Article

The influence of handheld mobile phones on human parotid gland secretion

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Abstract

Handheld mobile phones (MPHs) have become a 'cultural' accessory device, no less so than a wrist watch. Nevertheless, the use of MPHs has given rise to great concern because of possible adverse health effects from exposure to the radiofrequency radiation (RFR) emitted by the device. Previous studies suggested correlation between MPH and salivary gland tumors. To evaluate whether MPH induces physiologic changes in the adjacent parotid gland, located on the dominant side, in terms of secretion rates and protein levels in the secreted saliva. Stimulated parotid saliva was collected simultaneously from both glands in 50 healthy volunteers whose MPH use was on a dominant side of the head. A significantly higher saliva secretion rate was noticed in the dominant MPH side compared with that in the non-dominant side. Lower total protein concentration was obtained in the dominant compared with the non-dominant MPH side among the right dominant MPH users. Parotid glands adjacent to handheld MPH in use respond by elevated salivary rates and decreased protein secretion reflecting the continuous insult to the glands. This phenomenon should be revealed to the worldwide population and further exploration by means of large-scale longitudinal studies is warranted.

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... Electromagnetic radiation is a non-ionizing radiation which has thermal and non-thermal effects on biological systems [5,6]. There is great concern regarding the potential adverse health effects of heat and radiofrequency radiation produced from mobile phones [4,7]. ...
... Parotid gland is the largest salivary gland in the human body and located 4-10 mm deep to the skin surface in front of the ear and behind the ramus of the mandible [4]. Due to its location, parotid gland appears to be in considerable contact with mobile phones during their use [7]. It may be vulnerable to possible adverse effects of mobile phone use [4]. ...
... The amount of radiofrequency energy absorbed by the user into a body tissue is described as the specific absorption rate (SAR). It is indicated in W/kg or mW/g [7,21]. Hence, the SAR should be a key measure for biological effects [20]. ...
... Mobile phones emit RF waves and generate heat, leading to changes in the bodily functions. [2,6] Horowitz and Soskolne [9] stated that heat application in rats altered the weight and size of the salivary glands, indicating that structural changes occur in salivary glands due to heat production. We assume that thermal effects of mobile phones are the principle factor for causing ipsilateral decrease in salivary secretion. ...
... We assume that thermal effects of mobile phones are the principle factor for causing ipsilateral decrease in salivary secretion. [2] The acinar cells are dominant cells in serous secretion. Primarily they secrete isotonic primary saliva and then the striated duct cells actively extract ions to render the saliva hypotonic as it passes down the ducts toward the mouth. ...
... This was in accordance with the study conducted by Inoue et al., [14] the rationale being the smaller gland size in females. In our study, changes in salivary flow rate of the parotid gland were observed, which was in accordance with the results of the studies conducted by Goldwein and Aframian [2] and Bhargava et al. [2,6] They also observed that functional and volumetric changes induced in parotid glands are associated with excessive mobile phone use. ...
Article
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Aims and Objectives: To evaluate the effect of mobile phones on salivary flow rate and protein concentration in parotid saliva by comparing the dominant and non-dominant sides of prolonged mobile phone users. Materials and Methods: Parotid saliva was collected simultaneously from both the glands in 50 healthy volunteers by using sialographic cannula. The obtained results were statistically analyzed using paired t-test. Results: Salivary secretion rate was significantly less on the dominant side of mobile phone usage. There was no such significance in protein concentration on comparing the dominant side with the non-dominant side. Conclusion: It was concluded that there was a change in the functional activities of the parotid gland in prolonged mobile phone users.
... Mobile phones are known to generate heat and emit RFER in the form of nonionizing electromagnetic radiation in the range of 800 to 2200 MHz, similar to many home appliances. 26,27 But the long duration of calls and the proximity of mobile phones to the body during use has given rise to concerns of possible adverse effects resulting from absorption of these emissions by tissues that are adjacent to where the phone is held. Thus, the objective of this study was to examine whether the use of mobile phones influences the nickel released from fixed orthodontic appliances in saliva. ...
... The effects of using mobile phones on the parotid glands have been studied by other researchers. 22,26,28 Heavy users of mobile phones demonstrated increased rates of salivary and blood flow, and greater volumes of the parotid glands. 28 The increase in salivary flow rate is known to have a diluting effect, mostly on salivary macromolecules and to a lesser extent on ions, since the ions diffuse relatively easily along with the watery secretions. ...
... This may contribute to the effect of mobile phone usage on the parotid glands and the properties of saliva, as other researchers have found. 22,26,28 Statistical analysis also showed significant differences between sex and nickel concentrations measured with different time intervals. This may be attributed to another statistical analysis in this study, which showed that mobile phone usage time in 1 week was significantly higher in women than in men. ...
Article
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields emitted by mobile phones on the level of nickel in saliva. Fifty healthy patients with fixed orthodontic appliances were asked not to use their cell phones for a week, and their saliva samples were taken at the end of the week (control group). The patients recorded their time of mobile phone usage during the next week and returned for a second saliva collection (experimental group). Samples at both times were taken between 8:00 and 10:00 pm, and the nickel levels were measured. Two-tailed paired-samples t test, linear regression, independent t test, and 1-way analysis of variance were used for data analysis. The 2-tailed paired-samples t test showed significant differences between the levels of nickel in the control and experimental groups (t [49] = 9.967; P <0.001). The linear regression test showed a significant relationship between mobile phone usage time and the nickel release (F [1, 48] = 60.263; P <0.001; R(2) = 0.577). Mobile phone usage has a time-dependent influence on the concentration of nickel in the saliva of patients with orthodontic appliances. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
... The rapid emergence of mobile technology caused enormous changes in day to day lifestyle of individuals. [1] Mobile phones are the most efficient and convenient way of hand held communication tool which is considered to be the most important form of wireless communication which is essential for work and social life in the emerging fast-paced modern society. [2] It has been predicted that the average annual growth rate of 1.9% of mobile phone users will increase between the time span of 2018 and 2025, where the mobile subscribers will reach to 5.8 billion counting 71% of the world population. ...
... [2] In regard to the potential adverse outcome and its effects on the physiologic, structural, functional and carcinogenicity, various contradicting literature do exists, stating two different outcomes. Few studies suggest and state the association exists between mobile phone use and its Studies done by Goldwein and Aframian 2010, [1] Bhargava et al. 2012, [12] Hamzany et al. 2013, [13] Abu Khadra et al. 2014, [6] Hashemipour et al. 2014, [8] Aydogan et al. 2015, [14] Siqueira et al., 2016, [15] Singh et al., 2016, [16] Ghoneim et al. 2016, [11] Ranjitha et al. 2017 [17] showed a difference in salivary flow rate, volumetric, and histopathologic changes of the salivary gland, alteration in protein concentration, and composition of the saliva after exposing to mobile phone radiation. ...
... [6] Bhargava et al., Hashemipour et al., and Goldwein and Aframian described that there was a raise in the temperature of the adjacent tissues in direct contact to that of mobile phones due to continuous and prolonged use, the study concluded stating long-term use of mobile phones increases the blood flow in accordance with the salivary flow and also the volume of parotid gland. [1,8,12] The main reason for the increase in the perfusion and flow rate of the saliva is consider due to the heavy heat exposure transmitted from the mobile phone to the underlying tissues, in turn leads to the increased capillary blood flow affects the parotid gland that is situated adjacent to it. Another reason for the increased flow rate is an increased parasympathetic tone and reduced sympathetic tone. ...
... However, two studies have suggested a possible association of increased incidence of cancer in the glands of the neck region and the high increase of cell phone users (Duan et al., 2011;Sadetzki et al., 2008). In another study, parotid glands responded by elevated salivary rates and decreased protein secretion reflecting the continuous insult to the glands (Goldwein and Aframian, 2010). More recently, Bhargava et al. (2012) reported functional and volumetric changes in the parotid glands associated with cell phone use. ...
... It plays an important role in maintaining oral homeostasis and could constitute a first line of defense against free radical-mediated oxidative stress (Mandel, 1989). Antioxidant activity and oxidative stress indices were used indirectly to assess the adverse health effects of cell phone use (Bhargava et al., 2012;Goldwein and Aframian, 2010). Saliva being noninvasive and easy to collect can be used to assess the oxidative/antioxidative status of cells in persons acutely exposed to cell phone radiation. ...
... This study has shown that exposure to RF-EMR with frequency 1800 MHz had no significant effect on the levels of saliva protein. This finding confirms the results of Goldwein and Aframian (2010) who found no correlation between the number of years of cell phone use and protein concentration or between daily cell phone time use and protein concentration. It should be pointed out that all persons involved in our study used their right ears. ...
