Article

Polycarbonate Bottle Use and Urinary Bisphenol A Concentrations

Department of Epidemiology, Harvard School of Public Health, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA.
Environmental Health Perspectives (Impact Factor: 7.98). 09/2009; 117(9):1368-72. DOI: 10.1289/ehp.0900604
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT

Bisphenol A (BPA) is a high-production-volume chemical commonly used in the manufacture of polycarbonate plastic. Low-level concentrations of BPA in animals and possibly in humans may cause endocrine disruption. Whether ingestion of food or beverages from polycarbonate containers increases BPA concentrations in humans has not been studied.
We examined the association between use of polycarbonate beverage containers and urinary BPA concentrations in humans.
We conducted a nonrandomized intervention of 77 Harvard College students to compare urinary BPA concentrations collected after a washout phase of 1 week to those taken after an intervention week during which most cold beverages were consumed from polycarbonate drinking bottles. Paired t-tests were used to assess the difference in urinary BPA concentrations before and after polycarbonate bottle use.
The geometric mean urinary BPA concentration at the end of the washout phase was 1.2 microg/g creatinine, increasing to 2.0 microg/g creatinine after 1 week of polycarbonate bottle use. Urinary BPA concentrations increased by 69% after use of polycarbonate bottles (p < 0.0001). The association was stronger among participants who reported > or = 90% compliance (77% increase; p < 0.0001) than among those reporting < 90% compliance (55% increase; p = 0.03), but this difference was not statistically significant (p = 0.54).
One week of polycarbonate bottle use increased urinary BPA concentrations by two-thirds. Regular consumption of cold beverages from polycarbonate bottles is associated with a substantial increase in urinary BPA concentrations irrespective of exposure to BPA from other sources.

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Available from: Xiaoyun Ye, Mar 25, 2015
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    • "Bisphenol A (BPA) is an endocrine disrupting chemical (EDC) released from polycarbonate plastics and linings of food and beverage containers that contaminates the consumed contents of the container [1] [2] [3]. Consumption of BPA-contaminated foods and beverages is the major route of exposure in humans, with additional exposure occurring through handling of thermal receipt paper, application of dental sealants, and transfer from medical equipment [4] [5] [6]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Bisphenol A (BPA) is an endocrine disrupting chemical (EDC) with known estrogenic activity. Exposure to BPA in adult mice was shown previously to increase uterine pathology with associated alterations in the immune response and fibrosis. Reported here are uterine histopathology findings from CD1 mice exposed to BPA or 17α-ethinyl estradiol at multiple doses from conception through postnatal day 90. Along with uterine pathology, impacts of exposure on collagen accumulation and F4/80 positive macrophage numbers, as an indicator of immune response in the endometrium and myometrium, are presented. These companion data are from offspring (F1) of the dams analyzed for effects of adult exposures published in the Reproductive Toxicology manuscript titled “Strain-Specific Induction of Endometrial Periglandular Fibrosis in Mice Exposed during Adulthood to the Endocrine Disrupting Chemical Bisphenol A” (doi: 10.1016/j.reprotox.2015.08.001).
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2015
    • "Bisphenol A, BPA (4,4 0 -(propane-2,2-diyl) diphenol; CAS RN 80-05-07) is an industrial plasticizer used in production of polycarbonate bottles, fungicides, flame retardants , and epoxy linings of food cans (Kubwabo et al., 2009; Rudel et al., 2011). Human population may be continuously exposed to BPA due to its increased use in polycarbonate plastics and food containers (Carwile et al., 2009). A recent study reported about BPA detection in human tissues (Qin et al., 2012). "
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    ABSTRACT: Bisphenol A (BPA), an estrogenic and endocrine disrupting agent, is widely used in manufacturing of polycarbonate plastics and epoxy resins. BPA and other endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) act via multiple mechanisms including interference with mitochondrial functions. Mitochondria are the hub of cellular energy pool and hence are the target of many EDCs. We studied perturbation of activities of mitochondrial enzymes by BPA and its possible role in hepatotoxicity in Wistar rats. Rats were exposed to BPA (150 mg/kg, 250 mg/kg, 500 mg/kg per os, for 14 days) and activities of enzymes of mitochondrial electron transport chain (ETC) were measured. Besides, other biochemical parameters such as superoxide generation, protein oxidation, and lipid peroxidation (LPO) were also measured. Our results indicated a significant decrease in the activities of enzymes of mitochondrial ETC complexes, i.e., complex I, II, III, IV, and V along with significant increase in LPO and protein oxidation. Additionally, a significant increase in mitochondrial superoxide generation was also observed. All these findings could be attributed to enhanced oxidative stress, decrease in reduced glutathione level, and decrease in the activity of superoxide dismutase in rat liver mitochondria isolated from BPA-treated rats. BPA treatment also caused a significant increase in serum alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, and lactate dehydrogenase indicating its potential hepatotoxicity. Furthermore, histopathological findings revealed marked edema formation, hepatocellular degeneration, and necrosis of liver tissue in BPA-exposed rats. In conclusion, this study provides an evidence of impaired mitochondrial bioenergetics and liver toxicity after high-dose BPA exposure in rats. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol, 2015.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2015 · Environmental Toxicology
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    • "Bisphenol A (BPA) is an endocrine disrupting chemical (EDC) released from polycarbonate plastics and linings of food and beverage containers that contaminates the consumed contents of the container [1] [2] [3]. Consumption of BPA-contaminated foods and beverages is the major route of exposure in humans, with additional exposure occurring through handling of thermal receipt paper, application of dental sealants, and transfer from medical equipment [4] [5] [6]. "
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to compare effects of bisphenol A (BPA) on collagen accumulation in uteri of two mouse strains. Adult C57Bl/6N and CD-1 mice were exposed to dietary BPA (0.004-40mg/kg/day) or 17α-ethinyl estradiol (0.00002-0.001mg/kg/day) as effect control. An equine endometrosis-like phenotype with increased gland nesting and periglandular collagen accumulation was characteristic of unexposed C57Bl/6N, but not CD-1, endometrium. BPA non-monotonically increased gland nest density and periglandular collagen accumulation in both strains. Increased collagen I and III expression, decreased matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP2) and MMP14 expression, and increased immune response were associated with the endometrosis phenotype in the C57Bl/6N strain and the 30ppm BPA CD-1 group. The association between the pro-collagen shift in increased collagen expression and decreased MMP2 expression and activity implies that strain differences and BPA exposures alter regulation of endometrial remodeling and contributes to increased fibrosis, a component of several human uterine diseases. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2015 · Reproductive Toxicology
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