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The Green Brigade: The Educational Effects of a Community- based Horticultural Program on the Horticultural Knowledge and Environmental Attitude of Juvenile Offenders

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Abstract

The Green Brigade horticultural program is a community-based treatment and diversion program for juvenile offenders. The program is used for vocational training and rehabilitation. The objectives of this study were to determine if participation in the Green Brigade program improved the horticultural knowledge and the environmental attitudes of participating juvenile offenders. Participants of the Green Brigade program significantly improved their horticultural knowledge exam scores as a result of participating in the program. Participants also had significant improvements in their environmental attitude scores after completing the program. However, participants attending the Green Brigade program less than 60% of the time had significantly more negative environmental attitude scores than participants attending more frequently. Further analyses showed the program was equally effective at improving environmental attitude scores for all participants regardless of gender, ethnicity, age or grade in school.
77 JanuaryMarch 2002 12(1)
Fruit in the russet treatments had
about 10% of their surface affected by
russet at harvest, compared with practi-
cally no russet visible on fruit classed as
nonrusseted. Russeted fruit were also
markedly more misshapen than
nonrusseted fruit (Table 1).
None of the treatments affected
seed number per fruit or total seed fresh
weight per fruit at harvest (Table 1).
There was a trend for russeted fruit to
have smaller seeds (in terms of fresh
weight per seed) but this was not signifi-
cant (P = 0.057). There were significant
positive relationships between fruit
weight and number of seeds per fruit (r2
= 0.16, P < 0.001), total seed fresh
weight per fruit (r2 = 0.22, P < 0.001)
and the fresh weight per seed (r2 = 0.15,
P < 0.001), however these relationships
in all cases were weak.
In conclusion, russeted fruit were
more misshapen than nonrusseted fruit,
but neither russet nor carbaryl affected
seed number nor seed weight per fruit.
Chemically thinning with carbaryl did
not preferentially thin russeted fruit and
is therefore not a tool of use to growers
to help eliminate fruit damaged by rus-
set.
Literature cited
Faust, M. and C.B. Shear. 1972. Russeting
of apples, an interpretive review. HortScience
7:233235.
Creasy, L.L. 1980. The correlation of
weather parameters with russet of Golden
Delicious apples under orchard conditions.
J. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 105:735738.
Creasy, L.L. and H.J. Swartz 1981. Agents
influencing russet on Golden Delicious
apple fruits. J. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci.
106:203206.
de Vries, H.A.M. 1968. Development of
the structure of the russeted apple skin. Acta
Bot. Neerl. 17:405415.
Knight, J.N. 1983. Translocation proper-
ties of carbaryl in relation to its use as an
apple fruitlet thinner. J. Hort. Sci. 58:371
379.
Schwallier, P.G. 1996. Apple thinning guide.
Great Lakes Publishing, Sparta, Mich.
Simons, R.K. 1959. Anatomical and mor-
phological responses of four varieties of
apples to frost injury. Proc. Amer. Soc.
Hort. Sci. 74:1024.
Way, D.W. 1967. Carbaryl as a fruit thin-
ning agent. II. Concentration and time of
application. J. Hort. Sci. 42:355365.
The Green
Brigade: The
Educational
Effects of a
Community-
based
Horticultural
Program on the
Horticultural
Knowledge and
Environmental
Attitude of
Juvenile
Offenders
Carol Cammack,1
Tina M. Waliczek,2 and
Jayne M. Zajicek3
ADDITIONAL INDEX WORDS. extension
programs, adolescents, probationary
programming, vocational, education,
at-risk youth, juvenile delinquent,
gardening
SUMMARY. The Green Brigade horticul-
tural program is a community-based
treatment and diversion program for
juvenile offenders. The program is used
for vocational training and rehabilita-
tion. The objectives of this study were
to determine if participation in the
Green Brigade program improved the
horticultural knowledge and the
environmental attitudes of participat-
ing juvenile offenders. Participants of
the Green Brigade program signifi-
cantly improved their horticultural
knowledge exam scores as a result of
participating in the program. Partici-
pants also had significant improve-
ments in their environmental attitude
scores after completing the program.