Article
Abstract Hazardous health effects resulting from exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation (RF-EMR) emitted from cell phones have been reported in the literature. However, the cellular and molecular targets of RF-EMR are still controversial. The aim of this study was to examine the oxidant/antioxidant status in saliva of cell phone users. Saliva samples collected before using a cell phone as well as at the end of 15 and 30 min calls were tested for two commonly used oxidative stress biomarkers: malondialdehyde (MDA) and 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-Oxo-dG). The 8-oxo-dG levels were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent (ELISA) competitive assay, while the MDA levels were measured using the OxiSelect MDA adduct ELISA Kit. The antioxidant capacity of the saliva was evaluated using the oxygen radical absorption capacity (ORAC) and the hydroxyl radical averting capacity (HORAC) assays according to the manufacture instructions. The mean 8-oxo-dG and the Bradford protein concentrations (ng/ml and mg/ml, respectively) peaked at 15 min. The levels of HORAC, ORAC and MDA progressively increased with time and reached maximum at 30 min. However, there was no significant effect of talking time on the levels of 8-OxodG and MDA. Similarly, there was no statistically significant effect of talking time on the oxygen and hydroxyl radicals averting capacities, (ORAC) and (HORAC), respectively. These findings suggest that there is no relationship between exposure to radio frequency radiation (RFR) and changes in the salivary oxidant/antioxidant profile.
... Mobile phones have been increasingly used in the past decade and have become a cultural instrument (1,2). There is a great concern over harmful effects of electromagnetic and radiofrequency waves as well as microwaves generated by mobile phones and their telecommunication stations on the health (2). ...
... People who live near telecommunication stations covering mobile phones have higher level of cortisol and alpha amylase than those in control group, but their salivary IgA has not been affected (2). Parotid glands are the biggest salivary glands located in front of ear and behind ramus which produce maximum amount of saliva (1,6). However, the effect of mobile phone on the salivary glands has not been clarified well. ...
... The previous studies have examined potential impact of mobile phone use on the salivary gland tumor; however, there is few studies investigating the effect of this device on the saliva components. Total salivary protein in the people using mobile phone is less than that in other people (1). Considering the major protective role of antioxidant and its prevention from different cancers such as oral cancer and due to limited studies conducted in this field, the present investigation was carried out aiming to examine the effects of usage time of mobile phone on salivary antioxidant level. ...
Article
Full-text available
Nowadays mobile phone is very popular, causing concern about the effect it has on people's health. Parotid salivary glands are in close contact to cell phone while talking with the phone and the possibility of being affected by them. Limited studies have evaluated the effect of cell phone use on the secretions of these glands; so this study was designed to investigate the effects of duration of mobile phone use on the total antioxidant capacity of saliva. Unstimulated saliva from 105 volunteers without oral lesions collected. The volunteers based on daily usage of mobile phones were divided into three groups then total antioxidant capacity of saliva was measured by Ferric Reducing Ability of Plasma (FRAP) method. Data were analyzed by SPSS software version 19. ANOVA was used to compare 3 groups and post-hoc Tukey test to compare between two groups. Average total antioxidant capacities of saliva in 3 groups were 657.91 µmol/lit, 726.77 µm/lit and 560.17 µmol/lit, respectively. The two groups had statistically significant different (P = 0.039). Over an hour talking with a cell phone decreases total antioxidant capacity of saliva in comparison with talking less than twenty minutes.
... Increase in the parotid gland volume in the dominant side than the nondominant side of mobile phone usage concurred with the findings of earlier studies. [12,13] The secretory parenchymal tissue expand due to the thermal effect of mobile phones. Such expansion of the rest of the parotid parenchyma could be the reason for increased volume in the side of mobile phone usage. ...
... The salivary fl ow rate fi ndings of the present study were similar to earlier studies conducted, [12,13,17] but contradictory to the fi ndings of one study which stated that the salivary secretion rate was decreased on dominant side of mobile phone usage. [18] The heating of biological tissue is a result of microwave energy absorption by the water content of the tissues. ...
... Another rationale for increased salivary fl ow rate from the dominant MPH side is because of thermal effect which may also attribute to secretory parenchymal tissue expansion, which in turn also causes increase in the parotid gland volume on the dominant side of mobile phone use. [12] The findings of protein concentration are more on the dominant side of mobile phone usage with a signifi cant difference, similar to a study done earlier, which stated that parotid gland salivary concentrations of protein were signifi cantly higher on the right side compared to the left in those that predominantly held mobile phones on the right side. [17] Salivary secretion is regulated by the autonomic parasympathetic and sympathetic nervous system. ...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction: Mobile phones generate heat and radiofrequency radiation. The parotid gland is one potential target, because mobile phones are pressed against the side of the face where the gland is located. Aims and Objectives: To compare the effect of mobile phone radiation on parotid gland volume, systolic velocity, salivary flow rate, and protein concentration between the dominant and the nondominant side of mobile phone usage among heavy mobile phone users. Materials and Methods: Ultrasonography of the superior lobe of parotid was performed bilaterally to measure gland volume. Systolic velocity of the external carotid artery in gland was calculated bilaterally using color Doppler imaging. Saliva flow rate was measured bilaterally with modified Schrimer strip. Carlson-Crittenden device was used to collect 0.5 ml saliva sample from the duct and biuret assay was done to determine the protein concentration. Settings and Design: A cohort study was conducted with 50 undergraduate students of a dental college based on the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Statistical Analysis Used: Pearson correlation test was used to correlate and compare changes in the parameters of parotid gland and analyzed to a significant level of 0.05. Results: The volume, systolic velocity of blood flow of the external carotid artery, the salivary flow rate, and protein concentration of the parotid gland were significantly more by 11.9, 18, 23, and 8%, respectively, on the dominant side than the nondominant side of mobile phone usage. Conclusion: The study emphasized that prolonged mobile phone usage causes biological changes in parotid gland.
... The alterations in cytokine profile in saliva may be due to heating effects of nonionizing radiation [19]. Aframian DJ and found increased salivary flow rate, blood flow rate, and volume of parotid glands in heavy cell phone users [25,26,30]. The radiofrequency radiations of the mobile phones are a type of microwave energy which may be absorbed by the water contained in the adjacent tissues and thus raise their temperature [30]. ...
... Aframian DJ and found increased salivary flow rate, blood flow rate, and volume of parotid glands in heavy cell phone users [25,26,30]. The radiofrequency radiations of the mobile phones are a type of microwave energy which may be absorbed by the water contained in the adjacent tissues and thus raise their temperature [30]. Extensive exposure to heat due to cell phone increases the capillary blood flow adjacent to the parotid glands and result in an increase of perfusion and increase in the salivary flow rate. ...
... Goldwein O and Aframian DJ. [30] Human study Mobile phone induced physiologic changes in the parotid gland was studied. ...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction: The widespread use of cell phone in recent years has raised many questions whether their use is safe to operator who is exposed to Electromagnetic Waves (EMV). Aim: To find out the effect of cell phone emitted radiations on the orofacial structures. Materials and Methods: To identify suitable literature, an electronic search was performed using Medline, Pubmed and EBSCO host database in December 2016. The search was focused on effect of cell phone on orofacial structures. Among the literature available in English, the screening of the related titles and abstracts was done, and only those articles were selected for full text reading that fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Results: The initial literature search resulted in 360 articles out of which only 24 articles fulfilled the inclusion criteria and were included in this systematic review. Conclusion: Cell phone emitted radiations had their adverse effect on salivary glands and facial nerves. Studies showed that cell phone emitted radiations had effects on oral mucosal cells and causes changes in salivary flow rate. It was still unclear that cell phone radiations cause tumours of the salivary glands. Keywords: Non ionizing radiations, Oral cavity, Salivary gland, Tumour
... As of now, there are around 6 billion individuals own cell phones at all ages of life down to children 3 years old (7). About 79% of Americans and 90% of European and Asian teens are using cell phones (8,9). The sales of cell phones are quickly increasing in Malaysia since 2014 with expected chance for more future growth (10). ...
... Section I included items to collect demographic information. In section II, 19 items were provided, referring to the following dimensions: perceived usefulness (PU) of M-learning (items 11,12,13,20), ease of use (EOU) of M-learning (items 7, 8,9,15), availability of resources (R) to use M-learning (items 10,14,16,17), behavioral intention (BI) to adopt M-learning (items 22,23,24,25), and attitude (A) towards mobile learning (items 18,19,21). The opinions of the respondents were rated using 5-point Likert scales. ...
