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Glycemic indices of processed unripe plantain (Musa paradisiaca) meals


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The glycemic response of processed unripe plantain (Musa paradisiaca) commonly consumed in Nigeria were assessed using sixty healthy subjects. The post-prandial serum glucose concentration over a period of 2 h were determined half hourly, after the ingestion of the test foods. Blood glucose curves were constructed to calculate the glycemic index of the test foods. The results revealed that the Glycemic Indices (GI) of boiled plantain (Bp), fried plantain (Fp), roasted plantain (Rp), boiled and pounded plantain (BPp) and plantain flour (Pf) did not show any differences at (p < 0.05). However, roasted plantain gave the lowest glycemic index and the value was significantly lower than the other test foods. The processed plantain meal elicit low postprandial rise of blood glucose and can be recommended for use in the diet of diabetic Nigerians. Key words: Plantain (Musa paradisiaca), food processing (boiling, roasting, frying, drying and pounding), Glycemic index, post prandial blood glucose, diet for diabetics.
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African Journal of Food Science Vol. 4(8) pp. 514 - 521, August 2010
Available online
ISSN 1996-0794 ©2010 Academic Journals
Full Length Research Paper
Glycemic indices of processed unripe plantain
(Musa paradisiaca) meals
Oboh Henrietta Ayodele* and Erema Victor Godwin
Department of Medical Biochemistry, School of Basic Medical Science, College of Medicine, University of Benin, Benin
City, Edo state, Nigeria.
Accepted 9 August, 2010
The glycemic response of processed unripe plantain (Musa paradisiaca) commonly consumed in
Nigeria were assessed using sixty healthy subjects. The post-prandial serum glucose concentration
over a period of 2 h were determined half hourly, after the ingestion of the test foods. Blood glucose
curves were constructed to calculate the glycemic index of the test foods. The results revealed that the
Glycemic Indices (GI) of boiled plantain (Bp), fried plantain (Fp), roasted plantain (Rp), boiled and
pounded plantain (BPp) and plantain flour (Pf) did not show any differences at (p < 0.05). However,
roasted plantain gave the lowest glycemic index and the value was significantly lower than the other
test foods. The processed plantain meal elicit low postprandial rise of blood glucose and can be
recommended for use in the diet of diabetic Nigerians.
Key words: Plantain (Musa paradisiaca), food processing (boiling, roasting, frying, drying and pounding),
Glycemic index, post prandial blood glucose, diet for diabetics.
Plantain belongs to the Musacace family and is cultivated
in many tropics and subtropical countries of the world. It
ranks third after yams and cassava for sustainability in
Nigeria (Akomolafe and Aborisade, 2007). Plantain
(Musa Paradisiaca) is a rhizomatous perennial crop used
as a source of starchy staple for millions of people in
Nigeria.(Adeniyi et al., 2006). Mature plantain pulp is very
rich in iron, potassium, vitamin A and ascorbic acid but
low in protein (Adegboyega, 2006).The proximate
content, functional characteristics and properties of
starch of ripe and unripe plantains have been evaluated
(Izunfuo and Omuaru, 2006; Osundahunsi, 2009). The
processing, utilization and effect of storage have been
reported (Niba, 2004; Onwuka and Onwuka, 2005).
Unripe plantain meal is usually consumed by Nigerian
diabetics to reduce postprandial glucose level. This is
because the propensity of individuals to develop diabetes
and obesity is due to the increased consumption of
carbohydrate rich foods with a high Glycemic index
*Corresponding author.
Tel: 234-803-817-1016, 234-802-316-8660.
(Willett et al., 2002; Foster et al., 2003).
The Glyemic index of some Nigerian foods have been
determined (Fasanmade et al., 2007; Jimoh et al., 2008;
Oboh and Agu, 2010). This study aimed to determine the
Glycemic index, load and Glycemic response of
processed unripe plantain in non-diabetic healthy
Collection of samples
Seven bunches of mature freshly cut unripe green plantain (Musa
paradisiaca) were obtained from a farm at the University of Benin,
Benin City, Edo State, Nigeria. They were separated into five
groups and processed for the experimental diets.
Anthropometric measurements
Body weight was measured (to the nearest 0.5 kg) with the subject
standing motion less on the bathroom weighing scale. The weighing
scale was standardized every day with a weight of 50 kg. Height
was measured (to the nearest 0.1 cm) with the subject standing in
an erect position against a vertical scale of portable stadiometer
and with the head positioned so that the top of the external auditory
meatus was in level with the inferior margin of the bony orbit. BMI
was calculated as weight in kilograms divided by squared height in
Preparation of processed samples
Boiled plantain (Bp)
Freshly harvested unripe plantain (Musa paradisiaca) was peeled
and 5 kg quantity was cut into (10 mm long) and was boiled in 5 L
of water containing 1 gm of salt for 1 h. The water was drained and
the plantain was served to the subjects.
