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Bees of the family Halictidae (excluding Sphecodes) of Poland: taxonomy, ecology, bionomics

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Abstract

The book contains the following chapters: I. Introduction, II. General characteristics of halictid bees, III. Study on halictids in Poland, IV. Halictid fauna of Poland: illustrated keys, characteristics of taxa. The morphology of the Halictidae is described, and some terms are discussed. A synopsis of classification this family is given. Phylogenetic relationships between its members are shown. An analytical account of bionomics of halictids is made, including various kinds of social life. On the basis of the study of the main entomological collections of institutions as well as private ones and original data, the Polish fauna of non-parasitic halictids is established. It includes 81 species belonging to 10 genera: Dufourea (4 species), Rhophitoides (1), Rophites (3), Systropha (2), Nomiapis (2), Nomioides (1), Halictus (6), Seladonia (6), Lasioglossum (13), Evylaeus (43). 3 species are recorded from Poland for the first time: Seladonia gavarnica (PÉR.), Evylaeus marginellus (SCHCK.), and E. obscuratus (MOR.). The occurrence in Poland of the following rare species is corroborated by new data: Dufourea halictula (NYL.), Rophites algirus PÉR., R. hartmanni FRIESE, Nomiapis femoralis (PALLAS), Seladonia semitecta (MOR.), Lasioglossum prasinum (SM.), Evylaeus brevicornis (SCHCK.), E. convexiusculus (SCHCK.), E. cupromicans (PÉR.), E. glabriusculus (MOR.), E. euboeensis (STR.), E. intermedius (SCHCK.), E. limbellus (MOR.), E. minutulus (SCHCK.), E. nigripes (LEP.), E. nitidulus (F.), E. quadrisignatus (SCHCK.), E. semilucens (ALFK.), E. setulellus (STR.), E. setulosus (STR.), E. tarsatus (SCHCK.), E. tricinctus (SCHCK.). All the species recorded from Poland and also 14 species that can be found in this country (rather in its south-eastern part), are characterised in this book in distributional, ecological and bionomical aspects. The distribution of halictids within the country is mapped and analysed. The zoogeographical status of the Polish halictid fauna against the background of the European and the Palaearctic faunas is described. Trophic links of halictid bees with flower plants, their biotopic preferences, abundance and phenology in Poland are presented. Original illustrated keys for identification of Polish halictids have been created.
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... Ока, C. arvensis, 1♂, Л.). Ареал: Европа от севера Польши [Pesenko et al., 2000], запада Германии (Баден-Вюртемберг) [Dathe et al, 2001] и Испании [Ebmer, 1988a] до Удмуртии [Ситдиков, 1986], Башкирии [Никифорук, 1957] и Македонии [Ebmer, 1988a], на север до 56° с.ш. в Литве [Monsevičius, 1995]; Азия: Турция [Ebmer, 1988a], Иран, Туркменистан, Таджикистан [Baker, 1996], Алтай [Pesenko et al., 2000], северо-запад Китая (Синьцзян, Цинхай, Ганьсу) [Пономарева, 1967] [Dathe et al., 2001], юга Франции [Ebmer, 1988a] и Испании [Baker, 1996] до Удмуртии [Ситдиков, 1986], Башкирии [Никифорук, 1957] Греции [Ebmer, 1988a], на север до 56° с.ш. ...
... в Литве [Monsevičius, 1995]; Азия: Турция, Палестина [Baker, 1996], Закавказье (Грузия [Схиртладзе, 1981], Азербайджан [Алиев и др., 2007]), Иран (Эльбурс) [Baker, 1996]. Blüthgen, 1925) [Pesenko, Pauly, 2005]; Европа от севера Польши (Торунь) [Pesenko et al., 2000], запада Германии (Гессен) [Dathe, 2001] и юга Португалии [Песенко, 1983] до Удмуртии (Пугачёво, 56°36′с.ш., 53°04′в.д.) [Ситдиков, 1988], Западно- [Ebmer, 1988a] и Испании [Ortiz-Sánchez, 2006] до Удмуртии [Ситдиков, 1986] и Румынии [Goagă, Tomozei, 2002] (H. c. compressus (Walckenaer, 1802), Пермский край, Ульяновская обл. ...
... Примечание: H. compressus и H. simplex Blüthgen, 1923 (см. ниже) различаются только по гениталиям самцов, а самки не имеют четких морфологических отличий [Ebmer, 1969;Pesenko et al., 2000]. В сборах из Московской обл. ...