Article
Introduction: The twenty-first-century learning is adopting the student-centered learning techniques and the teachers are mainly facilitators to direct the process of learning and so social media and mobile applications became an important learning platform. Mobile learning (M-learning) is the practice of learning activities through a portable device such as cellular phone or a personal digital assistant. The aim of this research is to screen the medical stu-dents' intention toward the adoption of M-learning and to determine factors affecting the intentions of the medical students to practice M-learning. Methods: A cross-sectional study among medical students was performed through a questionnaire based on the Theory of Reasoned Action and the Technology Acceptance Model. The study included 129 students in different stages of the medical study. Results: Results showed that the factors affecting the students' inten¬tion to practice M-learning include the students' attitude, perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, and availability of resources. In the current sample 82.7% of students are already using M-Learning; 41.7% are using it for assessment, 22.8% are using it for learning and 35.5% are using it for both. Conclusion: It was concluded that most medical students have higher intention to adopt M-learning and they are mostly using it for assessment purposes rather than in learning.
... However, as the time of mobile phone use exceeds 1 hour, the salivary flow will increase too. In the study of Goldwein and Aframian (2010), they documented that salivary flow rate was increased in mobile phone users, when the mobile phone use was increased over years, salivary flow was increased too. More recently, Mishra et al. [28] documented that the salivary flow rate is increased and there is alteration of the cytokine expression profile of the salivary gland in heavy cell phone users. ...
... More recently, Mishra et al. [28] documented that the salivary flow rate is increased and there is alteration of the cytokine expression profile of the salivary gland in heavy cell phone users. The reasons standing behind increase in the salivary flow rate were found to be similar to the reasons mentioned previously in the study Goldwein and Aframian (2010). They reported that radiations emitted from mobile phones are a type of microwave energy which absorbed by the water contained in cells and tissues and then lead to raise their temperature. ...
Preprint
Full-text available
The main objective was to determine the effect of mobile phone radiation on general health and electrolytes among students who use mobile phones. A questionnaire was designed and applied to 103 healthy and 36 deaf female students to select cases that meeting the inclusion criteria. For assessment of salivary parameters, the participants were classified into three groups. Group I was the control group, which included 17 deaf students. Group II was healthy students who have mobile phone for less than 5 years. Group III was healthy students who have mobile phone for 5 years or more. The results showed that the participants who use mobile phone had several problems in their health including dry mouth, bad odor from mouth, drooling of saliva, as well as ear and eye pain. The participants who use mobile phone complained of headache, anxiety and forgetfulness as compared to deaf participants. The study showed that there was no significant difference between pH and flow rate of saliva in all tested groups. This study has also shown that salivary level of Na+ and K+ were significantly lower in mobile phone users when compared to non users of mobile phone.
... Recent studies have mainly concentrated on the effect of mobile phone usage on the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system response, as measured using salivary flow rate and protein levels. [3][4][5] The usage of handheld mobile phones for a long duration has been shown to cause higher oxidative stress in the oral cavity, thus increasing the risk of inflammatory diseases and oral cancer. [6][7][8][9][10][11] This study aimed to observe the effects of the duration of handheld mobile phone usage on the salivary flow, salivary immunoglobulin A (IgA) level, and salivary markers for oxidative stress. ...
... The increase in salivary flow rate with the increase in the duration of mobile phone usage in Group B in comparison to Group A was in agreement with that observed by various studies. [3,4,[9][10][11] On the contrary, several other studies have noted a decrease in salivary flow rate with increased mobile phone usage. [5][6][7] The increase in salivary flow rate was attributed to the effects of mobile phone usage on the parasympathetic pathway, which controls the fluid component of saliva, [17] and to the heating effect of mobile phone-emitted RF-EMW causing increased blood flow in the salivary gland, leading to the increased salivary flow rate in mobile phone users with increased duration. ...
Article
Introduction: The objective of this study was to observe the effects of the duration of handheld mobile phone usage on the salivary flow, salivary immunoglobulin A (IgA) level, and salivary markers for oxidative stress. Materials and methods: Eighty-one students were categorized into three groups based on their duration of mobile phone usage after age- and gender-matching. Students were grouped as: mobile phone usage <20 min/day (Group A), mobile phone usage 20-60 min/day (Group B), and mobile phone usage >60 min/day (Group C). Saliva was collected to evaluate salivary flow rate, salivary IgA level, and salivary markers for oxidative stress. Results: The salivary flow rate showed no statistically significant difference between the three groups (P = 0.180). There was no statistically significant difference in the salivary IgA between the three groups (P = 0.237). There was a statistically significant difference in the malondialdehyde (MDA) level between the three groups (P = 0.042). On pair comparison between the groups, group B and group C had a statistically significant difference (P = 0.019) in the MDA level. There was no statistically significant difference in the salivary thiol level between the three groups (P = 0.237). Conclusion: The duration of handheld mobile phone usage did not show any significant effects on the salivary flow rate, salivary IgA, and thiol levels. There was an increase in the salivary MDA concentration in subjects using handheld mobile phones for a longer duration, indicating higher oxidative stress in salivary glands exposed to mobile phone radiofrequency electromagnetic waves for a longer duration.
... Saliva is a biological fluid that offers several opportunities in diagnosis, toxicology and in forensic science (Baum, 1993;de Almeida Pdel et al., 2008;Sathishkumar et al., 2010). It is rich in antioxidant biomarkers such as super oxide dismutase (SOD) cytochrome c, albumin, uric acid, 8-hydroxy-2 0deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG), 4-hydroxyalkenals, MDA, glutathione peroxidase GTH-Px, catalase (CAT), ascorbic acid and glutathione (de Almeida Pdel et al., 2008;Ergüder and Durak, 2006;Goldwein and Aframian, 2009;Moore et al., 1994;Ullmann et al., 2010). Little research has yet been conducted into the effects of RF fields of mobile phones on the constituents of human saliva. ...
... As presented in Figure 1, there was no significant effect of talking time on the levels of cytochrome c, uric acid and albumin. Contrary to the results published before (Goldwein and Aframian, 2009), which reported increased salivary secretion rate and decreased total protein concentration because of the hand-held mobile phone use, the current results indicate a significant increase in SOD activity, after talking continuously for a period of 15 to 30 min. The increase in antioxidant activity is an indication of cellular response to oxidative stress in order to protect cells from the non-thermal damage of RF exposure. ...
Article
Full-text available
Abstract The biochemical status in the saliva of 12 males before/after using mobile phone has been evaluated. Radio frequency signals of 1800 MHz (continuous wave transmission, 217 Hz modulate and Global System for Mobile Communications [GSM - non-DTX]) with 1.09 w/kg specific absorption rate (SAR) value were used for 15 and 30 min. Cell phone radiation induced a significant increase of superoxide dismutase (SOD); there was a statistically significant effect of talking time on the levels of SOD, F(2, 33) = 8.084, p < 0.05, ω = 0.53. The trend analysis suggests a significant quadratic trend, F(1, 33) = 4.891, p < 0.05; indicating that after 15 min of talking the levels of SOD increased, but as talking time increased the SOD activity started to drop. In contrast to this, there was no statistically significant effect of talking time on the level of salivary albumin, cytochrome c, catalase or uric acid. Results suggest that exposure to electromagnetic radiation may exert an oxidative stress on human cells as evidenced by the increase in the concentration of the superoxide radical anion released in the saliva of cell phone users.
... 27 As cellular phones are used in very close proximity with the maxillary and mandibular jaws, the cellular radiation affects the orofacial tissues and structures. [28][29][30][31][32][33][34][35][36][37][38][39][40][41][42][43] Implant could collect harmful EMV and cause challenge for the healing of bone around the dental implant during the healing phase. Hence, this animal study was undertaken to assess the effects of cell phone emitted radiations on the bone to implant osseointegration. ...
... 55 Study by Duan and colleagues reported that 40% EMRs produced by cell phones were taken up by head and hands. 51 Many studies were done on cell phone radiation and its effects on parotid glands, with increased salivary rates, decreased protein secretion, alterations in level of salivary interkleukin, salivary enzymes and malondialdehdye(MDA). 31,34,36,38,41,43 Various other studies were done on the effect of cell phone emitted radiations on implants, appliances and dental restorations and in such patients showed increased release of nickel ions, mercury, etc, due to more mobile phone use. 45,47,[55][56][57] The interaction of RF emitted from mobile phones is still a popular topic which has been continuing. ...
Article
Background and purpose: The increased use of cell phones has raised many questions as to whether their use is safe for patients with dental implants. This study aimed to assess the consequences of cell phone-emitted radiation on bone-to-implant osseointegration during the healing phase. Materials and methods: Twelve rabbits were grouped into three groups of four. Group 1 (control) was not exposed to electromagnetic radiation; group 2 (test) was exposed for 8 hours/day in speech mode and 16 hours/day in standby mode; and group 3 (test) was exposed for 24 hours continuously in standby mode for 3 months. Forty-eight implants were placed in tibia and femur bone of rabbits, and after 90 days the rabbits were sacrificed and bone surrounding the implant was retrieved. Histopathologic evaluations of the specimens were done using transmitted light microscope. The differences among the three groups were statistically analyzed with analysis of variance (ANOVA) and pairwise comparisons via Fisher's exact test. Results: Significantly less bone-to-implant contact and bone area surrounding implant threads were found in the test groups compared to the control group. There was a significant difference in regular bone formation (P < .001) among the three groups. Conclusion: Implants exposed to cell phone radiation showed more inflammatory reaction when compared to the nonexposed implants, thus indicating that cellular phone overuse could affect the maturation of bone and thus delay osseointegration.
