regulations, which do not allow extra-label treatments using sulfonamides, a total of 22 cows from 8 farms were treated with systemic sulfadimethoxine either solely or in combination with oxytetracycline. Antimicrobial drugs were used on all herds and many cows received extra-label treatments. Great opportunity exists to improve mastitis therapy on large dairy herds, but use of more diagnostic methodologies is necessary to guide treatments. Farmers and veterinarians should work together to create protocols based on the herd needs considering reduced inappropriate and excessive use of antimicrobials.
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The aim of this research was to use probabilistic sensitivity analysis to evaluate the relative importance of different components of a model designed to estimate the cost of clinical mastitis (CM). A particular focus was placed on the importance of pathogen transmission relative to other factors, such as milk price or treatment costs. A stochastic Monte Carlo model was developed to simulate a case of CM at the cow level and to calculate the associated costs for 5 defined treatment protocols. The 5 treatment protocols modeled were 3 d of antibiotic intramammary treatment, 5 d of antibiotic intramammary treatment, 3 d of intramammary and systemic antibiotic treatment, 3 d of intramammary and systemic antibiotic treatment plus 1 d of nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug treatment, and 5 d of intramammary and systemic antibiotic treatment. Uniform distributions were used throughout the model to enable investigation of the cost of CM over a spectrum of clinically realistic scenarios without specifying which scenario was more or less likely. A risk of transmission parameter distribution, based on literature values, was included to model the effect of pathogen transmission to uninfected cows, from cows that remained subclinically infected after treatment for CM. Spearman rank correlation coefficients were used to evaluate the relationships between model input values and the estimated cost of CM. Linear regression models were used to explore the effect that changes to specific independent variables had on the cost of CM. Risk of transmission was found to have the strongest association with the cost of CM, followed by bacteriological cure rate, cost of culling, and yield loss. Other factors such as milk price, cost of labor, and cost of medicines were of minimal influence in comparison. The cost of CM was similar for all 5 treatment protocols. The results from this study suggest that, when seeking to minimize the economic impact of CM in dairy herds, great emphasis should be placed on the reduction of pathogen transmission from cows with CM to uninfected cows.
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Objective: To identify management factors associated with veterinary usage by organic and conventional dairy farms. Design: Prospective case-control study. Sample: 292 farms. Procedures: Organic farms in New York, Oregon, and Wisconsin were matched to conventional farms on the basis of location and herd size. During a single herd visit, a questionnaire was administered, information about animal disease incidence and number of veterinarian visits in the preceding 60 days was collected, and forms to record similar information during the 60 days after the visit were left for the herd manager to complete. For analysis, conventional herds were classified as either grazing or nongrazing. Multiple correspondence analysis was used to assess relationships among management factors and selected outcomes for frequency of veterinary usage. Results: Intensive management practices were closely associated with frequent veterinary usage. Generally, organic management practices were associated with less frequent veterinary usage than were conventional management practices. Conventional grazing practices were associated with intermediate veterinary usage (more than organic practices but less than intensive practices), whereas conventional nongrazing practices were associated with frequent veterinary usage. Cost of routinely scheduled veterinarian visits/45 kg (100 lb) of milk produced/y was greater for small farms than that for large farms. Conclusions and clinical relevance: Results suggested that management intensiveness was more closely associated with frequency of veterinary usage than was organic status; therefore, veterinarians should characterize farms by factors other than organic status when investigating which farms are most likely to use their services. Economic factors substantially affected routine veterinary usage on small farms.
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The main aim of the present study was to examine the economic consequences of a reduction in the incidence of clinical mastitis (CM) at herd level under current Swedish farming conditions. A second objective was to ask whether the estimated cost of CM alters depending upon whether the model reflects the fact that in different stages of lactation, CM gives rise to different yield-loss patterns or postulates just one type of yield-loss pattern irrespective of when, during lactation, CM occurs. A dynamic and stochastic simulation model, SimHerd, was used to study the effects of CM in a herd with 150 cows (9000 kg of energy-corrected milk per cow-year). Four herd types, defined by production level and reproductive performance, were modelled to investigate possible interactions between herd type and response to a reduction in the risk of CM. Technical and economic results, given the initial incidence of CM (25.6 per 100 cow-years), were studied together with the consequences of reducing the initial risk of CM by 50% and 90% throughout lactation and the consequences of reducing the initial risk by 50% and 90% before peak yield. A conventional way of modelling yield losses - i.e. one employing a single yield-loss pattern irrespective of when, during the lactation period, the cow develops CM - was compared with a new modelling strategy in which CM was assumed to affect production differently depending on its lactational timing. The effect of the choice of reference level when estimating yield losses was investigated by comparing the results obtained using the potential yield of mastitic cows, had they not developed CM, with those obtained using the yield of non-mastitic cows. The yearly maximum avoidable cost of CM at herd level was estimated at €14 504, corresponding to 6.9% of the net return given the initial incidence of CM. Expressed per cow-year, the maximum avoidable cost was €97. The cost per case of CM was estimated at €428. Herd types all responded in a similar manner to the reduced relative risk of CM. There were no major differences in the results obtained using the new and the conventional modelling strategy, with the exception of the cost per case of CM. Similarities between the results obtained using the two methods were particularly evident when the mastitic cows' own yield level, had they not developed CM, was used as the reference for production in healthy cows when yield losses were estimated. It was concluded that the conventional way of modelling yield losses is adequate and should, for the foreseeable future, be used in decision support systems.