However, participants attending the
Green Brigade program less than 60%
of the time had significantly more
negative environmental attitude scores
than participants attending more
frequently. Further analyses showed
the program was equally effective at
improving environmental attitude
scores for all participants regardless of
gender, ethnicity, age or grade in
school.
The securing of job skills by
underprivileged groups
became the interest of both
government and business leaders when
President Clinton signed the Personal
Responsibility and Welfare Reconcilia-
tion Act in 1996. At that time, the
President challenged employers to hire
more than 2 million people from public
assistance into work situations by the
year 2000. One of the elements that
companies found was lacking in the
nontraditional labor pool was job skills,
in addition to transportation and
childcare. Once companies initiated pro-
grams to teach basic job and social
interaction skills, however, the reten-
tion and promotion rates of participants
within the workplace were higher
(Leonard, 1998). In addition, corpo-
rate youth training programs in some of
the major metropolitan areas of the
nation discovered that by investing in
innercity youth, they helped build a
future customer base while students
gained lifelong job skills and pride in
their communities (Greengard and
Solomon, 1994).
In the criminal justice system, hor-
ticulture programs are commonly used
in the vocational training and rehabilita-
tion of adult offenders, and are becom-
ing more common in juvenile proba-
tion programs. Horticulture programs
that emphasize the acquisition of horti-
culture skills have helped enhance in-
mates employment opportunities as well
as their sense of community (Flagler,
1995; Migura et al., 1997; Rice and
Remy, 1994). Questionnaires given to
the participants of a program for juve-
nile offenders conducted by Rutgers
University, found that 87% of respon-
dents thought their quality of life was
improved; 80% felt they had more job
skills; and 75% believed they had ob-
tained experience that might help them
Department of Horticultural Science, Texas A&M
University, College Station, TX 77843-2133.
The cost of publishing this paper was defrayed in part
by the payment of page charges. Under postal regula-
tions, this paper must therefore be hereby marked
advertisement solely to indicate this fact.
1Horticulture county extension agent, Texas Agricul-
ture Extension Service, Texas A&M University, Hous-
ton, TX 77084.
2Assistant professor, Southwest Texas State University,
San Marcos, TX 78666.
3Professor.
ResRpts1 11/27/01, 10:30 AM77
JanuaryMarch 2002 12(1)78
RESEARCH REPORTS
secure a job. All of these benefits were as
a result of participating in the program
(Flagler, 1995).
A respect for the community and
the environment related to that com-
munity can also come from an increased
awareness and increased knowledge of
environmental issues. Environmental
knowledge improves environmental at-
titudes, and positive attitudes toward
the environment result in environmen-
tally responsible behavior (Arcury, 1990;
Hungerford and Volk, 1990;
Newhouse, 1991; Ramsey and Rickson,
1976). Studies of environmental educa-
tion programs involving activity-based
learning have shown these programs to
be highly successful (Campbell et al.,
1997; McCormick et al., 1989; Ramsey,
1993; Shinn, 1988), and research indi-
cates that childrens past experiences
with vegetation positively affect their
environmental attitudes (Harvey, 1989;
Skelly and Zajicek, 1998).
The Bexar County (Texas) Exten-
sion Services Green Brigade program
for juvenile offenders is one program
that combines horticultural activities and
education with juvenile offender reha-
bilitation (Cammack et al., 2001). The
purpose of this study was to determine
if participation in the Green Brigade
horticultural program resulted in an
improvement in the horticultural knowl-
edge and environmental attitude of ju-
venile offenders.
Materials and methods
POPULATION AND TREATMENT. Ju-
venile offenders from the 1996 spring
and fall sessions of the Green Brigade
program were asked to volunteer to
participate in the study (Cammack et al.,
2001). Juveniles participated in the pro-
gram on Saturdays for 16 weeks for 6 h
each day; 2 h of each day were spent in
classroom instruction learning horticul-
tural techniques, and the remaining 4 h
were spent outdoors working on land-
scaping projects in the community. An
individual Bexar County Extension Ser-
vice employee headed each Green Bri-
gade section.