... However, one study suggested association between cell phone use and the development of salivary gland tumor based on the elevated risk of developing benign and malignant parotid gland among mobile phone user [7]. In another study, parotid glands respond by elevated salivary rates and decreased protein secretion reflecting the continuous insult to the glands [8]. ...
... Saliva being non-invasive and easy to collect can be used to assess the oxidative/ antioxidative status of cells in persons acutely exposed to cell phone radiation. Antioxidant activity and oxidative stress indices were used indirectly to assess the adverse health effects of cell phone use [8], [9]. Biomarkers of oxidative stress can be measured in saliva and represent a promising diagnostic tool for many oral and systemic diseases [27]. ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
To investigate whether or not low intensity radio frequency electromagnetic field exposure (RF-EME) associated with cell phone use can affect human cells, the present study was carried out. Saliva samples collected before using a cell phone as well as at the end of 15 and 30 min calls were tested for two commonly used oxidative stress biomarkers. The 8-oxo-7, 8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxo-dG) levels were determined by enzyme linked immunosorbent (ELISA) competitive assay. The malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were measured using the OxiSelect MDA Adduct ELISA Kit. The antioxidant capacity of the saliva was evaluated using the oxygen radical absorption capacity (ORAC) and the hydroxyl radical averting capacity (HORAC) assays. The mean 8-oxodG and the Bradford protein concentrations (ng/ml and mg/ml, respectively) peaked at 15 min. The levels of HORAC, ORAC and MDA progressively increased with time and reached maximum at 30 min. All measured parameters were not significant when values before and after talking are compared indicating that serious changes in the salivary oxidant/antioxidant profile may not be strongly correlated with exposure to RF-EME.
... Currently, there are about 6 billion people own cell phones and the youngest users of a cell phone can be estimated as early as 3 years old (1). Statistics show that 79% of Americans and more than 90% of European and Asian teens are using cell phones (2,3). Recently students are showing an acceptance to adopt mobile learning (4). ...
... Despite better communication, these cell phones carry radiation exposure that may affect the health of individuals (6). Cell phones use electromagnetic, nonionizing radiation to send and receive information specifically radio-frequency (RF) waves and microwaves (2,7,8). Previous study reported the relationship between the cell phone usage and various side effects to the body such as headaches, dizziness, fatigue, a burning sensation, dry mouth, ear pain, sleep disturbance, anxiety and insomnia (9). ...
Article
Introduction: Cell phone is a device that has been used almost every day for all age groups. It connects everyone and everything around the world as it provides various social platforms. However, not many people realized that cell phone is a source of non-ionizing electromagnetic waves that can be associated with various physical effects. Therefore, the aim of this research is to identify the physical side effects associated with exposure to the electromagnetic waves emitted by cell phone use and to detect if these effects are associated with specific pattern of use. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on 166 participants randomly selected from university students. Results: showed that those suffering side effects associated with cell phone usage are usually using more than one cell phone (79%) since about 5-10 years (41.9%) for more than 5 hours daily (65.7%) for entertainment (34.3%) and making about 1-5 calls daily (41%) with average call duration 1-30 min (56.2%). 66.7% of them started using cell phone at age 7-12 years old, mostly handheld (61%), at their right side (40%), at all times of the day (64.8%). Most common side effects associated with cell phone usage include ear pain (52.4%), headache (79.5%), fatigue, anxiety or insomnia (57.8%), tremors and eye pain beside statistically significant (P<0.05) complain of dry mouth (56.6%) and/or bad odor mouth (46.4%). Conclusion: There is a specific pattern associated with occurrence of side effects due to cell phone use.
... Recently, a significant positive correlation between duration of mobile phone use and severity of neck pain has been demonstrated [2]. Parotid gland is the biggest salivary gland and its anatomic location, in front of ear and behind ramus, makes an ideal candidate for influence by exposure to mobile phones [3,4]. Increase in the parotid gland volume in the dominant side than the nondominant side of mobile phone usage concurred with the findings of earlier studies [3][4][5][6]. ...
... Parotid gland is the biggest salivary gland and its anatomic location, in front of ear and behind ramus, makes an ideal candidate for influence by exposure to mobile phones [3,4]. Increase in the parotid gland volume in the dominant side than the nondominant side of mobile phone usage concurred with the findings of earlier studies [3][4][5][6]. One study [7] reported an association between exposure to mobile phone radiation for more than 1 h daily and possible development of parotid tumor. ...
Article
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Objectives: This study investigated habits of mobile phone use, awareness on health effects of radiofrequency radiation (RFR) and modulation of selected inflammatory humoral markers; immunoglobulin A (IgA), interleukin-33 (IL-33) and myeloperoxidase (MPO) by mobile phone use among a sample of the Jordanian Yarmouk university students. Materials & Methods: One hundred volunteers (21.41±2.92 years) were randomly recruited and interviewed to fill questionnaire prior to collection of unstimulated saliva samples. Participants were divided into groups based on daily call time and history of phone use. The immunological response to RFR exposure was recorded by ELISA sandwich technique for quantitating the salivary levels of IgA. Salivary MPO ODs was measured by colorimetric assay. Results: It was revealed that participants were aware about mobile phone/radiation hazards as reflected by the notion that majority of them used precautionary measures and having a habit of putting mobile phone away from body to minimize unwanted effects. No significant correlations were observed between salivary IgA and MPO levels on one hand and intensity and duration mobile use on the other hand. Conclusions: The possibility that prolonged and frequent exposure to RFR from mobile phone use may cause damage in the immune system cannot be excluded.
... There are conflicting epidemiological data on the association between the cell phone use and the parotid tumorigenesis (7)(8)(9)(10). Notably, cell phone use was reportedly associated with increased salivary flow, total salivary protein concentration, blood flow rate, and volume of the exposed parotid glands (11,12). In a previous study, we could not show an association between cell phone use and alterations in salivary flow, total protein concentration, or salivary levels of p53 and p21 proteins, ROS, GSH, HSP70, HSP27, or IgA levels in the saliva (13). ...
... A convenience sample of 83 individuals was recruited, after signing informed consent terms and answering a questionnaire including detailed cell phone exposure and regular use. As inclusion criteria, these individuals had to report using the cell phone preferentially at one side of the head and free from any conditions that are known to alter saliva constituents such as drug abuse, chronic alcohol consumption or habitual smoking, systemic chronic diseases, past head or neck injury, trauma, pregnancy, and xerostomia (12). Saliva from both parotid glands from each participant, the parotis reportedly exposed to the cell phone (ipsilateral) and the contralateral parotid gland, was collected simultaneously using a parotid saliva collection semi-automated device, developed by us. ...
Article
Background: There is controversy on the effects of the non-ionizing radiation emitted by cell phones on cellular processes and the impact of such radiation exposure on health. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether cell phone use alters cytokine expression in the saliva produced by the parotid glands. Methods: Cytokine expression profile was determined by enzyme linked immuno sorbent assay (ELISA) in the saliva produced by the parotid glands in healthy volunteers, and correlated with self-reported cell phone use and laterality. Results: The following parameters were determined, in 83 Brazilian individuals in saliva produced by the parotid glands comparing the saliva from the gland exposed to cell phone radiation (ipsilateral) to that from the contralateral parotid: salivary flow, total protein concentration, interleukin 1 β (IL-1 β), interleukin 6 (IL-6), interleukin 10 (IL-10), interferon γ (IFN-γ), and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) salivary levels by ELISA. After multiple testing correction, decreased IL-10 and increased IL-1β salivary levels in the ipsilateral side compared with the contralateral side (P < 0.05) were detected. Subjects who used cell phones for more than 10 years presented higher differences between IL-10 levels in ipsilateral versus contralateral parotids (P = 0.0012). No difference was observed in any of the tested parameters in correlation with cell phone monthly usage in minutes. Conclusion: The exposure of parotid glands to cell phones can alter salivary IL-10 and IL-1β levels, consistent with a pro-inflammatory microenvironment that may be related to heat production.
... There is no work yet done directly on the lacrimal glands regarding the effect of mobile phone radiations on amount of secretion change and protein content but studies have been done on the salivary glands. [11][12][13] It has been found that the salivary secretions may decrease 11 or increase 13 or have no effect 12 and this was attributed to the effect on the autonomic nervous system In several studies, on the nervous system and brain, it has been postulated that the mobile phones affect the autonomic nervous system due to modulation of the circulatory system. 14,15 It was concluded that effect on sympathetic system is more as compared to the parasympathetic system 15 and others have postulated quite the opposite, that parasympathetic tone increases and sympathetic tone decreases during mobile phone use. ...