Fried plantain (Fp)
The unripe plantain was sliced diagonally into pieces (2 mm thick),
0.5 gm salt was sprinkled on the sliced plantain and it was deep
fried in 2 L of preheated groundnut oil for 20 min, until golden
yellow/brown color developed. The fried plantain were placed on
paper napkins to drain off the excess oil and served to the subjects.
Roasted plantain (Rp)
Fingers of peeled unripe plantain were placed on a wire gauze over
a red-hot charcoal stove and roasted for 30 min with frequent
turning to prevent the plantain from charring. When the plantain
was brown evenly, the plantain was removed and served to
subjects. This is called “bolae” or “bolle” in southern Nigeria.
Boiled and pounded plantain (BPp)
The unripe plantain 5 kg was boiled in 5 L of water for 1 h. The
water was drained and the boiled plantain was transferred into a
wooden mortar and pounded to obtain a smooth consistent paste.
Plantain flour (Pf)
Unripe plantain was sliced and sun-dried for about 3 weeks to a
constant weight, and ground into flour using a warring blender. The
flour was passed through a 0.5 cm mesh sieve, and stored in an
airtight container at room temperature (25°
C). The plantain flour
meal was prepared by stirring continuously 225 g flour in a pot of
250 ml boiling water until well cooked to form a thick, smooth brown
The BPp and Pf were served with a bowl of soup made up of
tomato sauce (containing fresh pepper, tomato, onions grounded to
a smooth paste and mixed with 100 ml of hot red palm oil) and 30 g
of boiled beef meat as eaten in the Nigerian culture.
Proximate analysis for processed plantain
The processed plantains were analyzed for moisture content, ash,
crude protein, and crude fiber by the AOAC (1983) method.
Carbohydrate was determined by difference.
Experimental design
Non-diabetic volunteers (n = 50; 35 males, 15 females, aged 21
30 years) were offered a single meal of one of the six test foods on
different days. The other 10 persons were administered 50 g
glucose in 300 ml distilled water. The serving size was determined
Ayodele and Erema 515
by calculating the quantity of the test food that will give 50 gm
carbohydrate when eaten. Blood samples were collected before
feeding (0 min) and at 30, 60, 120 and 180 min after the test meal
was given. The subjects were not allowed to perform strenuous
activities on the day of GI determination.
Determination of blood glucose
Blood glucose was obtained by venipuncture between 9 – 10 am
after an overnight fast of > 12 h. The samples were collected into
sterilized centrifuge tubes and centrifuged for 10 min at 4,000 rpm.
The serum was collected and used. Glucose concentration was
determined in duplicates by the methods of Barham and Trinder
(1972) using Spectrophotomer (GENESYS 10, manufacturer) and
Randox kit.GL364).
GI determination
GI was calculated from the blood glucose response curve. The
incremental area under the curve (IAUC) for each test meal for
each subject was calculated as the sum of the surface triangle and
trapezoids of the blood glucose curve and the horizontal baseline
running in parallel to the time axis from the beginning of the curve
to the point at 180 min. This reflect the total rise in blood glucose
concentration after eating the test food.
The IAUC for test and control (50 g of pure glucose - IAUCS) was
obtained in a similar way.
GI for each food was calculated from the formulae:
GI = (IAUC/IAUCS) × 100%.
The average of the two measures for each subject was taken as the
GI for that test food for the subject. The GI for each food was finally
calculated as the mean of the average of the GIs in ten subjects in
the group.
Statistical analysis
Statistical analysis was done by SPSS 15 Statistical programme.
Comparisons between test foods: Boiled plantain (Bp), fried
plantain (Fp), roasted plantain (Rp), boiled and pounded plantain
(BPp) and plantain flour (Pf) and control were done by the student’s
t-test. ANOVA and Duncan multiple range tests were used to
measure significant difference among the GI of tests foods.
Statistical significant was set at p < 0.05.
The Anthropometry of control and test subjects are
represented in Table 1. The volunteers were aged
between 20.00 ± 0.86 to 24.83 ± 0.40. Their estimated
body mass index (BMI) were 20.52 ± 2.20 to 22.85 ± 1.00
kg/m2. The proximate analysis of the processed plantain
meals are represented in Table 2.
The percentage carbohydrate contents ranged from
32% in BPp to 78% in Fp. BPp had the lowest
carbohydrate content while Fp had the highest value. Fp
also had the highest lipid value of 5%, while fibre content
had the highest of 0.94% in Pf. Processing affected the
proximate contents. Percentage lipid was highest in the
fried plantain meal. Boiling (Moist heat treatment),
516 Afr. J. Food Sci.
Table 1. Anthropometry of control and test-groups.
