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A study of the basic and derived anthropometric indices among the healthy adults (20-30 years of age) of amritsar city (punjab) having family history of hypertension

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... Objectively measured physical activity is known to have a significant correlation with blood pressure in population-based samples from Nigeria, Jamaica and the US [36]. These findings further support the hypothesis that expression of complex traits like hypertension results from an interaction between shared genes, environments and behaviours [13,31]. Furthermore individuals with a family history of hypertension form an easily identifiable group who may benefit from targeted intervention to prevent the development of hypertension through increased physical activity. ...
... Family history is a common non-modifiable risk factor for most chronic non-communicable diseases, as it is a collective reflection of the genetic susceptibility, shared environments and behaviours [31]. Hence, identifying the family history will serve as a practical and useful approach [31] for public health and preventive medicine [31,38]. ...
... Family history is a common non-modifiable risk factor for most chronic non-communicable diseases, as it is a collective reflection of the genetic susceptibility, shared environments and behaviours [31]. Hence, identifying the family history will serve as a practical and useful approach [31] for public health and preventive medicine [31,38]. The advantages of family history as a risk assessment tool is the low cost, greater acceptability, and that it is a reflection of the shared genetic and lifestyle factors. ...
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Background Hypertension is a major contributor to the global non-communicable disease burden. Family history is an important non-modifiable risk factor for hypertension. The present study aims to describe the influence of family history (FH) on hypertension prevalence and associated metabolic risk factors in a large cohort of South Asian adults, from a nationally representative sample from Sri Lanka. Methods A cross-sectional survey among 5,000 Sri Lankan adults, evaluating FH at the levels of parents, grandparents, siblings and children. A binary logistic regression analysis was performed in all patients with ‘presence of hypertension’ as dichotomous dependent variable and using family history in parents, grandparents, siblings and children as binary independent variables. The adjusted odds ratio controlling for confounders (age, gender, body mass index, diabetes, hyperlipidemia and physical activity) are presented below. Results In all adults the prevalence of hypertension was significantly higher in patients with a FH (29.3 %, n = 572/1951) than those without (24.4 %, n = 616/2530) (p < 0.001). Presence of a FH significantly increased the risk of hypertension (OR:1.29; 95 % CI:1.13-1.47), obesity (OR:1.36; 95 % CI: 1.27–1.45), central obesity (OR:1.30; 95 % CI 1.22–1.40) and metabolic syndrome (OR:1.19; 95 % CI: 1.08–1.30). In all adults presence of family history in parents (OR:1.28; 95 % CI: 1.12–1.48), grandparents (OR:1.34; 95 % CI: 1.20–1.50) and siblings (OR:1.27; 95 % CI: 1.21–1.33) all were associated with significantly increased risk of developing hypertension. Conclusions Our results show that the prevalence of hypertension was significantly higher in those with a FH of hypertension. FH of hypertension was also associated with the prevalence of obesity, central obesity and metabolic syndrome. Individuals with a FH of hypertension form an easily identifiable group who may benefit from targeted interventions.
... Family history of having diabetes was significantly associated with MetS in this study, consistent with other studies [75,76]. Family history is a common non-modifiable risk factor for most chronic NCDs because it is a collective reflection of the genetic susceptibility, shared environments, and behaviors [77]. Although, in our case, a family history of diabetes had an inverse relationship with MetS (AOR = 0.936, 95%CI: 0.182-0.862). ...