... There is no work yet done directly on the lacrimal glands regarding the effect of mobile phone radiations on amount of secretion change and protein content but studies have been done on the salivary glands. [11][12][13] It has been found that the salivary secretions may decrease 11 or increase 13 or have no effect 12 and this was attributed to the effect on the autonomic nervous system In several studies, on the nervous system and brain, it has been postulated that the mobile phones affect the autonomic nervous system due to modulation of the circulatory system. 14,15 It was concluded that effect on sympathetic system is more as compared to the parasympathetic system 15 and others have postulated quite the opposite, that parasympathetic tone increases and sympathetic tone decreases during mobile phone use. ...
Article
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: To find out the adverse effects of prolonged mobile phone radiation on the users’ eyes. : A convenience sample of 200 adults visiting our out-patient’s services with 20/20 vision was randomly recruited for this study. The ipsilateral eye on the preferred side during talking was considered as the preferred side and the other as non-preferred side. All participants underwent Schirmer’s test (S1T), Tear film break-up time (TBUT), central corneal thickness (CCT) and central macular thickness (CMT) measurements for comparison on both the sides. The approximate cumulative duration of the talk time (hours/day) while keeping the phone over the ear was recorded. : The mean age of participants was 25.1+5.4 years and 124 (62%) preferred to use the right ear for telephonic conversations. The TBUT (19 + 2.7 vs. 20 + 3 seconds), Schirmer’s (21.5 + 2.8 vs. 22.6 + 2.5 mm), p <0.001 for both and CCT (527 + 20 vs. 530 + 19µ) (p= 0.005) were significantly lower in the preferred side. Multivariable linear regression showed that speaking on the phone for longer periods lead to slightly lower ipsilateral TBUT (0.31 seconds lower TBUT with every 1-hour increment in talk time, 95%CI= -0.67 to 0.03 seconds, p=0.07)but not Schirmer’s values. : Mobile phone use affects the tear fluid dynamics (TBUT and S1T) and the corneal thickness of the eye. Thus, any of the radiations or thermal effect or both from the mobile phones can affect the eye and its structures. Further studies are needed to address these consequences.
... However, as the time of mobile phone use exceeds 1 hour, the salivary flow will increase too. In the study of Goldwein and Aframian (2010), they documented that salivary flow rate was increased in mobile phone users, when the mobile phone use was increased over years, salivary flow was increased too. More recently, Mishra et al. [28] documented that the salivary flow rate is increased and there is alteration of the cytokine expression profile ijb.ccsenet.org ...
... 11, No. 1; of the salivary gland in heavy cell phone users. The reasons standing behind increase in the salivary flow rate were found to be similar to the reasons mentioned previously in the study Goldwein and Aframian (2010). They reported that radiations emitted from mobile phones are a type of microwave energy which absorbed by the water contained in cells and tissues and then lead to raise their temperature. ...
Article
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The main objective was to determine the effect of mobile phone radiation on general health and electrolytes among students who use mobile phones. A questionnaire was designed and applied to 103 healthy and 36 deaf female students to select cases that meeting the inclusion criteria. For assessment of salivary parameters, the participants were classified into three groups. Group I was the control group, which included 17 deaf students. Group II was healthy students who have mobile phone for less than 5 years. Group III was healthy students who have mobile phone for 5 years or more. The results showed that the participants who use mobile phone had several problems in their health including dry mouth, bad odor from mouth, drooling of saliva, as well as ear and eye pain. The participants who use mobile phone complained of headache, anxiety and forgetfulness as compared to deaf participants. The study showed that there was no significant difference between pH and flow rate of saliva in all tested groups. This study has also shown that salivary level of Na+ and K+ were significantly lower in mobile phone users when compared to non-users of mobile phone.
... Mobile phones are known to generate heat and emit RFER in the form of non-ionizing electromagnetic radiations in the range of 800-2200 MHz 4,5 . The objective of the study was to examine whether the use of mobile phones influences the nickel released from fixed orthodontic appliances in saliva. ...
Article
The aim of the study was to evaluate effect of Radiofrequency Electromagnetic Radiation (RER) emitted by mobile phones on levels of nickel in saliva in patients with fixed orthodontic appliances. Before and after non randomized trial with control group on 54 assessed antagonist effects of mobile. This study was carried out in Department of Orthodontics, Modern Dental College and Research Centre, Indore, M.P., India. Subjects which were not undergoing orthodontic treatment were selected. Subjects were asked not to use their phones for a week and provide their saliva samples. Recall was done for same subjects after 1 week of previous assessment with use of phones and salivary samples were again recorded (Control Group). Experimental group comprised of same group of patients who were than undergoing orthodontic treatment and assessment was done both without using and after using phones. Analysis was done using paired and unpaired t test. Results of paired t-test revealed no significant difference (p value = .798) in control group and highlysignificant difference in experimental group (p value =.001). Use of mobile phones enhanced the use of Nickel (Ni) release from saliva during orthodontic treatment.Ions were released in doses that are nontoxic to humans.
... During the past decade, use of cellular phones has increased significantly, becoming a cultural tool (1). There are some concerns regarding the deleterious effects of electromagnetic waves, radio frequencies, and macro waves of cellular phones and their telecommunication centers on human health (2). ...
... in chronic stress [27]. Earlier studies have shown that non-ionic electromagnetic radiation emitted from base stations increased activity of the salivary amylase and support our observations [28]. However our reports contradict the observations of Hamzany and co investigators [18], with respect to the change in salivary amylase which may be due the difference in the age of the volunteers and use of deaf individuals as controls in the study. ...
Article
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The present study aimed to assess the levels of salivary enzymes, protein and oxidant-antioxidant system in young college-going cell phone users. The cell users (students) were categorized in to two groups - less mobile users and high mobile users, based on the duration and frequency of cell use. Unstimulated whole saliva samples of the volunteers were analysed for amylase, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), malondialdehdye (MDA) and glutathione (GSH). High mobile users had significantly higher levels of amylase (p = 0.001), LDH (p = 0.002) and MDA (p = 0.002) in saliva, when compared to less mobile users. The marginal decrease in salivary total proteins, GSH and flow rate were statistically not significant (p >0.05). Significant changes in salivary enzymes and MDA suggest adverse effect of high use of cell phones on cell health.
... Carpenter [185] in late seventies reported that microwaves have the capability to induce cataracts and affect the eyes by reducing the ascorbic acid content of the lens coupled with the inhibition of DNA synthesis and mitosis in lens epithelium thereby slowing down the recovery process. In addition, the lens becomes more vulnerable to EMF threats because of decreased water content and absence of vasculature [12,56,186]. Spector [187] suggested the role of OS in cataract development due to extensive oxidation of lens protein and lipid at older age. ...
Article
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Electromagnetic fields (EMF) have been implicated to influence a range of bodily functions. Given their ubiquitous nature, widespread applications, and capability to produce deleterious effects, conclusive investigations of the health risks are critical. Accordingly, this paper has been constructed to weigh the bioeffects, possible biointeraction mechanisms, and research areas in bioelectromagnetics seeking immediate attention. The several gaps in the existing knowledge do not permit one to reach a concrete conclusion but possibility for harmful effects cannot be underestimated in absence of consistent findings and causal mechanisms. Several studies with appropriate methodologies reflect the capacity of electromagnetic radiations to cause adverse health effects and there are several credible mechanisms that can account for the observed effects. Hence, need of the hour is to activate comprehensive well-coordinated blind scientific investigations, overcoming all limitations and demerits of previous investigations especially replication studies to concretize the earlier findings. Furthermore, appropriate exposure assessment is crucial for identification of dose-response relation if any, and the elucidation of biological interaction mechanism. For the time being, the public should follow the precautionary principle and limit their exposure as much as possible.
... Goldwein and Aframian reported an increase in the capillary blood flow nearby the parotid glands which in turn leads to a rise in tissue perfusion and increase in the salivary flow rate due to continued exposure to heat which is released from mobile phone. 10 Thermal effect which induces secretory parenchymal tissue expansion, with subsequent increase in parotid gland volume which can be related to an increased salivary flow rate on the dominant side of mobile phone use, is yet another possible rationale behind it. ...