Parameter Control group BP FP BPP PF RP
Age (Years) 22.00 ± 0.86 24.83 ± 0.40 23.83 ± 0.70 24.50 ± 1.45 22.00 ± 1.73 19.83 ± 0.90
Height (cm) 172.16 ± 4.07 175.16 ± 1.62 175.00 ± 2.47 167.83 ± 5.13 67.83 ± 6.69 60.00 ± 7.02
Weight (kg) 63.67 ± 3.30 66.00 ± 0.35 61.00 ± 1.60 64.00 ± 2.35 182.00 ± 6.93 169.33 ± 10.34
BMI (kg/m2) 21.44 ± 0.71 21.55 ± 0.64 21.43 ± 0.69 22.85 ± 1.00 20.52 ± 2.20 20.89 ± 1.31
Values are the means ± standard errors of means (SEM) of 10 individuals per group.
Table 2. Proximate analysis of the processed unripe plantain (musa paradisiaca) meals on dry weight percent.
Sample Lipid Ash Fibre Crude protein Carbohydrate Moisture
Boiled plantain (Bp) 1.35 ± 0.024 1.63 ± 0.02 0.81 ±0.00 3.13 ± 0.02 36.28 56.80 ± 0.08
Roasted plantain (Rp) 0.30 ± 0.00 2.0 ±0.00 0.24 ± 0.048 0.47 ± 0.015 45.74 51.25 ± 0.75
Fried plantain (Fp) 5.44 0 ± 0.055
1.84 ± 0.024 0.72 ± 0.004 3.36 ± 0.08 78.40 10.24 ± 0.027
Boiled and pounded plantain (BPp) 1.32 ± 0.012 1.35 ±
0.014 0.49 ±
0.006 3.22 ± 0.18 32.25 61.37 ± 0.095
Plantain flour (Pf) 0.50 ± 0.10 200 ±
0.00 a 0.94 ±0.00 0.90 ±0.05 62.16 33.50 ±0.495
Values are the means ± standard errors of means (SEM) of four (4) determinants.
Table 3. Available carbohydrate in 100 g of the processed unripe plantain (musa paradisiaca) meals and serving sizes used for
glycemic index determination.
Food sample Available carbohydrate in 100 g of
processed food (g) Serving size of processed
Boiled plantain (Bp) 40.25 124.35
Roasted plantain (Rp) 47.28 224.38
Fried plantain (Fp) 79.56 62.85
Boiled and pounded plantain (BPp) 36.17 138.24
Plantain flour (Pf) 63.61 120.96
increased moisture in the boiled and boiled/pounded
plantain. However, moisture was reduced in fried and
plantain flour. The dried/fried product (Pf/Fp) had more
carbohydrate content. The moisture content had an
inverse effect on the carbohydrate content. Fiber was
highest in the plantain flour than the other processed
Table 3 represents the available carbohydrate content
in 100 g of the processed meals and the serving sizes
containing 50 g available carbohydrate. Fp had the
highest available carbohydrate of the processed foods
while Roasted plantain had the highest serving size.
The GI of the five processed plantain meals are shown
in Table 4 and Figure 6.The GI range from 57 for Rp to
67 for BPp. The highest GI is 67 for BPp, while Rp had
the lowest GI of 57. Fp had the highest Glycemic load
(GL) of 50, the lowest is 21 for BPp. The GI of the
processed unripe plantain did not differ significantly but
Rp had a significantly lower GI when compared to other
processed forms.
Figures 1 - 5 shows the blood glucose response curves
for the processed plantain meals Glycemic responses
after ingestion of the processed test meals varied. A
small peak of blood glucose at 60 min was observed for
all the test foods accompanied by a gradual decline in
plasma glucose. The control group showed that blood
glucose concentration rose to a peak at 30 min and
declined rapidly at 90 min until 180 min. In comparison,
the subjects who ate the processed plantain meal,
showed that the blood glucose values rose to a small
peak after 1 h for all the processed foods with a more
gradual decline in blood glucose.
Different factors can influence blood glucose response.
These include the physical form of the food, degree and
type of processing, e.g., cooking method and time,
amount of heat or moisture used (Pi-sunyer, 2002), type
of starch (that is, amylose versus amylopectin), and Co
ingestion of protein (Manders et al., 2005) and fat (Collier
et al., 1984) with test foods. The effect of moist heat
treatment showed that faster rates of digestion were
Ayodele and Erema 517
Table 4. Glycemic indices and load of the processed unripe plantain (Musa paradisiaca).
Food Samples GI GL
Boiled plantain (Bp) 64.944 ± 10a 23.030.49d
Roasted plantain (Rp) 56.87 ± 9b 26.02 ± 0.42d
Fried plantain (Fp) 64.93 ± 9a 50.44 ± 0.84 c
Boiled and pounded plantain (BPp) 66.60 ± 3a 21.15 ± 0.84 d
Plantain flour (Pf) 65.05 ± 1a 40.44 ± 0.84 c
Values are the means + standard errors of means (SEM) of ten individuals per group. Means with
same superscript are not significantly different (P < 0.05).