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The occupation of taxi driving predisposes drivers to health risks, including obesity, cardiovascular and metabolic disorders. Although individual components of metabolic syndrome (MetS) are documented, data is scarce on concurrent metabolic disturbances among commercial drivers. The prevalence of MetS and its components were determined in a cross-sectional study among taxi drivers (n = 362) in the City of Tshwane, South Africa. Sociodemographic, occupational, and lifestyle factors were assessed using a structured questionnaire. Anthropometry, blood pressure, and glucose were measured. MetS was defined based on BMI strata, hypertension, and glucose levels. Data was analyzed using SPSS. The mean age of taxi drivers was 42 ± 10.9 years. Overall prevalence of MetS was 17.1%, with higher prevalence observed among older taxi drivers (24.2%) and those with longer experience in the industry (22.9%). Individual components of MetS were obesity (36%), hypertension (36%) and diabetes (46%), while smoking (30%), alcohol use (59%), and physical inactivity (71%) were observed. MetS was associated with duration in the taxi industry, and family history of diabetes among taxi drivers. The presence of MetS and its components among taxi drivers calls for early identification of cardiometabolic risks in the taxi industry and efforts towards achieving a healthier workforce.
... Hence, recognizing the family history link with certain diseases may be a practical pointer and a feasible approach in public health and preventive medicine. [14] In this study, smoking in men 78 in number (62%) was observed to be moderately running higher risk for hypertension. The longitudinal studies in Japanese men gave similar conclusions. ...
Article
Background: Hypertension among the elderly is a major, highly prevalent yet treatable cardiovascular disease. Aims & objectives: Study aims to highlight the risk factors for hypertension in the elderly in an urban setup for the benefit of improving quality of life and also reduce the incidence of the cardiovascular related complications. Methodology: This is a Cross-sectional observational study. Included 125 study subjects based on selection criteria. The selected patients were subjected to a preformed and pretested schedule of questions pertaining to the risk factors. Results: Among the known hypertensive patients above 60 years of age, 125 subjects were included in the study. Smoking (62%), alcohol consumption (21%), family history of hypertension (26%), family history of diabetes (70%) were statistically significant risk factors observed for the development of hypertension. Conclusion: Sedentary lifestyle (physically less active) and anthropometric measures like overweight and obesity, abnormal waist circumference, and abnormal waist hip ratio were all identified as remarkable risk for hypertension. Myocardial infarction (20%), stroke (14%), and heart failure (12%) were the chart buster complications of hypertension in the vulnerable geriatric population.
... Indeed, family history of hypertension has been implicated in increased central obesity and MetS, premorbid states for both hypertension and diabetes [104,105]. Family history of hypertension increases susceptibility to the CVDs because of heritable genetic, environmental and lifestyle behaviors, which are mostly shared among such families than the general population [106]. Although a lot has been documented on this relationship, it is of interest because of genetic studies and preventive counselling as strategies for interventions can be explored. ...
Article
Introduction: Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a risk factor for cardiovascular-related morbidity and mortality. Although the risk factors for MetS are well documented, differences in gender-based demographics among Kenyan adults with central obesity are lacking. Aim: Determine gender differences in the pattern of socio-demographics relevant to metabolic syndrome among Kenyan adults with central obesity at a mission hospital, Nairobi. Methods: A cross-sectional baseline survey involving adults (N = 404) with central obesity aged 18-64 years, as part of a community-based lifestyle intervention study. Respondents were systematically sampled using the International Diabetes Federation definition for MetS. Lifestyle characteristics, anthropometric, clinical and biochemical markers were measured and analyzed using SPSS. Results: High (87.2%) MetS prevalence associated with advanced age in males (p < 0.001) and females (p = 0.002) was observed. MetS was likely among divorced/separated/widowed (p = 0.021) and high income males (p = 0.002) and females (p = 0.017) with high income. Unemployed males (p = 0.008) and females with tertiary education (p = 0.019) were less likely to have MetS. Advanced age was likely to lead to high blood pressure, fasting blood glucose and triglycerides (p < 0.05). Males were more likely (p = 0.026) to have raised triglycerides, while females (p < 0.001) had low high density lipoproteins. Conclusion: A high prevalence of MetS associated with social and gender differences among Kenyan adults with central obesity. These underscore the need to look beyond the behavioral and biological risks and focus on every nuance of gender differences in addressing MetS and CVDs.
... The risk of HT became stronger when two or more relatives are affected [8][9][10][11]. Familial aggregation of HT may be caused by shared environmental factors, as well as common genetic backgrounds [11,12]. ...