Article
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Abstract Handheld mobile phones have turned into a mandatory accessory device over time, similar to a wrist watch. The parotid glands are situated besides the ear-the area in close proximity to the mobile phones when in use. Aim and objective: To assess the salivary flow in the parotid gland and to evaluate changes in the salivary flow rate of the parotid gland between dominant and non-dominant side of mobile phone users. Material and methods: A total of 50 male and female patients aged 18-30 years with a history of mobile phones use for > 3years, group 1- (> 2hours/day), group 2- (<2hours/day) and group 3- nonmobile phone user. Results: The outcomes of the current study established no significant difference in the parotid gland salivary flow rate between dominant and non-dominant side of group 1 and group 2. Conclusion: Although the mobile phones use is fashionable and revolutionized the modern world ranging from basic handset to high end mobile phone it is always essential to determine the risk versus benefit. Keywords: Parotid gland, Mobile phone users, salivary flow rate
... diminution de la charge protéique, reflétant l'agression de la glande salivaire par les ondes électromagnétiques(Goldwein et Aframian, 2010 ; Mortazavi et coll., 2008 ; Vereeck, 2011).Les matériaux interférant avec des ondes électromagnétiques sont multiples ; certains les atténuent comme le béton et le verre. En revanche, les amalgames dentaires, constitués de différents métaux, mercure (50 %), argent (30 %), cuivre, étain et parfois zinc, permettent la réflexion des ondes électromagnétiques. ...
Thesis
L’audition et le bruit occupent une place importante dans la vie du cabinet dentaire. Les nuisances sonores sont, en effet, omniprésentes dans le milieu professionnel et le chirurgien-dentiste n’en est pas exempt puisqu’il est notamment amené à utiliser une instrumentation bruyante durant son exercice. La surdité et le déficit auditif en général, constituent un véritable handicap psychosocial ; le patient atteint nécessitant une prise en charge particulière pouvant entraîner une restriction au niveau des soins qui lui sont prodigués. En outre, la symptomatologie met en avant le lien auriculo-oral puisque certains troubles auditifs peuvent avoir des causes bucco-dentaires. Ces considérationsprises en compte, il est nécessaire de prendre les mesures qui s’imposent vis-à-vis de cette affection, tant en prévention qu’en traitement. C’est ainsi que l’organe dentaire, potentiel coupable, peut aussi être acteur de thérapie. En effet, des preuves montrent que les dents permettent la transmission d’ondes vibratoires à l’os. La société Sonitus Medical s’est donc penchée sur l’utilisation de cette conductivité pour transmettre les ondes sonores à l’oreille interne sans passer par l’oreille externe et/ou moyenne déficientes, mais aussi pour pallier la surdité unilatérale, véritable handicap social. A l’aide d’une prothèse fixée aux dents postéro-supérieures, les sons sont ainsi transmis à la cochlée. Le chirurgien-dentiste est directement impliqué dans ce traitement puisqu’il doit réaliser la prothèse et identifier les patients candidats, ceci en relation étroite avec un oto-rhino-laryngologiste et un audioprothésiste. Nous allons décrire ce système innovant et comprendre, par l’analyse du rôle du chirurgien-dentiste dans la gestion du déficit auditif, de la conduction sonore dentaire et de l’anatomieauriculo-orale, à quel point dentisterie et oreille sont liées.
... A number of studies have described the potential causative roles of both natural and artificial sources of EMFs in health problems, depending on the biochemical, physiological, and morphological effects of these EMFs on living tissues, as well as the dose and duration of exposure (6,7). Depending on the mobile phone model and use characteristics, mobile phones emit a radiofrequency of 800e2,200 MHz (8,9). Thirdgeneration mobile phones emit an EMF at a radio frequency of 2100 MHz (8). ...
Article
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Background: The widespread use by young people of modern communication devices such as mobile phones means that they are particularly exposed to electromagnetic fields (EMF) and other problems. However, few studies have researched the effects of long-term exposure to EMF in the kidney. We therefore investigated oxidative stress and apoptosis in long-term exposure to 2100 megahertz (MHz) in a rat model. Materials and Methods: Twenty-four Sprague Dawley rats were divided into a control group (n = 8, no EMF exposure), a group exposed to 2100 MHz for 6 h for 30 d (n = 8), and a group exposed to 2100 MHz for12 h for 30 d (n = 8). Immunohistochemical analysis was performed, using caspase-3 to evaluate apoptosis. Immediately after treatment, reduced glutathione (GSH), malondialdehyde (MDA) in kidney tissue and serum levels of various biochemical compounds were measured to detect oxidative stress. Results: Deterioration was observed in the brush border in renal tubules of the EMF groups. The results of the immunohistochemical analysis revealed a greater number of positively stained renal tubular epithelial cells in the EMF groups as compared with that in the control group. In the EMF groups, renal MDA levels increased, and renal GSH levels decreased compared with those in the control group, as shown by a biochemical examination (p = 0.00 and p = 0.00, respectively). Conclusion: The findings showed that exposure to 2100 MHz for 6 and 12 h induced oxidative stress-mediated acute renal injury, depending on the length of exposure and dosage.
... Since amylase is the abundant protein in saliva, the decrease in amylase activity is intriguing in this study, a lower total parotid saliva protein concentration in dominant, compared with the non-dominant, mobile phone side has been found (Kelsh et al., 2011). Furthermore, a higher saliva secretion rate from the parotid gland in the dominant mobile phone side usage has been reported (Goldwein and Aframian, 2010); it was suggested that a thermal effect or modified cutaneous blood flow may contribute to this result. Integrating exposure over time is further complicated by the fact that sources vary markedly over very brief time periods relative to the time periods of interest (Kelsh et al., 2011). ...
Article
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Oxidative stress has been implicated as a mechanism of potential health effects that may result from exposure to Radio Frequency Electromagnetic radiation (RF-EMR). A cross sectional study was designed to investigate and analyze the biochemical effects of RF-EMR emitted from mobile phones at 835 MHz and 1900 MHz bands on some biochemical markers: Superoxide dismutase (SOD), albumin, amylase, uric acid and cytochrome C in the saliva of young men (18-37 years; average age 27.74 ± 8.08). EMF caused a significant increase in the activity of SOD but a significant decrease in that of amylase in the saliva of people after using mobile phones. The increases in the activity of cytochrome C and the concentrations of albumin and uric acid were not significant. A true correlation between the salivary antioxidant biomarkers and the number of calling min., rather than the number of calls, was found. These oxidative changes may result in metabolic changes in the living cells up to oncogenic transformation. Thus, based on these findings, it is recommended that a long-term/or excessive use of mobile phones, especially by young individuals, should be avoided. This goal can be accomplished by telehealth technology promotion activities targeting the more sensitive ages, children and adolescents, since their developing brains absorb more EMR from a mobile phone. Such activities include: group discussions, public presentations and mass communication through available electronic and print media sources.
... The widespread mobile phone usage has raised the possibilities of inevitable exposure of electromagnetic radiation (EMR). Previously, there were several apprehensions were established in explaining the illeffects of EMR on human health (Goldwein and Aframian 2010). Despite the several research related to harmful effect of mobile radiations toxicity in vital organs like brain, kidney, and liver is still poorly elucidated. ...
... In another context, chemical studies have examined the flow rate of saliva. Goldwein and Aframian [29] concluded that the exposure to microwave-radiation increased salivary flow rate, but this increase was low in protein secretion due to continuous and cumulative damage to the glands. ...
... [7] Our study showed variations and increase in mean salivary flow rate in the dominant side among the study groups of A, B and C similar to some studies who stated that there was an increase in the mean salivary flow rate on the dominant side of usage. [8][9][10] The possible reason could be because of the heating of the biological tissue leading to modification in the cutaneous blood flow leading to an increase in the perfusion of the tissue. ...
Article
Background: The mobile phones widely used today uses electromagnetic radiations for signal transmission. These radiations have been speculated to cause pathological changes, especially in the salivary glands. Aim: The aim of the present study was to compare the salivary flow rate, pH, total protein concentration, Immunoglobulin A, total antioxidant capacity and salivary amylase levels of the parotid saliva between the dominant and non-dominant sides of mobile phone usage. Settings and Design: A total of 40 participants who used hand-held mobile phones were selected for the study. Materials and Method: Group A comprised of participants who used mobile phones for 0-2 hours a day, group B comprised of participants who used mobile phones for 2-4 hours a day and group C comprised of participants who used mobile phones for more than 4 hours a day. The parotid salivary pH, total protein concentrations, immunoglobulin A (IgA), salivary amylase, and total antioxidant capacity were estimated. Statistical Analysis: One-way ANOVA, Tukey HSD test and Pearson's correlation were used. Results: There was an increase in the mean salivary flow rate, pH and salivary IgA levels on the dominant side of participants. The mean total protein levels and IgA levels in the dominant sides of group A, B and C was 22.56 ± 9.35, 20.10 ± 4.95, 17.44 ± 4.52 and 3.39 ± 0.62, 5.03 ± 0.72, 7.51 ± 1.17, respectively. There was a decrease in the mean total protein, amylase and total antioxidant capacity in the dominant side. Conclusion: Our study has shown an increase in the levels of salivary flow rate, pH and IgA in the dominant side of usage.