0 30 60 120 180
Concentration in mg/dl
Time in mins.
Figure 1. Graphical representation showing the glucose response area for boiled plantain (BP) and control (glucose D).
achieved with boiled (Bp) and boiled and pounded
plantain (BPp) than roasting. Cooking of the plantain
meals allowed the starch granules to swell, gelatinize and
increase the availability to amylase digestion and thereby
increasing starch digestibility (Bahado-sigh et al., 2006).
The tests foods (boiled and pounded plantain and
plantain flour) were swallowed without chewing. Chewing
would have reduced particle size and increased the
surface area of exposure and facilitate salivary amylase
digestion of carbohydrate (Omoregie and Osagie, 2008)
The results revealed no significant difference (P < 0.05)
in the GI among the test foods studied except Rp which
was significantly lower in comparison to other processed
meal. Roasted and baked foods have a higher GI than
fried/boiled meals (Bahado-sigh et al., 2006). However,
our results revealed otherwise. The roasted plantain meal
had the lowest GI. This could be due to the fact that
although dry heat was utilized and could have caused
518 Afr. J. Food Sci.
0 30 60 120 180
Concentration in mg/dl
Time in mins
Figure 2. Graphical representation showing the Glucose Response area for roasted
plantain (RP) and control (Glucose D).
0 30 60 120 180
Concentration in mg/dl
Time in mins.
Figure 3. Graphical representation showing the glucose response area for fried plantain
(FP) and control (glucose D).
Ayodele and Erema 519
0 30 60 120 180
Concentration in mg/dl
Time in mins
Figure 4. Graphical representation showing the glucose response area for pounded plantain
(BPp) and control (glucose D).
0 30 60 120 180
Concentration in mg/dl
Time in mins
Figure 5. Graphical representation showing the glucose response area for plantain flour (Pf)
and control (glucose D).
520 Afr. J. Food Sci.
Figure 6. Glycemic indices of plantain meal.
loss of water, the heat applied by roasting with hot coals,
may not be sufficient to fully gelatinize the starch
granules thus making it resistant for amylase digestion
and release of glucose into the bloodstream.
Processing of the unripe plantain meals alters the
physical form of the carbohydrate and thus may influence
the Glycemic Index of the test foods. The greater the
changes of the physical form of the meal, the higher the
glycemic response (Wolever et al., 1986). One of the
processing methods utilized involved pounding of boiled
plantain with a wooden mortar and pestle with intermittent
addition of water. This gives a softer and finer texture
thus increasing the surface area for enzyme digestion
leading to rapid glucose absorption.
Although, roasted, boiled and fried plantains were
chewed, roasted plantain (Rp) still gave a significantly
lower GI than the other meals. The oil associated with
fried plantain could have contributed to the lowering of
the GI. The GI values of the test foods did not show a
significant difference at P < 0.05.
The roasted plantain (Rp) meal showed lesser glucose
response than other processed test meals in the
experimental subjects probably because the unripe
plantain starches have only small concentrations of free
sugars and rapidly digestible starch (Ramdath et al.,
2004).The slow digestion of unripe plantain starch is
probably related to properties of the starch granule (e.g.,
amylose: amylopectin ratio) and its physical association
with the plant cell wall (fiber), which could contribute to
reducing total starch gelatinization.
The amount of carbohydrate as well as the type of
carbohydrate in a food will influence its effect on blood
glucose level (Sheard et al., 2004). The specific type of
carbohydrate present in a particular food does not always
accurately predict its effect on blood glucose (Wolever,
The roasted plantain (Rp) meal had the lowest Glycemic
index of all the processed test meal. The knowledge of an
effective processing method for dietary staples to control
and reduce hyperglycemia is essential in the treatment of
diabetes. This is because diet management is crucial to
control spikes in blood glucose levels. The findings of this
study are useful for health care providers and nutritionists
in Diabetes Education
The Authors are grateful to Dr. S. I. Obahiagbon of the
Central Laboratory National Institute for Oil Palm
Research (NIFOR), Edo State, Nigeria for his assistance
in carrying out the proximate analysis of the test
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... The chemical composition of the samples was determined using the standard methods of analysis of the Association of Official Chemists (Ayodele and Erema, 2010). Crude protein, crude lipid, carbohydrate, Moisture, and ash contents in the samples were analyzed. ...
... This procedure shall be repeated for all samples in triplets. The crude protein content was calculated equation using equation (4) (Ayodele and Erema, 2010). ...
... This procedure was repeated for all samples. The crude lipid was calculated using equation (5) (Ayodele and Erema, 2010). ...