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The aim of this study is to show the combined effect of weight gain within normal weight range in adulthood and parental HT on the prevalence of HT. The study subjects were 44,998 individuals (19,039 men and 25,959 women) with normal weight (body mass index [BMI] 18.5–24.9) aged 35–69 years who participated in the Japan Multi-Institutional Collaborative Cohort (J-MICC) Study. They were categorized into six groups by weight gain from age 20 years (<10 kg, and ≥10 kg) and by the number of parents having HT (no parent, one parent, and both parents). Odds ratios for HT were estimated after adjustment for age, sex, current BMI, estimated daily sodium intake, and other confounding factors. The prevalence of HT (31.5% in total subjects) gradually increased with greater weight gain from age 20 years and with greater number of parents with HT. Subjects who gained weight ≥10 kg and having both parents with HT showed the highest risk of having HT compared with those who gained weight <10 kg without parental HT (59.8% vs. 24.9%, odds ratio 4.25, 95% CI 3.53–5.13 after adjustment). This association was similarly observed in any category of age, sex, and BMI. Subjects who gained weight within normal range of BMI and having one or both parent(s) with HT showed the higher risk of having HT independent of their attained BMI in their middle ages. Thus, subjects having parent(s) with HT should avoid gaining their weight during adulthood, even within normal range of BMI, to reduce the risk of having HT.
... [27] Positive family history for chronic diseases is amenable to direct therapeutic intervention yet it remains important for risk stratification [7] as evidenced by our study highlighting early cardiovascular aging with risk of positive family history. There is complex interaction between genetic, environmental, and abnormal behavioral factors [28] in FDRs of HT which can be targeted for prevention. A recent study [29] has shown that cardiovascular risk factors are significantly higher in prediabetic than normal FDRs of diabetics with age group same as our study. ...
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Background First-degree relatives (FDRs) of hypertensive (HT) are predisposed to hypertension (HTN) which accelerates cardiovascular aging. Same can be studied noninvasively by pulse wave analysis (PWA), encompassing central hemodynamics such as central blood pressure (cBP), cardiac output, and stroke work (SW) and vascular stiffness parameters such as pulse wave velocity (PWV) and augmentation index at HR 75 (AIx@75). We studied PWA-derived cardiovascular parameters in FDRs of HT compared to controls. Materials and Methods We conducted a case–control study in 119 FDRs of HT and 119 matched controls. Oscillometric PWA was performed by Mobil-o-Graph (IEM, Germany) and cardiovascular parameters were compared. P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results Groups were comparable with gender, age, height, weight, body mass index, and physical activity. FDRs of HT had significantly higher brachial and cBPs, SW (101.41 ± 25.44 vs. 88.31 ± 20.25, P = 0.001), rate pressure product-119.40 ± 25.34 vs. 108.34 ± 18.17, P < 0.0001), PWV (5.22 ± 0.46, P < 0.0001), and AIx@75 (31.48 ± 9.01 vs. 27.95 ± 9.4, P = 0.002) than control. Dependent study variables correlated with brachial blood pressure more in magnitude and significance level than age or anthropometric variables. PWA results of FDR with maternal inheritance did not differ significantly from those with paternal inheritance. Conclusion PWA reveals early cardiovascular aging in young FDRs of HTs. It clues to future cardiovascular disease including HTN itself, need for primary prevention, and further study for consolidation of these results.
... Basic anthropometric measurements (weight, height, waist circumference and hip circumference) and their derived indices (Body mass index, waist-hip ratio and waist-height ratio) are used as indicators for the presence of diseases and their assessment in clinical practice. 21 BMI is often used to reflect total body fat amounts, whereas the waist circumference (WC), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) and waist-to-height ratio (WHR) are used as surrogates for intra-abdominal adiposity. 22,23 Results received so far also show neck circumference to be an innovative and additional parameter to determine the distribution of body fat, which is associated with visceral fat and obesity. ...