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Bovine mastitis is an economic and a welfare problem on dairy farms. The objective of this study was to estimate the costs of clinical mastitis (CM), having a special focus on the cost variation related to culling decisions. A dynamic optimization model was developed to determine an optimal replacement time of a mastitic cow and to estimate the costs of CM, taking into account the risk of premature culling and the uncertainty in CM prevalence. Six lactations were analyzed at monthly periods for Ayrshire and Holstein-Friesian breeds. The estimates reflect Finnish production conditions where mastitis is treated only by veterinarians. Biological parameters of the model were adapted from the literature and the Finnish dairy herd health recording system. Field data were used to produce the risk parameters of culling due to mastitis on commercial dairy farms. The model recommended treating the cows with CM and keeping them in most cases until their fifth lactation. A cheaper (-20%) heifer transferred the optimum to the previous lactation and a more expensive (+20%) heifer to the following lactation. Conditional on optimal replacements, the average cost of CM of an Ayrshire (Holstein-Friesian costs in parentheses) cow was €485 (€458), varying from €209 (€112) to €1,006 (€946). The costs were at the highest when the occurrence of CM was at a top yield phase. In the scenario where the risk of culling due to mastitis was included in the model, the average cost of CM was €596 (€623). Disposing of a young cow at the end of her first lactation month caused the highest costs. The costs converted to figures per cow-year were €121 (€147) with optimal cullings and €155 (€191) in the current Finnish conditions. Thus, the increase in the costs of CM due to premature cullings was 28% (30%.) The main cost sources were long-term production losses regardless of the culling decisions. Premature culling formed 20% (23%) of the total costs. To decrease the costs of CM, more emphasis should be given to hidden costs, especially the high cost of premature culling should be underlined.
Article
Data on parity, disease, farmers' stated primary reasons for culling and stage of lactation at diagnosis and at culling were used to describe patterns of culling in Holstein lactations from 34 New York herds. Of 7763 lactations, 18.7% ended in culling [death (95 cows), sales for dairy purposes (104 cows), or slaughter]. The culling rates for specific reasons were: dairy purposes 1.3%, low production 3.8%, reproduction 4.8%, udder problems 4.0%, feet and legs 1.2%, old age 0.3%, accidents 0.3% and miscellaneous reasons 2.9%. Culling increased with parity (at least through Lactation 6) and primarily was due to production, reproduction and udder problems. Culling for these 3 reasons peaked immediately after calving, again between 151 and 240 days post-partum (poor milk production) and at 240 days post-partum (poor reproductive performance). First-lactation cows sold for dairy use tended to be sold in early lactation. Death in older cows usually occurred early in lactation and was due to udder problems or to miscellaneous causes.Compared to lactations without the disease, lactations with a diagnosis of downer cow, clinical mastitis or treat problems were 3.5, 2.0 and 2.7 times more likely to end in culling, respectively. Among cows diagnosed with a disease and culled, many were culled the same day or within 30 days of the diagnosis. Such “immediate” culling upon diagnosis was especially typical of cows with milk fever, downer cow syndrome, left displaced abomasum, teat problems, and foot and leg problems (and for some cases of clinical mastitis), implying that these disorders led to “forced” culling, which was particularly costly to the farmers.
Article
The objective of this study was to estimate the effect of a first and repeated cases of bacteria-specific clinical mastitis (CM) on the risk of mortality and culling in Holstein dairy cows. The pathogens studied were Streptococcus spp., Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus spp., Escherichia coli, Klebsiella spp., Trueperella pyogenes, others, and no growth on aerobic culture. A total of 50,166 lactations were analyzed from 5 large, high-milk-producing dairy herds in New York State from 2003/2004 to 2011. Generalized linear mixed models with a Poisson error distribution were used to study the effects of parity, month of lactation, CM, calving diseases, pregnancy status, current season, and economic values on the risk of mortality and culling. Among first-lactation cows, the presence of a first CM case generally exposed cows to a greater risk of mortality in the current month (compared with the absence of a first case). This was especially acute with a first case of Klebsiella spp., where cows were 4.5 times more at risk [95% confidence interval (CI): 2.7-7.6] of mortality, and with a first case of E. coli were 3.3 times more at risk (95% CI: 2.5-4.5). In first-parity cows, the risk of culling generally increased with a case of bacteria-specific CM. This was observed among cows with a first case of T. pyogenes [relative risk = 10.4 (95% CI: 8.4-12.8)], a first case of Klebsiella spp. [relative risk = 6.7 (95% CI: 5.5-8.1)], a first case of Staph. aureus [relative risk = 4.8 (95% CI: 2.7-8.4)], a first case of E. coli [relative risk = 3.1 (95% CI: 2.7-3.6)], and a third case of Klebsiella spp. [relative risk = 5.0 (95% CI: 3.1-8.0)]. In general, the presence of a first or second/third case resulted in cows in parity ≥2 with a greater risk of mortality. This was greatest for cows with a first case of Klebsiella spp. [relative risk = 3.7 (95% CI: 3.3-4.3)], followed by a second/third case of Klebsiella spp. [relative risk = 3.2 (95% CI: 2.5-4.0)], a first case of E. coli [relative risk = 3.0 (95% CI: 2.7-3.3)], and a first case of other CM [relative risk = 1.8 (95% CI: 1.6-2.0)]. Among cows of parity ≥2, the risk of culling was greater for cows as they progressed through lactations [i.e., cows in parity 4+ were 2.1 (95% CI: 2.0-2.2) times more likely to be culled compared with cows in lactation 2 (the baseline)]. The risk of culling dependent on the cow's characteristics can be easily calculated from the parameter estimates in the provided tables.