INSTRUMENTATION. The horticul-
tural knowledge inventory consisted of
10 true/false statements designed to
determine participants knowledge of
horticultural topics. The Green Brigade
program focused on teaching xeriscape
principles; therefore, the horticultural
knowledge portion of the survey asked
questions related to xeriscaping (Table
1). Correct responses received 10 points,
while incorrect responses received 0
points. Possible scores ranged from 0 to
100. Cronbachs alpha determined the
instrument to have a reliability of 0.60.
Questions included in the environ-
mental attitude inventory were taken
from existing instruments developed to
test environmental attitudes for chil-
dren and adolescents (Bradley and
Dettling, 1994; Campbell, 1994;
Waliczek, 1997). Various statements
were selected for use in this inventory
Table 2. The t test for paired samples analyses comparing the pretest and posttest environmental attitude individual item
scores of participants of the Green Brigade program.
Pretest Posttest
Statement meanzmeanzP
Everyone should be aware of environmental concerns. 2.75 3.24 0.005*
Special places should be put aside for animals that are endangered. 2.65 2.80 0.156
It is all right to litter if you dont get caught. 2.69 3.18 0.019*
Environmental issues dont really effect people who live in the city. 2.45 2.80 0.063*
Its okay to pollute as long as you are on your own land. 3.02 3.06 0.799
Everyone should try to recycle as much as they can. 3.04 3.27 0.234
People should protect animals and plants. 3.00 3.18 0.380
All plants and animals are important. 3.00 3.41 0.012*
Plants that grow in parts of the world where there are not very many people are not important. 2.94 2.82 0.452
Big companies do not have a right to pollute rivers and streams 2.86 3.22 0.107
zIndividual environmental attitude scores ranged from 0 to 4, with higher numbers indicating more environmentally positive answers.
*Statistically significant at P 0.05.
Table 1. The t test for paired samples analyses comparing the pretest and posttest horticultural knowledge individual item
scores of participants of the Green Brigade program.
Pretest Posttest
Statement meanzmeanzP
A xeriscape is a creative and effective landscape that conserves water. 7.60 7.80 0.821
A xeriscape is a type of landscape consisting only of cactus and rocks. 6.80 7.80 0.255
Native plants require a lot of extra watering in addition to natural rainfall. 5.20 5.20 1.000
Mulches help keep the soil moist, prevent evaporation and keeps the weeds from growing. 7.20 8.80 0.044*
You should make the ground firm and compacted before planting grass. 3.00 5.80 0.001*
You dont really need to plan out your garden or yard before your plant it; you should just go with
how you feel when you are actually planting it. 7.40 7.40 1.000
A nice looking xeriscape will require lots of care. 1.60 3.60 0.024*
Putting in a large grass lawn at a home, only because it looks nice is not an efficient use of water. 5.20 4.00 0.204
You should water your yard everyday, even if it doesnt need it. 6.60 7.40 0.376
Bark chips, pine needles and gravel are all examples of mulch. 7.60 7.80 0.811
zIndividual item horticultural knowledge scores ranged from 0 to 10, with higher numbers indicating more knowledge of the correct answers.
*Statistically significant at P 0.05.
ResRpts1 11/27/01, 10:30 AM78
79 JanuaryMarch 2002 12(1)
from these existing instruments in order
to represent a wide range of environ-
mental topics. The inventory included
ten statements that students rated on a
5-point Likert scale (Likert, 1967)
(Table 2). The five possible responses to
each statement were strongly agree,
agree, neither agree nor disagree,
disagree and strongly disagree. The
environmental attitude surveys were
scored by assigning 4 points to a re-
sponse that demonstrated a strongly
favorable environmental attitude, 3
points to a mildly favorable response, 2
points to an indifferent response, 1 point
to a mildly unfavorable response and 0
points to a strongly unfavorable re-
sponse. The range of scores indicating a
favorable environmental attitude were
from 21 to 40. A neutral score was 20
points and an unfavorable environmen-
tal attitude was indicated by a range of
scores from 0 to 19 points. Cronbachs
alpha (Borg and Gall, 1989) determined
the instrument to have a reliability of
0.81.
The pretest questionnaire also in-
cluded a section for student biographi-
cal information including questions
on age, gender, ethnicity, grade and
previous gardening experience. Green
Brigade attendance records for indi-
vidual participants were obtained from
the directors of each Green Brigade
session. Pretests were administered in
Feb. and Sept. 1996 spring and fall
sessions, respectively; and posttests
were administered May and Decem-
ber 1996.