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The proximate and microbial composition of cooking banana was determined after an active indirect solar drying experiment. The study was aimed at comparing the quality of dried cooking banana with similar products like banana and plantain. Fresh samples of the product were obtained from a local market in Umudike, Nigeria. The samples were washed, peeled, and sliced to the desired thickness (4 to 20 mm), before being loaded onto the dryer. The crude protein, crude lipid, carbohydrate content, ash content, and moisture content were determined after the drying experiment. The microbial load of the dried samples was also determined. The moisture content (10.20%), crude protein (7.18%), crude lipid (3.61%), and carbohydrate (85.61%) were higher than 6.00, 3.06, 2.80, and 82.90% respectively obtained for unripe banana. The ash content (2.21%) was lower than that of unripe banana (2.95%). A total of thirty-eight (38) bacterial isolates were observed from the sample and some of which were identified as Staphylococcus sp, bacillus subillus, and micrococcus sp. Eleven (11) molds (Fungal) were isolated from the dried samples, with Asperligillusniger and Absidia sp dominant. The frequency of occurrence was observed to had been higher in fungal than bacterial isolates.
... al, [23] who obtained values of 44 -51% predicted glycaemic index for different varieties of cooking banana. However, much higher values of glycaemic index have been reported for plantain flour at 65.05% [24]. The result obtained 64.23% corresponds with that reported by [24]. ...
... However, much higher values of glycaemic index have been reported for plantain flour at 65.05% [24]. The result obtained 64.23% corresponds with that reported by [24]. The lower values of estimated glycaemic index for samples B to D, seem to be as a result of the contributing effect of moringa seed flour. ...
... 3 Sodium nitroprusside (SNP) has been implicated to cause cytotoxicity through the release of cyanide and/or nitric oxide (NO) and that NO is involved in the pathophysiology of such disorders as stroke, trauma, seizure disorders, etc. NO could act independently or in cooperation with other ROS. 4 Iron has also been implicated as the most important pro-oxidant of lipids. Earlier report has revealed that Fe 2+ accelerates lipid peroxidation by breaking down hydrogen and lipid peroxides formed by the fenton free radical reaction. ...
... 18 Earlier report on the glycemic indices of green plantain products had been documented. 4,17 Natural antioxidants are powerful substances that rare capable of scavenging ROS or neutralize free radicals before they damage the body's cells. In recent years, phenolic compounds have attracted the interest of researchers because of their antioxidant capacity; to protect the human body from free radicals, whose formation has been associated with the natural metabolism of aerobic cells. ...
Plants and plants products are the major sources of natural antioxidant which can be used to ameliorate oxidative stress caused by reactive oxygen species in biological systems. In vitro antioxidant activity of Musa paradisiacapeel aqueous extract was evaluated. Sodium nitroprusside was used to induce lipid perioxidation in rat pancreas. The total phenol, flavonoid and vitamin C contents were determined using standard methods of analysis. OH radical scavenging ability, Fe2+ chelating ability and lipid peroxidation were also analyzed using standard methods. The result revealed substantial amount of total phenol (0.76 ±0.04 mg/g), total flavonoid (0.53 ±0.04 mg/g) and vitamin C contents (24.11 ±0.41 mg/100 g). The result also revealed increased OH radical scavenging ability, Fe2+ chelating ability and MDA inhibition with increase in concentration of the extract used. The present study therefore, revealed that Musa paradisiacapeel aqueous extract could serve as source of natural antioxidant which can be used to ameliorate some disease associated with oxidative stress.
... It is rich in iron, potassium and calcium with values of 24 mg/kg, 9.5 mg/kg and 715 mg/kg, respectively, but low in sodium content hence recommended for low sodium diets [10]. Although unripe plantain is rich in carbohydrate, its low Glycemic index (GI) has been established hence to reduce post prandial glucose level, diabetics consume unripe plantain meal [11]. The rhizome of the popular ginger species, Zingiber officinalis, is widely used as a spice and food seasoning due to its sweet aroma and pungent taste. ...
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The work was aimed at evaluating the physicochemical, textural, cooking and sensory characteristics of instant noodles produced from wheat and plantain flour blends, spiced with ginger. The unripe plantain was dried to final moisture content of 11.28% (wt/wt) and finely ground into powder. Wheat, plantain and ginger flour were prepared and blended in the following ratios; 100:0:0, 90:10:4, 80:20:4, 70:30:4, 60:40:4, 50:50:4 and labelled WF, WPGF1, WPGF2, WPGF3, WPGF4, and WPGF5, respectively. Increasing levels of unripe plantain flour, caused significant decrease in the whiteness index of the noodles from 77.23 to 57.08. The protein content of the composite noodles decreased from 10.70% (control) to 10.05% for 10% noodle sample. The decrease in the carbohydrate contents of the noodles from 65.27% (Control) to 64.83% for 10 % noodle sample was not significant. Percentage Ash, fiber and fat content of the noodles increased with increase substitution of plantain flour from 1.18 to 2.61, 0.40 to 1.13 and 16.01 to 19.75%, respectively. Cooking time decreased significantly from 4.40 to 3.2 8 while cooking loss and water absorption increased significantly from 5.92 to 10.01% and 9.82 to 13.15% respectively. Unripe plantain increase resulted in significant increase in noodle hardness but to a great extent did not affect noodle springiness, cohesiveness, gumminess, chewiness and resilience. There was no significant difference between the 7.20 and 7.67 values obtained from appearance of cooked noodles for control and 10% composite. Overall acceptability score of 7.80 and 7.60 between control 100% (100:0:0) and 10% (90:10:4) composite noodles were not significantly different. Noodles substituted with 10 % plantain flour is most recommended, with regards to cooking quality, acceptability, textural characteristics and improved nutrient.