... The results of a study by Ranjitha et al. showed that the volume and speed of the blood flow of the external carotid artery, salivary secretion, and parotid gland protein concentration in the preferred head side of the mobile phone using students were significantly higher than their other side (22) . A study by Goldwein et al. showed that salivary secretion in mobile phone using volunteers was significantly higher on the preferred side of head (23) . Also, a study by Bhargava et al. showed a significant increase in salivary secretion and the flow and volume of blood in the parotid gland in the preferred head side of male and female users of mobile phones aged 18-30 years old (24) They also addressed salivary antioxidant capacity in their study, and concluded that the salivary antioxidant capacity of individuals who had conversations for more than an hour was lower than those whose phone call duration were less than 20 minutes (16) . ...
... Even though there are no evidences of direct effect of mobile radiations on oral flora but they are said to influence the parotid secretion which alters the salivary flow and decreases protein secretion thereby posing chances of modifying the oral flora (42,43). ...
Article
Full-text available
Microorganisms being an integral part of human body colonise various sites, with oral cavity being one of the most densely populated environment. Within the oral cavity there are varying environment, properties of which determines the type of microbes colonising the site, while the metabolic activities of these microorganisms later on modifies the environmental properties. These microorganisms when in equilibrium confer health benefit however any alteration in the flora allows the pathogenic bacteria to outgrow in numbers and cause oral disease. Such alteration could be due to various factors. The present review article focuses on the various aspects of oral microbial flora, their role in the body, dysbiosis and factors influencing along with the reestablishment of normal healthy microbiome. A search was made on pubmed and scopus using keywords and 25 relevant articles published during 2000 to 2018 along with their references were included in the study. With increasing knowledge of human microbiome, attempts are made to limit the alteration in oral ecosystem or re-establish the normal healthy flora as a part of prevention or treatment of diseases. This brings about change in approach which initially focused on elimination of microbes to maintaining their equilibrium.
... However, if you use your phone for more than an hour, your salivary flow will rise as well. Despite the increased salivary flow, total salivary protein was also decreased; this is in contrast to the findings of another study, which found that as cell phone use increased over time, salivary flow increased as well, where total salivary protein was also increased [19]. On the other hand, it may be due to the various effects of using a cellphone on the sym- pathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems. ...
... [11][12][13][14][15] Mobile phones are known to generate heat and emit radiation in the form of non-ionizing electromagnetic radiation in the range of 800-2200 MHz, similar to many home appliances. [16,17] However, very limited investigations have been done so far about the impact of these radiations on orthodontic appliances placed in the oral cavity. ...
... 74 • Week-ends, with increased mobile phone usage, can have greater electrosmog. 138 acetylcholine 139 140 ACTH 141 142 143 amyloids 144 145 antioxidants 146 147 189 190 191 192 193 194 195 196 197 198 199 200 201 202 203 bystander effects 204 205 206 207 calcium 208 cell membrane 220 221 222 chromosomes 223 224 circadian rhythmicity 225 cocarcinogenesis 226 227 228 229 coherent vibrations 230 231 232 connexion 233 273 274 electron spin resonance 275 276 277 endocrine 278 279 gene expression 302 303 304 305 306 genetic damage 307 308 genotoxicity 309 310 HbA oxygen affinity 311 heart 312 323 324 hippocampal cells 325 326 327 immunosuppression 328 329 330 infrasound and biorhythms 331 332 333 334 335 336 337 338 insulin 339 340 ion cyclotron resonance 341 394 395 396 metallic implants 397 398 399 micronucleation 400 401 402 403 404 mould/mycotoxins 405 406 407 408 natural killer cells 409 410 411 neural cells 412 413 414 415 416 417 neurophysiology 418 419 420 421 422 nitric oxide 423 424 nociception 425 426 427 428 piezoelectricity 429 430 postural sway 444 445 446 proteins 447 483 484 485 stress proteins 486 487 synergy, chemical 488 489 490 491 492 synergy, resonance 493 494 495 496 teratogenic 497 498 499 500 501 502 503 thrombosis 504 505 506 507 thyroid gland 508 509 510 511 512 transthyretin 513 514 X-ray-induced mutations 515 516 517 ES may involve calcium ion membrane leakage at ICR frequencies, 518 519 melatonin disruption, mast cells, 520 and mtDNA oxidative damage. MF gradients trigger ES symptoms. ...
Book
Electromagnetic Hypersensitivity is categorised as a multisymptomatic 'el-allergy' in the Nordic classification of 2000 (R.68.8). Its symptoms are 'certainly real' and it can be a 'disabling condition' (W.H.O., 2005). It was first recorded in the mid 20th century as an occupational illness, but it has now spread into the general population through environmental exposure from increasing levels of electromagnetic fields and radiation. This Summary covers current research on this syndrome, covering EM Sensitivity and EM Hypersensitivity. It includes tables of symptoms, EMF sources and exposure guidelines, along with references to scientific studies. This New Edition adds updates, international doctors' protocols, aspects of quantum biology, evidence for sensitivity in animals and plants, case studies, disability issues and human rights.
... Currently, billion cellular phones are in use all over the world. During the last decade use of cellular phones has increased steeply, becoming a cultured tool (1). One major concern is the possible detrimental effects of electromagnetic waves and radio frequencies and macrowaves from cellular phones and base transceiver stations (BTSs) on health (2). ...
Article
Background: The possibility of side effects associated with the electromagnetic waves emitted from mobile phones is a controversial issue. The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of mobile phone use on parotid gland salivary concentrations of protein, amylase, lipase, immunoglobulin A, lysozyme, lactoferrin, peroxidase and C-reactive protein. Methods: Stimulated salivary samples were collected simultaneously from both parotid glands of 86 healthy volunteers. Salivary flow rate and salivary concentrations of proteins, amylase, lipase, lysozyme, lactoferrin, peroxidase, C-reactive protein and immunoglobulin A, were measured. Data were analysed using t-tests and one-way analyses of variance. Results: Salivary flow rate and parotid gland salivary concentrations of protein were significantly higher on the right side compared to the left in those that predominantly held mobile phones on the right side. In addition, there was a decrease in concentrations of amylase, lipase, lysozyme, lactoferrin and peroxidase. Conclusion: The side of dominant mobile phone use was associated with differences in salivary flow rate and parotid gland salivary concentrations, in right-dominant users. Although mobile phone use influenced salivary composition, the relationship was not significant.
Article
Abstract Increasing use of mobile phones creates growing concerns regarding harmful effects of radiofrequency nonionizing electromagnetic radiation on human tissues located close to the ear, where phones are commonly held for long periods of time. We studied 20 subjects in the mobile-phone group who had a mean duration of mobile phone use of 12.5 years (range 8-15) and a mean time use of 29.6 h per month (range 8-100). Deaf individuals served as controls. We compared salivary outcomes (secretion, oxidative damage indices, flow rate, and composition) between mobile phone users and nonusers. We report a significant increase in all salivary oxidative stress indices studied in mobile phone users. Salivary flow, total protein, albumin, and amylase activity were decreased in mobile phone users. These observations lead to the hypothesis that the use of mobile phones may cause oxidative stress and modify salivary function. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 00, 000-000.
Article
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Amaç: Bu çalışmada düşük frekanslı EMA’nin tükürük bezleri üzerinde herhangi bir zararlı etkisini ve Melatonin (MLT) ve Ganoderma lucidum(GL)’un bu zararlı etkilere karşı koruyucu bir etkisinin olup olmadığını histopatolojik ve immunohistokimyasal olarak incelenmesi amaçlanmıştır. Materyal ve metod: Bu çalışmada toplamda 56 adet Wistar Albino sıçan kullanıldı. Sıçanlar 7 eşit gruba ayrıldı ve sıçanlar her gün 8 saat yüksek gerilimden üretilen elektromanyetik alana (EMA) maruz bırakıldı. Grup 1 ve 4’e sadece EMA, grup 2 ve 5’e EMA + GL (20 mg / kg / gün), grup 3 ve 6’ya EMA +MLT(10 mg / kg / gün) ve grup 7 kontrol grubu olarak kullanıldı. Sıçanlara, GL oral gavaj yoluyla ve MLT intraperitoneal yolla uygulandı. Grupların yarısı 26. günde ve kalan diğer gruplar da 52. günde sakrifiye edilmiştir. Elde edilen numunelerin histopatolojik ve immünohistokimyasal analizleri yapılmıştır. Bulgular: Yapılan histopatolojik analiz sonucunda; 26. ve 52. günde sıçanlar gruplar arası karşılaştırılmasında EMA, (EMA+MLT) ve (EMA + GL) uygulanan gruplarda intra ve interlobuler kanallarda dejenerasyon, iltihabi hücre infiltrasyonu ve kan damarlarında dilatasyon ve hemorajikontrol grubuna göre istatistiksel olarak anlamlı derecede fark bulunmuştur (p˂0.05). immünohistokimyasal analizlerde ise, Vasküler Endotelyal Büyüme Faktörü (VEGF) ve E-kadherin yapışma reseptörü(E-kadherin) ekspresyonu kontrol grubu hariç diğer gruplarda pozitif ekspresyonu gözlemlenmiştir. Sonuç: EMA'ye maruziyetin sıçanların tükürük bezlerinde histopatolojik değişikliklere neden olduğu gözlemlenmiştir. Yapılan tedavilerde MLT ve GL'nin kullanımı bu zararlı etkilere karşı koruyucu bir etkiye sahip olabilir.