DATA ANALYSIS. Since another
population with the exact characteris-
tics of the youth participating would
be difficult or impossible to obtain,
pretest scores acted as a control for
horticultural knowledge and environ-
mental attitude. Paired sample t tests
were used to identify significant differ-
ences between pretest and posttest
means. Multivariate analysis of vari-
ance was used to determine the differ-
ences in posttest scores after participa-
tion in the Green Brigade program
based on individual demographics,
session attendance and participation.
Pretest scores were used as a covariates
in the analysis to account for any pre-
existing differences among the groups.
Data were entered into the Statistical
Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS)
for Windows95 Release 7.5 computer
program and evaluated (SPSS, 1997).
Missing scores such as incomplete an-
swers were coded as missing values.
Results and discussion
Fifty participants of the Green Bri-
gade program completed pretest and
posttest horticultural knowledge exams
and environmental attitude survey. Par-
ticipants were primarily male (72.5%),
and Hispanic (66.7%). The mean age of
subjects was 15 years. About half of the
participants had gardened before en-
rolling in the Green Brigade program.
Due to the nature of the self-selection
process, the responses acquired were
adequate for supplying ideas and trends
for the given sample population, but are
not necessarily intended for generaliza-
tions to other populations.
HORTICULTURAL KNOWLEDGE. A
significant difference of 7.4 points be-
tween pretest and posttest mean horti-
cultural knowledge scores was found
using a paired sample t test (Table 3).
The weak correlation (Table 3) indi-
cated individual participants horticul-
tural knowledge pretest scores were un-
related to their posttest scores. One
possible cause for the lack of a strong
correlation may be the participants
unfamiliarity with the xeriscape prin-
ciples focused on in the instrument.
This lack of familiarity with the subject
may have caused the participants to
simply guess which answer to select
during the pretest. This further suggests
the significantly higher posttest scores
were likely the result of a greater famil-
iarity with the subject matter gained as
a result of participating in the Green
Brigade program.
Because there was a significant
improvement overall in horticultural
knowledge mean scores, individual item
response means from the horticultural
knowledge test were compared to de-
termine if there were differences be-
tween pretest and posttest individual
item responses (Table 1). After partici-
pating in the Green Brigade program
participants scored 1.6 points higher on
Statement 4 dealing with mulch, 2.80
points higher on Statement 5 dealing
with soil and turf, and 2.0 points higher
on Statement 7 dealing with the main-
tenance requirement of xeriscapes (Table
1). These findings suggest that class-
room instruction, in addition to hands-
on activities, were useful for improving
horticultural knowledge, specifically
knowledge of xeriscape principles, in
participants of the Green Brigade pro-
gram. These results support past re-
search findings reporting that activity
based learning is an effective teaching
tool (McCormick et al., 1989; Shinn,
1988; Trexler and Barrett, 1992), and
can be enhanced by incorporating other
methods of learning such as classroom
instruction, observation and reading
(Rosenshine and Furst, 1971).
Additional analyses were conducted
Table 4. The t test for paired samples analysis comparing the pretest and
posttest environmental attitude scores of participants of the Green Brigade
program.
Group and
variable of Mean
interest NzscoreyrxSD df tP
Pretest 50 28.98 0.454 7.60 50 -2.434 0.019*
Posttest 50 31.57
zN = 50.
yEnvironmental attitude scores ranged from 18 to 40.
xCorrelation coefficient.
*Statistically significant at P 0.05.
Table 3. The t test for paired samples analysis comparing the pretest and
posttest horticultural knowledge scores of participants of the Green Brigade
program.
Group and
variable of Mean
interest NzscoreyrxSD df tP
Pretest 50 58.20 0.181 25.78 49 2.030 0.048*
Posttest 50 65.60
zN = 50.
yHorticultural knowledge scores ranged from 20 to 100.
xCorrelation coefficient.
*Statistically significant at P 0.05.