... They are good sources of vitamins and minerals, particularly iron (24 mg/kg), potassium (9.5 mg/ kg), calcium (715 mg/kg), vitamin A, phosphorus, zinc, sodium, and magnesium (Okareh et al., 2015). It has significant quantities of ascorbic acid, thiamin, pyridoxine, riboflavin and niacin, dietary fiber and resistant starch which helps to reduce the blood sugar level (Ayodele and Erema, 2011). The potassium in plantain plays a major role in regulating blood pressure (Fernandes and Rodrigues, 2007;Houston, 2011). ...
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Nutrition plays a vital role in growth, development and the prevention of possible nutrient-deficiency diseases that may cause permanent health risks in the later stages of life. Due to this, the concentrations of iron, zinc, copper, manganese and β-carotene in four varieties of plantain were investigated in this study. The relationship between the micro-minerals in the fruit, the sampling location and soil were also studied. Plantain fruit samples were collected from farms in the Ashanti Region of Ghana. The samples were oven-dried and digested using the Kjeldahl method for micro-minerals analysis with atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The β-carotene content was determined using HPLC. The data obtained was subjected to analysis of variance to determine differences in the concentrations. The micro-minerals and β-carotene concentrations in the varieties of plantain did not vary significantly. Cluster analysis showed that some of the samples had almost the same nutrient concentrations though they were not of the same variety.
... The use of the GI for classifying carbohydrate foods was recommended by the Food and Agriculture Organization and World Health Organization Joint Expert Consultation (FAO/WHO, 1998) in conjunction with food composition tables to guide food choices (Trinidad et al., 2013). Glycaemic index is calculated from blood glucose response curve (Oboh and Erema, 2010) and has three scales: foods with a GI less than or equal to 55 are classified as low GI foods, medium glycaemic index foods have a GI of 55-69 and high glycaemic index foods have a GI equal or greater than 70 and have the most potential to increase blood glucose (Brand-Miller et al., 2002). ...
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Since foods like rice show wide variations in glycaemic index (GI) values, the objective of this work was to determine the GI of five (5) varieties of rice grown in Ebonyi State and compare with the GI of an imported brand of rice. Nineteen healthy subjects were fed 6 varieties of rice (Ikwo R8, Izzi Mass, Ikwo 306, Abakaliki brown rice, Ikwo Odime ala di and a commercially available imported brand) and a reference food (glucose), each containing 50g of available carbohydrates. Blood glucose was measured at 0, 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, 120 min after consumption following a fasting state. The GI was calculated using a standard equation. The GI values ranged from 40.01 to 94.17. Abakaliki brown rice and Ikwo 306 were classified as low GI rice, Izzi R8 was classified as medium GI rice while Izzi Mass, Ikwo Odime ala di and the commercially available imported brand were classified as high GI rice. The results obtained in this study suggest that type 2 diabetics should preferably consume Abakaliki brown rice, Ikwo 306 and Izzi R8 rice varieties which have low and medium GI values respectively.
... In our study we noticed that adherence to plantain diets were significant with glycemic control (decreased HbA1c %) among persons with T2DM. This finding could be true because plantain (Musa paradisiaca) is known to have low glycemic index (GI) with high fiber and resistant starch content [30]. Globally, plantain is a staple crop in the humid and sub-humid parts of Africa, Asia, Central and South America that is usually eaten as an energy yielding food by many. ...
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Diabetes mellitus (DM) is an independent risk-factor for cardiovascular diseases. Plant-based dietary-patterns have been shown to positively impact the effects this cardiovascular risk-factor. The purpose of this study is to investigate the association of adherence to moringa, plantains, moringa-plantain combined, and other plant based dietary-patterns with glycemic-control among persons with type-2-diabetes Mellitus (T2DM). Facility-based cross-sectional-study was conducted among 530 T2DM patients in Ghana. Structured-questionnaires were used to collect demographic, anthropometric, and clinical variables. Adherence to plant-based dietary-patterns were assessed with 24-hour dietary-recall questionnaire. SPSS version-22 was used in data analysis. BMI, HbA1c%, HDL-cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol were significantly correlated with adherence to plant-based dietary-patterns (p-value < 0.05). After adjusting for confounders, adherence to: Plantain diets, standardized regression coefficient β (95%CI): -0.098 (-0.321, -0.022), Yam, β (95%CI): 0.148 (0.066, 0.496), Moringa diets β (95%CI): -0.095 (-0.325,-0.011) and Bean-diets β (95%CI): -0.112 (-0.577-.007) were significantly associated with glycemic control. Also adherence to: Plantain-moriga combined diets β (95%CI): -0.406 (-0.413, -0.049) and Plantain-beans combined diets β (95%CI): -0.128 (-0.188, -0.038) were significantly associated with glycemic control. Adherence to Plantain, Yam, Beans, Plantain-moriga combined diets, and Plantain-beans combined diets could be associated with glycemic control. Keywords: Diabetes mellitus, Adherence, Moringa, Plantain, Glycemic control, Ghana.