... Despite its wide range across North America and Eurasia (McGinley 1986;Pesenko et al. 2000), its behaviour had only been studied in a single population in Russia (Golubnichaya and Moskalenko 1992). Lasioglossum zonulum comes from a predominantly solitary subgenus with a solitary ancestral state (Packer 1998) and has been described as solitary univoltine (McGinley 1986). ...
... Most members of the subgenus Leuchalictus are found across Europe and Asia, but two are also found in North America (McGinley 1986;Packer 1998;Pesenko et al. 2000). The first of these is Lasioglossum zonulum, described as solitary univoltine in Europe and found in temperate regions across North America, Europe and Asia (McGinley 1986;Pesenko et al. 2000). ...
... Most members of the subgenus Leuchalictus are found across Europe and Asia, but two are also found in North America (McGinley 1986;Packer 1998;Pesenko et al. 2000). The first of these is Lasioglossum zonulum, described as solitary univoltine in Europe and found in temperate regions across North America, Europe and Asia (McGinley 1986;Pesenko et al. 2000). While ...
Thesis
Halictid bees are excellent models for questions of both evolutionary biology and molecular ecology. While the majority of Halictid species are solitary and many are native to North America, neither solitary nor native bees have been extensively studied in terms of their population genetics. This thesis studies the social behaviour, demographic patterns and molecular ecology of the solitary Holarctic sweat bee Lasioglossum zonulum, with comparisons to its well-studied sister species Lasioglossum leucozonium. I show that L. zonulum is bivoltine in the Niagara region of southern Ontario but is univoltine in a more northern region of southern Alberta. Measurements of size, wear and ovarian development of collected females revealed that Brood 1 offspring are not altruistic workers and L. zonulum is solitary. A large proportion of foundresses were also found foraging with well-developed ovaries along with their daughters, meaning L. zonulum is solitary and partially-bivoltine in the Niagara region. L. zonulum being solitary and univoltine in Calgary suggests that it is a demographically polymorphic and not socially polymorphic. Thus, L. zonulum represents a transitional evolutionary state between solitary and eusocial behaviour in bees. I demonstrate that Lasioglossum zonulum was introduced to North America at least once from Europe in the last 500 years, with multiple introductions probable. Most North American specimens share the same mitochondrial DNA haplotype as those in Europe, with a small portion from western North America possessing distinct sequences. Investigations using microsatellite markers found North American populations to have a deficit of heterozygosity, and Bayesian analysis suggests that there are 3-4 lineages of L. zonulum in North America. It is theorized that introductions could also be from Europe, Asia, or could even represent a native population which arrived via the Bering Land Bridge. I suggest that the plasticity found in L. zonulum may have a genetic cause and exists in North America due to the multiple introductions and potentially diverse geographic origins of this species. The outcome of my studies highlight why Lasioglossum zonulum is a model organism for the study of how eusociality evolved and why it warrants further and more in-depth study
... Ока, C. arvensis, 1♂, Л.). Ареал: Европа от севера Польши [Pesenko et al., 2000], запада Германии (Баден-Вюртемберг) [Dathe et al, 2001] и Испании [Ebmer, 1988a] до Удмуртии [Ситдиков, 1986], Башкирии [Никифорук, 1957] и Македонии [Ebmer, 1988a], на север до 56° с.ш. в Литве [Monsevičius, 1995]; Азия: Турция [Ebmer, 1988a], Иран, Туркменистан, Таджикистан [Baker, 1996], Алтай [Pesenko et al., 2000], северо-запад Китая (Синьцзян, Цинхай, Ганьсу) [Пономарева, 1967] [Dathe et al., 2001], юга Франции [Ebmer, 1988a] и Испании [Baker, 1996] до Удмуртии [Ситдиков, 1986], Башкирии [Никифорук, 1957] Греции [Ebmer, 1988a], на север до 56° с.ш. ...
... в Литве [Monsevičius, 1995]; Азия: Турция, Палестина [Baker, 1996], Закавказье (Грузия [Схиртладзе, 1981], Азербайджан [Алиев и др., 2007]), Иран (Эльбурс) [Baker, 1996]. Blüthgen, 1925) [Pesenko, Pauly, 2005]; Европа от севера Польши (Торунь) [Pesenko et al., 2000], запада Германии (Гессен) [Dathe, 2001] и юга Португалии [Песенко, 1983] до Удмуртии (Пугачёво, 56°36′с.ш., 53°04′в.д.) [Ситдиков, 1988], Западно- [Ebmer, 1988a] и Испании [Ortiz-Sánchez, 2006] до Удмуртии [Ситдиков, 1986] и Румынии [Goagă, Tomozei, 2002] (H. c. compressus (Walckenaer, 1802), Пермский край, Ульяновская обл. ...