ResRpts1 11/27/01, 10:30 AM79
JanuaryMarch 2002 12(1)80
RESEARCH REPORTS
since past studies have indicated that, in
some instances, learning situations can
favor one group of participants over
another. For instance, studies have found
that even when males and females are in
the same classroom together their edu-
cational experiences are vastly different
(American Association of University
Women, 1992). Results of a multivari-
ate analysis of covariance indicated no
significant differences on posttest horti-
cultural knowledge exam scores of Green
Brigade program participants based on
gender, ethnicity, age, grade and par-
ticipation. In addition, there were no
significant differences in horticultural
knowledge posttest mean scores be-
tween the four Green Brigade sessions.
Each Green Brigade leader was given
the freedom to organize the daily learn-
ing and work activities within his/her
own session. Differences in facilities,
weather and project time constraints led
to varying amounts of emphasis on the
learning of horticultural topics between
sessions. Lack of statistical significance
due to demographic variables indicated
the program was equally effective in
teaching horticultural topics regardless
of session, gender, ethnicity, grade or
age.
ENVIRONMENTAL ATTITUDE. A
paired sample t test was used to analyze
the mean scores from the environmen-
tal attitude survey (Table 4). Partici-
pants scored significantly higher (2.59
points) on posttest scores in compari-
son to pretest scores (Table 4). Because
there was a significant improvement
overall in environmental attitude mean
scores, individual item response means
were compared to determine if there
were differences between pretest and
posttest individual item responses (Table
2). Statements 1, 3, 4, and 8 showed
significant improvements. The improve-
ment in the scores on statements 1, 3,
and 4 suggest participation in the Green
Brigade exposed urban youth to the
effects of environmental misuse on
people, plants and animals regardless of
place of residence. Responses to State-
ment 8 concerning the importance of all
plants and animals were also signifi-
cantly improved as a result of participa-
tion in the Green Brigade program. Past
studies have shown children living in
urban environments have a lesser appre-
ciation for nature and the outdoors and
subsequently, a poor environmental at-
titude when compared to children liv-
ing in rural settings (Bunting and Cous-
ins, 1985; Hart, 1979). However, find-
ings from the Green Brigade study indi-
cated that, while participants in the pro-
gram lived in an urban setting, they had
environmentally friendly attitudes to-
wards animals and plants that became
even more positive by the end of the
project.
A multivariate analysis of covari-
ance test indicated no significant differ-
ences in environmental attitude scores
based on gender, ethnicity, age or grade
for the participants of the Green Bri-
gade program (Table 5). These results
suggest the Green Brigade program was
just as effective at improving the envi-
ronmental attitudes of males and fe-
males, African-Americans and Hispan-
ics, and participants of various ages.
Researchers have reported varied
results when comparing the environ-
mental attitudes for various demographic
groups. Results of this study supported
past research suggesting that gender is
not a factor in environmental attitudes
(Table 5) (Bunting and Cousins, 1985;
Hart, 1979; Harvey, 1989). Harvey
(1989) reported that no matter how
appealing girls or boys found an out-
door task, their experience with vegeta-
tion elicited an improvement in their
environmental attitudes. Even under
the constraints of the relatively labori-
ous work of landscaping, Green Brigade
participants environmental attitude
scores significantly improved regardless
of gender.
The Green Brigade program also
improved the participants environmen-
tal attitudes regardless of ethnicity (Table
5). The exact relationship between
ethnicity and environmental attitude is
not clear from past research (Sheppard,
Table 5. Multivariate analysis of covariance determining the effects of gender,
ethnicity, age, grade, session attended and participation on posttest environ-
mental attitude scores of participants in the Green Brigade program.
Group and
variable Mean
of interest Nzscore SE df F P
Gender 1 1.712 0.197
Male 36 30.62 1.061
Female 14 33.18 1.543
Ethnicity 1 0.783 0.381
Black 17 31.08 1.381
Hispanic 33 32.72 1.182
Age 5 0.488 0.812
13 1 36.89 5.897
14 12 29.49 2.168
15 21 31.08 1.706
16 12 33.26 2.056
17 3 36.06 3.451
18 1 34.24 5.841
Grade 5 0.759 0.585
7 2 27.65 4.241
8 14 33.13 2.327
9 25 31.45 1.430
10 5 34.38 2.788
12 2 30.71 4.153
GEDy2 37.32 4.127
Session 3 0.821 0.489
East session, Spring 1996 15 30.77 1.412
West session, Spring 1996 16 31.80 1.429
East session, Fall 1996 8 34.66 2.030
West session, all 1996 10 31.83 1.753
Participation 4 2.650 0.047*
>90% 15 32.34 1.404
80%89% 10 30.23 1.705
70%79% 10 33.49 1.687
60%69% 6 34.26 2.202
50%60% 6 25.87 2.187
zN = 50.
yGeneral Education Development High School Equivalent diploma.