... Unripe plantain meal is usually consumed by diabetics to reduce postprandial glucose level [10]. This is because the propensity of individual to develop diabetes and obesity is due to the increased consumption of carbohydrate-rich foods with a high glycemic index [11]. ...
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This research investigated effects of fermentation and extrusion on unripe plantain and pigeon pea blends. The samples were blended and prepared in three combinations (A=100g unripe plantain; B= 70g unripe plantain: 30g pigeon pea; C= 50g unripe plantain: 50g pigeon pea) and sectioned into four group (i.e. group 1 = preconditioned and fermented; group 2 = extruded; group three = fermented and extruded; and group 4 = unfermented/unextruded). Semi-solid state fermentation method was employed to ferment the blended samples for 96 hours. The physicochemical parameters (i.e pH, temperature and total titratable acidity) of these fermented samples were evaluated. The total microbial counts include; 9 bacteria, 2 yeasts and 4 molds were isolated and identified as
Plantain has been reported to be rich in β-carotene, phenolics, and hydroxycinnamic acid, as well as resistant starch and fibre. Studies on the therapeutic properties of plantains date back to about two decades ago when the anti-ulcerative property of plantains was discovered. Its potential to mitigate hyperglycaemia, acute pancreatitis, and protein oxidation in both kidney and liver were later reported. It is unfortunate that these potential benefits of plantains are yet to be maximised for the acclaimed health benefits as well as for food and nutritional securities. Industrial production of plantains is extremely limited, especially in Africa, where plantains are commonly associated with household consumption. Interestingly, different parts of plantains are used as adsorbents for managing environmental waste pollutants. A holistic understanding of plantains as functional foods based on the abundant bioactive compounds as well as inherent nutraceutical properties could spur their increased production globally. This chapter aims to draw attention to the bioactive components and useful ingredients in the pulp and peel of plantains.
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The upsurge in the incidence and prevalence of diabetes worldwide and in Nigeria in particular is a challenge for urgent action in the adoption of appropriate dietary management in patients with diabetes and also in the prevention of diabetes. Knowledge of the glycemic index (GI) of food types is essential for rational advice on calorie recommendation. Unfortunately, the GI of many food types in Nigeria is not known and so this study was undertaken to determine the GI of four staple and predominantly carbohydrate-based food types in Nigeria (yam, cassava, maize and wheat) by an open-labeled method, and to assess the variability of the GI of the tested food types in healthy subjects and those with diabetes. A total of twenty subjects were included in the study, i.e. ten type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM type 2) patients and ten healthy subjects serving as controls. They were given measured portions of the food containing 50 g of digestible carbohydrate. Blood glucose concentrations were determined from capillary blood drawn half hourly with a portable glucometer for two hours after ingestion of the food. Blood glucose curves were constructed to calculate the GI of the food. Values of the GI of the foods were compared using appropriate statistical methods of Microsoft Excel and SPSS v. 11. The results showed that there was wide variability of the GI in all the foods tested in both groups. In healthy subjects, maize four meal had the lowest GI and cassava flour meal the highest GI. This was in contrast to patients with diabetes, where yam flour had the lowest GI and wheat flour the highest GI. While the method of meal preparation may have an effect on the overall acceptability of the food to our patients with diabetes, it is apparent that carbohydrate from yam should be allowed freely in the menu while that from wheat flour (white bread) should only be allowed sparingly. The results from this study should serve as an encouragement for further studies on the local staple food types in Nigeria to ascertain their suitability or otherwise in their incorporation into the recommended menu in the dietary management of diabetes.
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Postprandial glycemic response to food can be affected by the method of food preparation. The effect of processing on yam, a staple food in Nigeria, was studied in 24 healthy non-diabetic Nigerians. The postprandial glycemic indices of peak plasma glucose (PPG), maximum increase in plasma glucose (MIPG), 2-hour postprandial plasma glucose level (2HPPG), incremental area under glucose curve (IAUGC) and glycemic index (GI) were determined for boiled yam, pounded yam and yam flour (amala) after eating a measured amount of 50 g of digestible carbohydrate as recommended by FAO/WHO. Despite undergoing more processing, amala prepared from yam flour showed better postprandial glycemic response indices as compared with other study foods. Yam flour submitted to more processing showed better indices than the other yam based product compared. Yam based products, particularly yam flour, can be recommended for diabetic Nigerians as a substitute to eating monotonous beans based products.