... Примечание: H. compressus и H. simplex Blüthgen, 1923 (см. ниже) различаются только по гениталиям самцов, а самки не имеют четких морфологических отличий [Ebmer, 1969;Pesenko et al., 2000]. В сборах из Московской обл. ...
Article
Full-text available
Annotated list of Moscow Province Halictidae is presented. It consists of 38 species of Halictidae: 9 from Rophitinae, 1 from Nomioidinae and 28 from Halictinae. Rophites algirus Pérez, 1895, Nomioides minutissimus (Rossi 1790), Sphecodes pseudofasciatus Blüthgen, 1924 and S.rufiventris (Panzer, 1798) are given for the province for the first time. S. schenckii Hagens, 1882 and S. marginatus Hagens, 1882 are excluded from the regional fauna as based on the misidentifications corrected here. The localities, the dates of capture, the quantity of collected specimens, original information on ecology (visited plants and stations, flight period) in Moscow Province and world distribution are given for all species. COI gene sequences of H. rubicundus (Christ, 1791) and S. confusa (Smith, 1853) from Moscow Province are published. The intraspecific genetic variation for these species in Europe and America is discussed.
... The genus Evylaeus Robertson, 1902 is accepted here in the sense considered by me earlier (Pesenko, 1986(Pesenko, , 2000(Pesenko, , 2007Pesenko et al., 2000). In such a scope, the genus corresponds to the subgenera Evylaeus s. str., Dialictus Robertson (except for American "green" species), and Acanthalictus Cockerell of the genus Lasioglossum Curtis combined in the classification of Michener (2000). ...
Article
The paper presents the results of a taxonomic study of the bees of the genus Evylaeus mostly deposited at the Zoological Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences (St. Petersburg) and the Institute of Biology and Soil Sciences of the Russian Academy of Sciences (Vladivostok). The new insular subspecies Evylaeus baleicus insulicola subsp. n. (from Sakhalin, Kunashir, and Japan), differing from the continental E. baleicus baleicus (Cockerell) in much narrower membranous retrorse lobe of the male gonocoxite, and the hitherto unknown males of E. briseis (Ebmer, 2005) and E. transpositus (Cockerell, 1925) are described. The following synonymy is ascertained: Lasioglossum caliginosus Murao et al., 2006 = L. nemorale Ebmer, 2006, syn. n. E. eomontanus (Ebmer, 2006) is considered a subspecies of E. briseis. Lectotypes are designated for the following nine nominal species: Hylaeus rubellus Eversmann, 1852 (= E. calceatus); Halictus gracilis Morawitz, 1865 (= E. lucidulus); H. pallipes Morawitz, 1865 (= E. quadrinotatulus); H. dybowskii Radoszkowski, 1876; H. nodicornis Morawitz, 1889; H. amurensis Vachal, 1902; H. permicus Blüthgen, 1923 (= E. ellipticeps); H. problematicus Blüthgen, 1923; and H. semilaevis Blüthgen, 1923. A total of 48 species of the genus are found in Eastern Siberia and the Far East of Russia. E. apristus (Vachal), E. briseis (Ebmer), and E. laevoides (Ebmer) are recorded for the first time from Russia; E. albipes (Fabricius), E. fratellus (Pérez), and E. vulsus (Vachal), from Mongolia (Töv); E. affinis (Smith), from South Korea (Gyeonysangnam); E. hoffmanni (Strand), from Japan (Honshu). A key to all species (except for species of the subgenus Prosopalictus) is given; it is provided with figures of the male genitalia. The annotated list of these species includes the data for each species on its synonymy, general distribution, published records from the above regions, and the material examined.
... Пока же для начала мы приводим фаунистический список. В нем система семейств и родов пчел дана по Чарльзу Миченеру (Michener, 2007), кроме Halictidae по Ю. А. Песенко с соавторами (Pesenko et al., 2000) и Psithyrus, данного как отдельный род, а не подрод Bombus. Проcмотренные и подтвержденные перечисленными в четвертом абзаце специалистами виды, в списке подчеркнуты. ...