Article
Background: Overweight and obesity are shown to be independent risk factors for hypertension by several epidemiological studies. A practical, inexpensive and easily performed method for evaluation of body fat is anthropometry. Hence the present study was undertaken to explore association between anthropometric indices and blood pressure and determine efficacy of neck circumference to identify overweight subjects and define NC cutoff levels for overweight and obesity.Methods: Cross sectional, comparative study conducted on apparently healthy medical college students, 150 having parental history of hypertension and 150 without a parental history of hypertension. Height, weight, waist circumference, hip circumference, neck circumference, body mass index, waist-hip ratio, waist- height ratio, and blood pressure were measured. Data was analyzed using SPSS version 20.Results: Prevalence of pre-hypertension is 42.33%. 54.33% pre-hypertensive subjects had family history of hypertension but there is no statistically significant association between family history of hypertension and pre-hypertension. Neck circumference correlated with BMI, WC, W/H ratio (p<0.05) indicating that NC could be a useful screening tool. NC cutoff values determining overweight & obesity in this study is >33.30 cm in females and >37.15 cm in males. 61.76% and 38.98% pre-hypertensive males and females respectively have BMI above 25Kg/m² in comparison to 19.51% normotensive males and 20.88% normotensive females.Conclusions: Study reveals development of hypertension is attributable to overweight and obesity and no statistically significant relationship has been established between family history of hypertension and risk for developing hypertension. NC>37.15cm for males and >33.30 cm for females was the best cut off levels for determining overweight/obese subjects.
... Family history of chronic disease offers valuable genomic information and environmental risk factors [46]. Family members or biological relatives share their genetic information as well their behavior, belief, lifestyle, culture, and physical environment [47]. The current study demonstrated that women with a positive history of chronic disease had significantly higher rates of both types of obesity and greater mean WC compared to women who had a negative family history of chronic diseases. ...
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Metabolic Syndrome (MetS) is related to the increased risk of non-communicable diseases (NCDs). Teacher profession is an adult group with various risks of NCDs. This study aims to assess the determinants of the MetS in teachers with central obesity. Material and Methods: The study was conducted in Makassar, South Sulawesi, Indonesia with cross- sectional study design on 12 secondary schools. The number of samples in this study was 129 teachers. The prevalence of the MetS was determined using criteria from the Joint Interim Statement, while physical activity and sitting time were measured using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ). Results: Respondents in our study were mostly women (78.3%) with an average age of 49.8 years. The prevalence of the MetS in our study population was 39.5%. The prevalence of the Mets was higher in Buginese ethnic (70.6%), respondents with more income (56.9%), bachelor degree (80.4%), married (98%), family history of diabetes mellitus, obesity, hypertension and heart diseases (52.9%), and moderate physical activity (37.3%). There was a significant relationship between sitting time 4 hours; p=0.004), parameters of Mets (p<0.001), LDL (p=0.026), and LDL/HDL ratio (p<0.001) with the Mets. Conclusions: The prevalence of the Mets is high among obese teachers in our study population. Sitting time was an important determinant for MetS among obese teachers.
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Introduction: Obesity and diabetes are related disease with genetics, environmental and dietary factors implicated in there genesis. Basic anthropometric measeurements are use as indicators for the presence of these diseases. Derived measurements from these basic measures are being use more frequently with some of the basic ones at the verge of been discarded as assessment in clinical practice. The study assesses the correlations between the basic and the derived measurement in Type 2 Diabetic subjects.