*Statistically significant at P 0.05.
ResRpts1 11/27/01, 10:30 AM80
81 JanuaryMarch 2002 12(1)
Table 6. Pairwise analysis of covariance determining the effects of the level of
participation on posttest and environmental attitude scores of participants in
the Green Brigade program.
Group and
variable of Mean
interest Nzscore Difference SE P
Participation
>90% 15 32.34 6.47 1.404 0.017*
80%89% 10 30.23 4.36 1.705 0.127
70%79% 10 33.49 7.62 1.687 0.009*
60%69% 6 34.26 8.39 2.202 0.010*
50%60% 6 25.87 --- 2.187
zN = 50.
*Statistically significant at P 0.05.
1995). Earlier studies reported Cauca-
sians were more concerned than Afri-
can-Americans about environmental is-
sues (Kellert, 1984; Van Ardsol et al.,
1965; Waliczek, 1997). However, other
studies found similar levels of environ-
mental concern among African-Ameri-
cans and Caucasians (Mitchell, 1979;
Mohai, 1990).
Similar to horticulture knowledge
improvements, there were no signifi-
cant differences in environmental atti-
tude posttest mean scores due to Green
Brigade sessions (Table 5). This sup-
ports past research (McCormick et al.,
1989) indicating that active learning
will enhance childrens environmental
attitudes, and that childrens experi-
ences with vegetation positively affect
their environmental attitudes (Harvey,
1989; Skelly and Zajicek, 1998).
Program participation was mea-
sured by the frequency that juveniles
attended the Green Brigade sessions.
Program participation was found to be
a significant factor in posttest environ-
mental attitude scores (Table 5). Posthoc
pairwise comparisons indicated that par-
ticipants with attendance rates less than
60% were found to have significantly
poorer environmental attitudes (25.9
points) than those participating more
frequently (30.2 to 34.3 points) (Table
6). The more positive environmental
attitudes were likely the result of more
exposure to topics and activities result-
ing from being present more frequently.
Participating in the Green Brigade
program improved juvenile offenders
horticultural knowledge, which could
aid them in future job placement. Other
innercity youth training programs have
been successful at not only providing
job skills and work ethics, but also have
mentioned evidence of participants dis-
playing community pride (Greengard
and Solomon, 1994), which could lead
to less vandalism and more positive
involvement in the community. In ad-
dition, the Green Brigade program im-
proved participants environmental at-
titudes which is important for every
member of the global community aid-
ing in the preservation and conservation
of natural resources.
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ResRpts1 11/27/01, 10:30 AM81
... Segments from three different testing instruments were adapted and used to determine the environmental attitudes and environmental locus of control of the participants. The questionnaire was created using existing instruments, drawing questions from the Children's Environmental Response Inventory (CERI; Bunting and Cousins, 1983), an environmental attitude inventory (Cammack et al., 2002a) and the Revised Perceived Environ-mental Control Measure (RPECM; Smith-Sebasto, 1992). A demographic questionnaire for students was included as a cover sheet. ...
... Questions from an environmental attitude inventory (Cammack et al., 2002a) were also used in the development of the research questionnaire. The original test from which questions were drawn included 10 statements. ...
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The objectives of this study were to examine an interdisciplinary and experiential approach to environmental education by use of a youth gardening program for third through fifth grade students. In addition, this study evaluated the gardening program's effectiveness on promoting positive environmental attitudes and a high environmental locus of control with children. A questionnaire was developed from three existing instruments and was used to collect information concerning environmental attitudes, locus of control as it related to environmental actions, and demographic information of respondents. No statistically significant differences were found on either variable in comparisons of experimental and control group responses. However, students from both groups exhibited positive environmental attitudes. Demographic comparisons indicated that children with previous gardening experience scored significantly higher on the environmental attitude and environmental locus of control statements when compared with children without gardening experience. Girls scored significantly higher than boys on environmental attitude and environmental locus of control scores. Caucasians scored significantly higher when compared with African-Americans and Hispanics on environmental attitude scores, and Caucasians scored significantly higher when compared with African-Americans on environmental locus of control scores.