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SUMMARY:The Kirov Province, or Kirov Oblast, is a 120 000 km2 subject of the Russian Federation. It is smaller than Greece, but large than Bulgaria. It is a flat country with heels, altitudes 60 – 340 m, in the Vyatka and Kama rivers basin, north-eastern part of the East European Plain. The Kirov Province is located from 56° to 61° N and from 41° up to 54° E. There are boreal forests, middle taiga, with bogs in the north and mixed forests with steppefied meadows in the south. As a result of the investigation of 3360 specimens and review of publications, a list of 286 bee species of the Kirov Province is given. Of them, 34 species, marked by (*) in the checklist, are new to the regional fauna. All species, excluding published by D.V. Panfilov Bombus muscorum, are identified by T.V. Levchenko. Some identifications, underlined in the checklist, are confirmed by specialists, listed in the text of this paper. DNA-barcoding method in some groups is used for confirmation too. Corrections of some wrong identifications of species and localities, mostly by L.G. Sysoletina and G.I. Yuferev, is discussed. 66 species are published before 2001 and marked by (°) in the checklist. 115 species are collected no later 1997, before the intensive collecting work of G.I. Yuferev, and marked by (•). However, 278 species are presented in the last 15 years material. And Dasypoda suripes is known by recent photos. Other 7 old species are marked by (†). ORIGINAL: Левченко Т.В., Юферев Г.И. Уточнения и дополнения к списку видов пчел (Hymenoptera: Apoidea: Apiformes) Кировской области // Труды Государственного природного заповедника «Нургуш». Том 2. – Киров: ООО «Типография «Старая Вятка», 2013. – 187 с.: ил. С. 99–108.
... на север) [Elfving, 1968], запад Польши (Нижняя Силезия) (до 50º с.ш. на юг) [ Pesenko et al., 2000], Литва [Monsevičius, 1995], Латвия [Tumšs, 1973], Коми (Ухта) [Седых, 1974], Удмуртия, Воронежская обл.; Азия: юг Западной Сибири (Омская обл.) [Песенко, 1986]. ...
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An annotated list of subtribe Gastrohalictina (=Lasioglossum s. l.) of the Moscow Province is presented. It consists of 38 species: 9 Lasioglossum Curtis, 1833 and 29 Evylaeus Robertson, 1902. L. laevigatum (Kirby, 1802), L. sexmaculatum (Schenck, 1853), E. crassepunctatus (Blüthgen, 1923), E. linearis (Schenck, 1868) and E. politus (Schenck, 1853) are recorded from this area for the first time. L. majus (Nylander, 1852), E. malachurus (Kirby, 1802) and E. smeathmanellus (Kirby, 1802) are known only by old doubtful literature records and excluded from the regional fauna as based on absence of old or new collecting materials and information on species distribution ranges. The localities, the data of collecting, the quantity of collected specimens, original information on ecology (visited plants and stations, flight period) in Moscow Province as far as the world distribution are given for all 38 species. COI gene sequences of E. fratellus (Pérez, 1903) and E. leucopus (Kirby, 1802) from Moscow Province are published. The intraspecific genetic variation for these species in Europe as well as L. leucozonium Schrank, 1781 and L. zonulum Smith, 1848 in Europe and America in comparison to Moscow Province material is discussed. Only E. fratellus show the great intraspecific variety. Some morphology variations are noted. Red metasoma colour forms in Moscow Province are presented only in E. albipes (Fabricius, 1781) and E. calceatus (Scopoli, 1763). Bilateral ginandromorf of L. leucozonium from Moscow Province is illustrated.
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[1] Introduction: occurrence of eusocial species in various taxa of the subfamily Halictinae; a list of known eusocial species of Halictini, p. 311, and Augochlorini, p. 312, Table 1. [2] How many times did the eusociality arise in halictine bees? The 4 main arguments against a single origin of it are given with illustration of preliminary phylogenetic schemes of the Halictidae (Fig. 1), Halictini (Fig. 2), and genus Halictus s. str. (Fig. 3). [3] Levels of eusociality and constraints of its evolution in halictines.
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A study of a nest aggregation of Nomioides minutissimus in Donestk province [Ukraine] in 1977: nest site, structure of nests and cells, containing of cells, and forage plants (Centaurea diffusa and Erigeron canadensis).