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Background: A high waist-to-hip ratio is associated with unfavorable cardiovascular disease risk factors. This could be due to either a relatively large waist or a small hip girth. Objective: We sought to define the separate contributions of waist girth, hip girth, and body mass index (BMI) to measures of body composition, fat distribution, and cardiovascular disease risk factors. Design: Three-hundred thirteen men and 382 women living in the greater Quebec City area were involved in this cross-sectional study. Percentage body fat, anthropometric measurements, and abdominal fat distribution were obtained and BMI (in kg/m2) and waist-to-hip ratio were calculated. Serum blood lipids were determined from blood samples collected after subjects had fasted overnight Results: A large waist circumference in men and women (adjusted for age, BMI, and hip circumference) was associated significantly with low HDL-cholesterol concentrations (P < 0.05) and high fasting triacylglycerol, insulin, and glucose concentrations (P < 0.01). In women alone, a large waist circumference was also associated with high LDL-cholesterol concentrations and blood pressure. A narrow hip circumference (adjusted for age, BMI, and waist circumference) was associated with low HDL-cholesterol and high glucose concentrations in men (P < 0.05) and high triacylglycerol and insulin concentrations in men and women (P < 0.05). Waist and hip girths showed different relations to body fat, fat-free mass, and visceral fat accumulation. Conclusions: Waist and hip circumferences measure different aspects of body composition and fat distribution and have independent and often opposite effects on cardiovascular disease risk factors. A narrow waist and large hips may both protect against cardiovascular disease. These specific effects of each girth measure are poorly captured in the waist-to-hip ratio.
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This systematic review aimed to evaluate, within unselected populations: Question 1 (Q1) key elements of family history (FH) which usefully predict subsequent disease; Question 2 (Q2) the accuracy of reporting FH; Question 3 (Q3) the impact of FH-based risk information on the uptake of preventive interventions; Question 4 (Q4) the potential for harms associated with collecting cancer FH; Question 5 (Q5) factors that facilitate or hinder the collection of family history; and, Question 6 (Q6) future directions. MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, Cochrane Controlled Trial Register (CCTR), and PsycINFO were searched from 1995 to March 2, 2009 inclusive. Standard systematic review methodology was employed. Eligibility criteria varied by question, but overall, specified studies reported in English, excluded qualitative designs, and limited populations to those unselected for pre-existing risk (except for Q2). Study designs and outcomes varied by research question. One hundred and thirty-seven publications were eligible in total for this review. Q1: Key elements of FH: Eighty-nine studies were eligible for this question of which 59 reported FH and data on subsequent or current disease in subjects. The varied definitions of positive FH were consistently associated with elevated relative risks, but their value in predicting future risk or detecting current disease was difficult to assess without considering further information on other risk factors or the available preventive interventions. Q2: Accuracy of FH Reporting. Thirty-seven studies evaluated accuracy and showed relatively high specificity and low sensitivity across all disease categories. Q3: Uptake of preventive interventions. Two studies evaluated the impact of FH-based risk and the evidence was insufficient to establish any effect on change in clinical preventive behavior or uptake of interventions. Q4: Harms of FH taking. Three studies evaluated the impact of FH-based risk information on psychological outcomes and indicated no evidence of significant harm.Q5: Factors affecting FH collection: The evidence base for addressing Q5 is heterogeneous and limited to six studies exploring the association between various factors and family history reporting, documentation and discussion. Our review indicates: (Q1) Many FH definitions showed low discriminatory accuracy in predicting disease risk in individuals but further research is warranted; (Q2) accuracy of reporting is higher for relatives without, than those affected by, a given disease; (Q3) there is insufficient evidence to assess the effect of FH-based risk assessment on preventive behaviors; (Q4) there is limited evidence to assess whether the provision of FH-based personalized risk assessment results in adverse outcomes; (Q5) there is little evidence on factors affecting FH reporting and collection in primary care.