... Compared with recidivism rates of those who served their community service in nonhorticultural outdoor environments [9.1% (5)], nonhorticultural indoor community service environments were reported at a 5.0% [14.1% (13)] higher rate (Table 2). Results from the Cammack et al. (2001) study also showed decreasing recidivism rates within the juvenile offender population as a result of being engaged with horticulture. ...
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... The possibility of future employment due to increased horticultural knowledge is considered to be a benefit of youth community gardening programs (Cammack, Waliczek, & Zajicek, 2002). Thus, horticultural knowledge increases their employability and independence. ...
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... ~ Excerpt from Researching Lived Experience by Max Van Manen, 1990 Do young children form important and needed connections with the natural and built world on urban school grounds, or is this just a myth? Children's connections with nature and outdoor environments have been explored through a variety of disciplines which include but are not limited to the following: environmental psychology (Chawla, 1988;Chawla, 1998;Chawla, 2006;Hay, 1998;Hung, 2004;Libman, 2007), human development (Bronfenbrenner, 1977;Bronfenbrenner, 1999;Bronfenbrenner & Ceci, 1994;Piaget, 1952;Vygotsky, 1978), landscape architecture (Francis, 1995;Hart, 1979;Moore & Wong, 1997), geography and urban planning (Pothukuchi, 2004;Ulrich, 1993), horticulture (Cammack, Waliczek, & Zajicek, 2002a& 2002bFlagler, 1995;Klemmer, Waliczek, & Zajicek, 2005), social ecology (Kellert & Wilson, 1993), resource management (Brooks, 2003;Kyle, Graefe, Manning, & Bacon, 2004;Kyle, Graefe, & Manning, 2005), natural resources and environmental sciences , biology and human evolution (Wilson, 1984), and environmental education (Mayer-Smith, Bartosh, Peterat, 2007). And yet, according to Kellert, "Despite this growing body of evidence, the reality remains that data on the child and nature relationship continues to be fragmentary, sparse, and often based on methodologically limited research" (2009, p.3). ...
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“Do young children form important and needed connections with the natural world on school grounds, or is this just a myth?” This paper represents a critical review of biophilia and place attachment literature – both important areas of research in need of a new approach. Researchers Burgess (2009), Chawla (2007), Howell (2003), Kahn (2002), Kellert (2009), and others have called for a need for rigorously controlled, yet rich and experiential, research which advances underlying theories of child-nature connections. Likewise, place attachment research has been conducted largely with adults and needs a more theoretically sound approach to how and why youth attach to certain places beyond favorite places studies. These two areas of research are closely related and have been studied using ethnographic methods (Brooks, 2003; Tuan, 1977), quantitative methods (Harvey, 1989; Stedman, 2002; Vaske & Kobrin, 2001; Williams, 2000), and mixed-methods (Burgess, 2009; Francis, 1995; Hart, 1979; Moore & Wong, 1997). However, few studies have attempted to combine a measure of scientific rigor with a sensitive portrayal of Latino and Latina children’s experience on school grounds. A new interpretation of schoolyards and gardens through the eyes of low-income urban youth is critical if we are to make advancements in child-nature relationship research. General assumptions about youth and benefits of revitalized school grounds abound in gardening and schoolyard literature with little regard to place attachment or biophilia theory. Mixed-methods are recommended to research predominantly Latino urban children’s connections to school ground environments. Keywords: biophilia, biophobia, nature, place attachment, place dependence, place identity, child-nature relationships, environmental concerns and responsibility, urban youth, children, playgrounds, school grounds, schoolyards, literature review, green infrastructure, biotic and abiotic communities
... The possibility of future employment due to increased horticultural knowledge is considered to be a benefit of youth community gardening programs (Cammack, Waliczek, & Zajicek, 2002). Thus, horticultural knowledge increases their employability and independence. ...