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Results of examination of 57 nests (containing 376 immatures of different phases and stages) of Metallinella atrocaerulea [= Osmia (Metallinella) brevicornis] found in various districts of the SE Ukraine in 1972–1977. The nesting of this species is very unusual. In all the nests examined, eggs and larvae were within not devided pollen mass, i.e. the nests that constructed in hollow in wood, has not partitions between cells.
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Published opinions concerning the origin and early evolution of bees are critically reviewed. A new hypothesis on the "protobee" (the nearest common ancestor of Apoidea) is advanced and substantiated. It includes the following statements: (1) the protobee transferred pollen on the surface of its body (instead of transporting it in its crop as considered in the current version), (2) it stored doughlike (instead of liquid) provisions for its larvae, (3) it did not line cells by secreted or other substances, (4) it dug nests in soil (instead of building them in natural cavities), (5) in building nests it loosened soil by mandibles and soil out of the burrow with the help of the metasoma (it did not dig and throw soil out by the legs as many wasps do), (6) it mechanically processed (smoothed and tamped) the inner walls of cells with the help of the pygidial and metabasitibial plates, (7) it built branched (instead of linear) nests with cell horizontally oriented (instead of vertically as is necessary to store liquid provisions), (8) its larva spun a cocoon (which is denied by adherents of the current version).
Book
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The book consists of 13 chapters joined into 3 parts. Contents: Part I. Introduction: (1) general characteristics of bees; (2) trophic links and foraging behaviour; (3) cleptoparasitic bees; (4) methods for study of bee biology, classifications of nests. Part II. Nesting of bees and its evolution: (5) location and general structure of nests; (6) cell; (7) the «proto-bee» (ancestral bee) and its nest; (8) evolution of bee nesting. Part III. Social life: (9) main forms of sociality in bees; (10) eusocial colonies of halictines; (11) colonies of bumble bees; (12) origin of social mode of life; (13) prerequisites of origin and stages of evolution of eusociality in bees. The book represents an analytical review based on all the information of the biology of Apoidea of the World, including new data on the bionomics of some species. Directions of the evolution of the main biological characteristics of bees and morphological structures that associated with them are established. On this basis, the authors propound a new hypothesis of the origin of bees and reconstruct of the main morphological and biological features of the «protobee» (nearest common ancestor of the superfamily Apoidea), in essence differing from the previous hypothesis. It includes the following statements: (1) the protobee transferred pollen on the surface of its body (not in crop); (2) it stored doughlike (not liquid) provisions for its larvae; (3) it did not line cells by secreted or other substances; (4) it dug nests in soil (not built them in natural cavities); (5) for building nests it loosened soil by mandibles and pushed soil out the burrow with help of the metasoma (it did not dig and threw soil out by legs as many wasps); (6) it mechanically processed (smoothed and tamped) inner walls of cells with help of the pygidial and metabasitibial plates, etc. (see also RADCHENKO & PESENKO, 1995). The main directions of the evolution of the nesting of bees are shown, including a new hypotheses of the pathways of the formation of Megachilidae and Apidae. A new classification of the known forms of sociality is proposed. The solving of the problem of polygynous founding of eusocial colonies in the frameworks of the HAMILTON'S «haplodiploidy hypothesis» is given. 8 stages of the eusociality development are distinguished and characterised. [) [Ru, en; 144 figs., 6 tabs, 1810 refs. ] 350 pp.
Book
Contents: (1) history of discovery and investigations of social life in halictines with annotated checklist of all Halictinae species for which known eusocial life; (2) colony foundation; (3) eusocial stage: castes and hierarchy; (4) colony nest and nest behaviour; (5) rearing of reproductive offspring
Chapter
A study in Donetsk province (SE Ukraine) in 1977–1980. Melitturga clavicornis, Rhophitoides canus and Melitta leporina were recorded as main pollinators of Medicago sativa; data on the density and nesting of these bees. The bees are capable to accumulation in fields. For relocation of pollinators to the new site is helped by attracting plots of alfalfa arranged in land stripes of 0.5–1.0 m wide along field edges, which connect the old and new seed plots. Recommendations for accumulation and maintenance of their abundance in lucerne fields are given.
Chapter
A brief report on the study in Donetsk region [Ukraine] in 1977–1978. Observations on a nest aggregation of Rhophitoides canus with labelling of 26 nests. The diurnal foraging activity of this species in fields of Medicago sativa is bimodal.