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Unripe and ripe plantain flours were evaluated for chemical properties, some functional characteristics and the starch was compared with differential scanning calorimetry and scanning electron microscopy. The major component of the flours is carbohydrate with 85.78% and 83.41%, respectively, for unripe and ripe plantain. Unripe plantain had higher (196%) value of water absorption capacity than ripe plantain flour. Oil absorption capacity was 210% and 187% for unripe and ripe flour respectively. Least gelation concentration of 8% was recorded for both. The gelatinization temperature range of plantain starch was similar. The enthalpies of gelatinization were 2.79 and 3.09 J g -1 for unripe and ripe plantain starches. The morphological difference of starch granules from unripe and ripe samples may be due to changes during the process of ripening. The unripe sample exhibited spherical shape with varying size ranges. The ripe sample, however, showed longitudinal, elongated or oval shapes of irregular sizes. Both could serve as thickening agent for fillings.
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Quantitative colour variability and micronutrient content of new plantain and banana hybrids flour was investigated. The mean flour colour of the cultivars ranges from 12.16 for BITA 3 to 18.52 for FHIA 23, which is an indication of varying degree of yellowness. Both FHIA 23 and PITA 17 had colour value higher than the general sample means. Agbagba contained the highest level of iron (36.5 µg ḡ ), which is higher than 1 higher than the general sample means. The total carotenoid contents of the cultivars are similar, with PITA 17 (4.795 µg ḡ ), FHIA 17 (4.15 µg ḡ ) and PITA 14 (3.815 µg ḡ ) having values higher than the overall sample 1 1 1 means. The estimated retinol equivalent of the flours ranges from 0.43 in FHIA 23 to 0.799 in PITA 17. The new Musa hybrids may be acceptable for increased production based on disease resistant, high yield and micronutrient content.
Integrating information about the glycaemic index (GI) of foods into the Caribbean diet is limited by the lack of data. Therefore, we determined the GI of eight staple foods eaten in the Caribbean and the effect on GI of crushing selected tubers. Groups of eight to ten healthy volunteers participated in three studies at two sites. GI was determined using a standard method with white bread and adjusted relative to glucose. The mean area under the glucose response curve elicited by white bread was similar for the different groups of subjects. In study 1, the GI of cassava (Manihot esculenta; 94 (SEM 11)) was significantly higher than those of breadfruit (Artocarpus altilis; 60 (SEM 9)), cooking 'green' banana (Musa spp.; 65 (SEM 11)) and sadha roti (65 (SEM 9)) (P=0(.)018). There was no significant difference in the GI of the foods in study 2: dasheen (Colocasia esculenta var. esculenta; 77 (SEM 10)), eddoes (Colocasia esculenta var. antiquorum; 61 (SEM 10)), Irish potato (Solanum tuberosum; 71 (SEM 8)), tannia (Xanthosoma sagittifolium; 60 (SEM 5)) and white yam (Dioscorea alata; 62 (SEM 6)), and, in study 3, crushing did not significantly affect the GI of dasheen, tannia or Irish potato. However, when the results from studies 2 and 3 were pooled, the (31 of dasheen (76 (SEM 7)) was significantly greater than that of tannia (55 (SEM 5); P=0(.)015) with potato being intermediate (69 (SEM 6)). We conclude that dasheen and cassava are high-GI foods, whereas the other tubers studied and sadha roti are intermediate-GI foods. Given the regular usage of cassava and dasheen in Caribbean diets we speculate that these diets would tend to be high GI, although this could be reduced by foods such as sadha roti and white yam. The range of GI between the staples is sufficiently large that health benefits may be accrued by replacing high-GI staples with intermediate-GI staples in the Caribbean diet.
Mature, green, healthy, unbruised plantain fruits were completely separately covered with wood ash and sawdust in earthenware pots with cover. Some others were separately stored in wooden cabinets, desiccators or earthenware after inoculation with conidia of Fusarium verticillioides. All storage was at 25-26°C. The fruits were daily observed for rot development and peel colour change as indicator of ripening. Weight loss from fruits was determined at the end of storage. Fruits stored in wooden cabinets attained full yellow colour on 15 day, those in pots on 17 day and those in desiccators remained green throughout the storage period. Fruits covered with wood ash were still more green than yellow by 12 day while those under sawdust were at this same stage by 8 day. Disease development was slow throughout the storage period in wooden cabinets and for the first 19 days in earthenware pots, while there was no symptom of decay in desiccators. The green life of fruits was 13 days in pots and wooden cabinets while it was more than 24 days in desiccator. As fruits ripened, the carbohydrate content decreased while moisture content increased. Fruits covered with ash lost slightly more weight than those covered with sawdust. Weight loss was highest in wooden cabinets and lowest in desiccator.