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To identify which of the three simple anthropometric indices, body mass index (BMI), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) and waist circumference (WC), best predicts cardiovascular risk factors, and to determine if the association between the anthropometric indices and cardiovascular risk factors varies with gender. A cross-sectional population-based survey was carried out during 1995-1996. One thousand and ten Chinese people (500 men and 510 women) aged 25-74 y were recruited as subjects for the study. Metabolic profiles and anthropometric indices were measured. Partial correlation and co-variance analyses showed that WC exhibited the highest degree of association with almost all of the studied metabolic profiles for both men and women. We observed significant gender differences in the association between central or general obesity with cardiovascular risk factors. BMI had an independent and significant association with metabolic risks in men, but not in women, whereas WHR was more strongly correlated with metabolic risks for women than for men. Logistic regression analysis further confirmed the magnitude of the association between the obesity indices and metabolic risks. Among the studied metabolic variables, serum insulin showed the highest degree of association with the obesity indices, followed by plasma glucose, triglyceride, HDL and blood pressure. Total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol had a small but significant correlation with obesity. No threshold values in the relation between either the anthropometric indices and metabolic values, or with hypertension, diabetes and dislipidemia were observed. The association of central or general obesity and metabolic syndrome varied with gender. In addition, the useful anthropometric predictors for cardiovascular risk factors were BMI and WC for men, and WC and WHR for women.
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Obesity is associated with various cardiovascular risk factors. The body mass index (BMI) is the standard measure of overweight and obesity. However, more recently, waist to hip ratio (WHR) or waist circumference (WC) as more sensitive measures for visceral obesity have been proposed to be more indicative of cardiovascular risk. This study was performed to test the predictive value of anthropometric parameters for the presence of several cardiovascular risk conditions. The DETECT (Diabetes Cardiovascular Risk-Evaluation: Targets and Essential Data for Commitment of Treatment) study is a cross-sectional, clinical-epidemiological study. We studied 5377 unselected subjects (2016 men, 3361 women) without arteriosclerotic disease, aged 20-79 yr, from the DETECT laboratory sample. This study was conducted by primary care physicians. We measured anthropometric parameters and assessed cardiovascular risk by clinical examination, patient history, and a standardized laboratory program. We assessed the associations of BMI, WC, hip circumference, WHR, and waist to height ratio (WHtR) to cardiovascular risk by calculating the area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve and adjusted odds ratios for metabolic syndrome, dyslipidemia, and type 2 diabetes. The area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve for WHtR was significantly higher than for all other anthropometric parameters with respect to all risk conditions in women and to dyslipidemia and type 2 diabetes in men. The odds ratios for the presence of risk conditions with 1 sd increase of each anthropometric parameter were highest for WHtR or WC. There are some indications that WHtR or WC may predict prevalent cardiovascular risk better than BMI or WHR, even though the differences are small.
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India has a high prevalence of diabetes mellitus and the numbers are increasing at an alarming rate. In India alone, diabetes is expected to increase from 40.6 million in 2006 to 79.4 million by 2030. Studies have shown that the prevalence of diabetes in urban Indian adults is about 12.1%, the onset of which is about a decade earlier than their western counterparts and the prevalence of Type 2 diabetes is 4-6 times higher in urban than in rural areas. The risk factors peculiar for developing diabetes among Indians include high familial aggregation, central obesity, insulin resistance and life style changes due to urbanization. Screening for gestational diabetes and impaired glucose tolerance among pregnant women provides a scope for primary prevention of the disease in mothers as well as in their children. The problems of obesity and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) (important predisposing factors) are not confined to adults alone but children are also increasingly getting affected. Most long standing macro and micro vascular complications are also more common among Indian diabetics as compared to other races and ethnic groups. A strong familial clustering of diabetic nephropathy among Indian Type 2 diabetics has also been noted. Clustering of cardiovascular risk factor like Syndrome X is common among urban Indians. The rising incidence of diabetes and its complications are going to pose a grave health care burden on our country. Timely effective interventions/measures and screening tests for complications at the time of diagnosis becomes imperative not only for early detection, but also to prevent progression to end stage disease. Screening for gestational diabetes among pregnant women would also go a long way in primary prevention of the disease. Life style changes/ interventions and drugs like rosiglitazone are the current strategies that can prevent and/or delay the onset of diabetes. Simple interventional strategies like "Eat less, Eat on time and Walk more" can go a long way in preventing these chronic disorders among present as well as in the future generations.