Thesis
Gardening has long found its way into the American prison, but, in recent years, prison garden programs have achieved an unusual measure of popularity. In the perpetual reform of the penitentiary, this represents a programmatic turn in carceral administration back toward the “rehabilitation” of incarcerated people, the garden expected to “transform” them to reduce recidivism rates. This turn coincides with the rise of prison greening and sustainability initiatives, which are symbolically and politically linked to urban greening and sustainability. These moves present many contradictory implications which place the prison garden squarely within a dialectical process of exploitation and resistance. On the one hand, the (un)sustainable prison garden is permeated and limited by the logics of green racial capitalism: racialized accumulation by sustainability capital; a socioecological fix, which provides institutional legitimation through symbolic capital and justification for racist recidivism narratives; the depoliticization of carceral violence by the prison/urban greening alliance; and nefarious forms of carceral discipline and control. At the same time, prison gardens present radical possibilities through moments of resistance by: facilitating the survival and humanization of incarcerated people; incorporating tenets of a critical pedagogy; and developing carceral food justice practice. Given that this is a severely underexplored topic, I attempted to explore a breadth of possibilities and limitations in depth, opening up theoretical and empirical insights to inform future research endeavors. To this end, I draw insights from scholarship on urban political ecology, racial capitalism, carceral geography, food justice, and critical education studies.
Chapter
This chapter examines children’s affinity for the natural world, benefits for children from contact with nature, and how programs for ecological restoration and caring for plants and animals can promote young people’s resilience and recovery after conflict and disasters. Masten (2001, p. 228) defines resilience in childhood as ‘good outcomes in spite of threats to adaptation or development’. It is not a special attribute that makes some children invulnerable to adversity, but what Masten calls the ‘ordinary magic’ that happens when children manage to find essential resources for healthy development even in difficult circumstances. The literature on resilience has emphasized the importance of caring social relationships and supportive institutions like effective schools, not recognizing that children can draw strength and healing from the natural world as well. Most of the literature on helping children affected by war and natural disasters also neglects this potential. This chapter demonstrates the value of children’s relationships with nature and the importance of integrating healing green spaces into programs to help children recover after disasters and conflict.
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Book
An account of the shift in focus to access and fairness among San Francisco Bay Area alternative food activists and advocates. © 2012 Massachusetts Institute of Technology. All rights reserved.
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As human pressures on the environment increase and as conflicting demands on education become focused, schools have a greater responsibility to educate children to care for their environment. Results from this study demonstrated that students who were involved in the actual propagation and restoration of ecosystems, and who had positive experiences in doing so, were more likely to have positive environmental attitudes.
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The Green Brigade horticultural program is a community-based treatment and diversion program for juvenile offenders. The objective of this study was to determine if participation in the Green Brigade program improved the self-esteem, locus of control, interpersonal relationships and attitude toward school of participating juvenile offenders. Participants in the Green Brigade program had significantly lower scores than the comparative group on measures of self-esteem, interpersonal relationships and attitude toward school prior to and after completion of the Green Brigade program. Although the Green Brigade participants' scores were significantly lower than the comparative group's scores, the means were still considered 'normal' for their age group. However, adolescents participating in coed sessions, where the hands-on activities involved plant materials, displayed more positive interpersonal relationship scores than participants in an all male session where the hands-on activities focused on the installation of hardscape materials and a lack of plant materials. No significant differences were found in rates of repeated crimes of juvenile offenders participating in the Green Brigade program when compared to juvenile offenders participating in traditional probationary programming.
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Increased knowledge about the environment is assumed to change environmental attitudes, and both environmental knowledge and attitudes are assumed to influence environmental policy. However, little research has focused on public environmental knowledge or the relationship between knowledge and environmental attitudes. This paper uses telephone survey data from 680 Kentucky residents to address this gap in the literature. Specifically, this analysis examines how environmental knowledge and attitudes are related sociodemographic factors (gender, age, education, income and residence). As in similar research, the respondents to this survey did not score well on the measures of environmental knowledge. Environmental knowledge is found to be consistently and positively related to environmental attitudes, although the relationship is not especially strong. With the correlation of knowledge and attitudes, the low level of environmental knowledge has disturbing implications for environmental policy.