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In adults, visceral fat accumulation is an important indicator for cardiovascular disease risk. This relationship is not fully understood in children. To determine the best predictor of cardiovascular disease risk factors among anthropometric indices such as body mass index (BMI), percent body fat (%Fat), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), waist circumference, and waist-to-height ratio (W/Ht ratio) in Japanese schoolchildren. This study included 880 children (447 boys and 433 girls), 9-13y of age. Dependent variables were total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDLC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDLC), atherogenic index (AI), life style related disease prevention score, and systolic (SBP) and diastolic (DBP) blood pressure. The strongest correlation was found between W/Ht ratio and the score by Pearson's correlation analysis. Multiple regression analysis showed that significant independent correlates for the score included W/Ht ratio and %Fat. Among the anthropometric indices, W/Ht ratio was the most significant predictor for TC, TG, LDLC, AI, and the score. W/Ht ratio is the best predictor of cardiovascular risk factors in Japanese schoolchildren. We propose using W/Ht ratio for detecting cardiovascular disease risk in children.
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The normal body mass index (BMI) range, as defined by the World Health Organization (WHO), is quite wide, and some people within this range may have excessive central fat accumulation and elevated metabolic risks. We hypothesize that the waist-to-height ratio (W/Ht), an effective index for assessing central fat distribution among Japanese people, can be used to identify subjects who are at higher metabolic risk within the normal as well as the overweight range. We investigated: (1). the values of BMI, waist circumference, and W/Ht in 6141 men and 2137 women at various age intervals and calculated gender (female to male) ratios for all these anthropometric indices; (2). the relation between age and each anthropometric index, between age and morbidity index for coronary risk factors (sum of the scores for hyperglycemia, hypertension, hypertriglyceridemia, hypercholesterolemia, and low HDL cholesterol; one point for each condition if present), and between morbidity index for coronary risk factors and each anthropometric index; (3). the distributions of the subjects, using various proposed indices of waist circumference (those suggested by WHO, the Japan Society for the Study of Obesity, and the Asia-Pacific perspective), and our proposed boundary value, W/Ht 0.5, among the WHO categories based on BMI; (4). the metabolic risks (coronary risk factors, hyperuricemia, high gamma-glutamyltransferase, and fatty liver diagnosed by ultrasonography), and exercise habits among normal-weight subjects with W/Ht<0.5 or >or=0.5. (1). For the various anthropometric indices in all age groups, the gender ratio for W/Ht was closest to 1, indicating that a single set of values for W/Ht can be used for men and women. (2). Height correlated negatively with age. Among the anthropometric indices, only W/Ht correlated positively with age for both men and women, while age and all anthropometric indices, except height, correlated positively with the morbidity index for coronary risk factors. For both men and women, the highest correlation coefficient was between W/Ht and the morbidity index for coronary risk factors. (3). Nearly all overweight men and women (BMI>or=25) had W/Ht>or=0.5 (98.5% of men and 97.5% of women). None of the underweight subjects had W/Ht>or=0.5. However, 45.5% of men and 28.3% of women of normal weight (BMI 18.5-<25) had W/Ht>or=0.5. W/Ht, of all the indices investigated, was the best index for signaling metabolic risk in the normal-weight subjects as well as the overweight subjects. (4). Age- and BMI-adjusted odds ratios for multiple metabolic risks, and history of no habitual exercise were significantly higher in normal-weight men and women with W/Ht>or=0.5 than in others of normal weight. Waist circumference is improved by relating it to height to categorized fat distribution of different genders and ages. W/Ht is a simple and practical anthropometric index to identify higher metabolic risks in normal and overweight Japanese men and women.
Epidemiology of Non-communicable Diseases and National Health Programme
  • S Lal
  • Pankaj Adarsh
Lal S, Adarsh, Pankaj, editors. Epidemiology of Non-communicable Diseases and National Health Programme. In: Text book of Community Medicine (Preventive & Social Medicine).Ist ed.New Delhi:CBS Publishers and Distributors.2007;493-503.