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Background: Recently, oral microbiome has gained popularity among scientists. Microorganisms are no longer considered as disease-producing pathogens, rather they are now considered as partners of human in maintaining health. Since ancient times, changes in our lifestyle have affected our microbiome and the balance with their human host has been perturbed. The present review includes the description about factors affecting oral microbiome and establishing symbiosis with the human host so that they contribute in maintaining health rather than eliciting diseases. Materials and methods: A comprehensive literature search was performed on databases such as Google Scholar, PubMed and Medline until April 2015. First, articles were selected on the basis of their titles and then abstracts were screened and unwanted articles were excluded. Articles obtained from all the databases were checked and duplicate articles were removed. Articles obtained from various databases: PubMed = 35, Google Scholar=8. Out of these 43 articles, total 29 articles were finally selected for this review. Results: The published literature suggests that the modern oral microbiome is less biodiverse, and possess more pathogenic bacterial species and lesser beneficial bacteria. The possible factors mainly responsible for this shift in microbiome were found to be change in diet, industrial revolution and indiscriminate use of antibiotics. Conclusion: Various changes in lifestyles have affected oral microbiome adversely and perturb the symbiosis between the microbiome and their hosts. The present oral microbiome is found to be less diverse and more pathogenic. The present review may be helpful in understanding the relationship between the microbiome and their human hosts so that microbiome contributes in maintaining healthy state of the body.
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Electromagnetic fields (EMFs) are a class of non-ionizing radiation (NIR) that is emitted from mobile phone. It may have hazardous effects on parotid glands. So, we aimed to investigate the histological and histochemical changes of the parotid glands of rats exposed to mobile phone and study the possible protective role of rosemary against its harmful effect. Forty adult male albino rats were used in this study. They were classified into 4 equal groups. Group I (control), group II (control receiving rosemary), group III (mobile phone exposed group) and group IV (mobile exposed, rosemary treated group). Parotid glands were dissected out for histological and histochemical study. Moreover, measurement of oxidative stress markers; malondialdehyde (MDA) and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) was done. The results of this study revealed that rosemary has protective effect through improving the histological and histochemical picture of the parotid gland in addition of its antioxidant effect. It could be concluded from the current study, that exposure of parotid gland of rat models to electromagnetic radiation of mobile phone resulted in structural changes at the level of light and electron microscopic examination which could be explained by oxidative stress effect of mobile phone. Rosemary could play a protective role against this harmful effect through its antioxidant activity.
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Introduction: Hand held mobile phones are presently the most popular means of communication worldwide and have transformed our lives in many aspects. The widespread use of such devices have resulted in growing concerns regarding harmful effects of radiations emitted by them. This study was designed to evaluate the effects of mobile phone usage on nickel ion release as well as pH of saliva in patients with fixed orthodontic appliances. Aim: To assess the level of nickel ions in saliva and pH of saliva in mobile phone users undergoing fixed orthodontic treatment using inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry. Materials and methods: A total of 42 healthy patients with fixed orthodontic appliance in mouth for a duration of six to nine months were selected for the study. They were divided into experimental group (n=21) consisting of mobile phone users and control group (n=21) of non mobile phone users. Saliva samples were collected from both the groups and nickel ion levels were measured using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectroscopy. The pH values were also assessed for both groups using pH meter. Unpaired t-test was used for the data analysis. Results: Statistical analysis revealed that though the pH levels were reduced and the nickel ion levels were higher in the experimental group compared to the control group, the results were non significant. Conclusion: Mobile phone usage may affect the pH of saliva and result in increased release of nickel ions in saliva of patients with fixed orthodontic appliances in the oral cavity.
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During the recent years, there has been a tremendous increase in use of mobile phones which resulted in an increase of the exposure to electromagnetic radiations in our life. Human saliva is considered as a potential source of biomarkers to monitor changes that occur under pathological conditions. The main objective of the current experiment was to determine the effect of mobile phone radiation on general health, electrolytes and salivary function among Islamic University students who use mobile phones. A questionnaire was designed and applied to 167 healthy and 36 deaf female students to select cases whose meeting the inclusion criteria. A total of 103 students who met the inclusion criteria were included to investigate the influence of mobile phone radiations on their general health. For assessment of salivary parameters, a total of 55 students were chosen and classified into three groups. Group I was the control group, which included 17 deaf students who did not use the mobile phone at all. Group II was healthy students who have mobile phone for less than 5 years. Group III was healthy students who have mobile phone for 5 years or more. Descriptive data that included mean, standard deviation, and percentages was calculated for each group. Multiple group comparisons were made by one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by Tukey test for pairwise comparisons. Categorical data were analyzed by Chi square (χ2) test. For all the tests, a P value of 0.05 or less was considered for statistical significance. The results showed that the participants who use mobile phone had several problems in their health including dry mouth, bad odor from mouth, drooling of saliva, as well as ear and eye pain. The majority of the participants who use mobile phone complained of headache, anxiety, insomnia and forgetfulness as compared to deaf participants. Also, the study showed that there was no significant difference between salivary pH in all tested groups. Regarding to salivary flow rate, the differences were no significant in all tested groups. In addition, this study has also shown that there was significant difference between the salivary Na+ and K+ levels of the three groups. Salivary level of Na+ and K+ were significantly lower in mobile phone users when compared to non users of mobile phone.
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The continuous exchange of chemicals with blood and the non-invasive collection make saliva an interesting specimen for clinical applications, from the detection of biomarkers to the new –omic sciences in medicine. However, saliva sampling is challenging because the suitability of the collection method for the analyte of interest is either poorly investigated or, more often, not mentioned at all in most publications. This review reports a critical evaluation of the most common procedures for saliva sampling and a description of the off-the-shelf sampling devices. Their suitability for bioanalytical applications and salivary biomarkers detection, e.g. representativeness of the sample, sampling feasibility, analyte recovery, and sample amount, is discussed.
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Background: In this study, using histopathological and immunohistochemical methods, we aimed to investigate whether Low-Frequency EMA has any harmful effects on salivary glands and whether Melatonin (MLT) and Ganoderma lucidum (GL) have protective effects against these harmful effects Material and methods: A total of 56 Wistar albino rats were used in this study. The rats were divided into 7 equal groups and exposed to the EMA produced from high voltage 8 hours of each day. EMA + MLT (10 mg / kg / day) for groups 3 and 6, just EMA for groups 1 and 4, EMA + GL (20 mg / kg / day) for groups 2 and 5 were used. Group 7 was determined as a control group. Rats were administered GL via oral gavage and MLT via the intraperitoneal route. Half of the groups were sacrificed on day 26 and the rest of the groups were sacrificed on day 52. Histopathological and immunohistochemical analyses of the obtained specimens were performed. Results: As a result of the histopathological analysis, some parameters such asintra and interlobular duct degeneration, inflammatory cell infiltration and blood vessel dilatation and haemorrhage were found statistically significant difference in the groups treated with EMA, (EMA+MLT) and (EMA + GL) compared to the control group on the 26th and 52nd at day (p<0.05). In immunohistochemical analyses, the positive expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and E-cadherin adhesion receptor (E-cadherin) was observed in all groups except for control group. Conclusion: Exposure to EMA caused histopathological changes in the salivary glands of the rats. The use of MLT and GL in treatment may be protective against these harmful effects. Keywords: Electromagnetic Field, Melatonin, Ganoderma lucidum, Salivary glands
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Mobile phones have been increasingly used in the past decade and have become a cultural instrument. There is a great concern over the harmful effects of electromagnetic and radiofrequency waves as well as microwaves generated by mobile phones and their telecommunication stations on health. The saliva plays an important role in preserving oral homeostasis as the first defensive line against the microbial invasion which protects oral mucosa mechanically and immunologically. A search was run in Pub med, Goggle Scholar, Medline, and Web of Science databases using the following keywords: cell phone, mobile phone, antioxidant profile, saliva, oxidative stress, interleukin, and inflammation. Sixty-five published articles were identified. Studies on the use of cell phones as educational aids, the use of immune histochemistry on salivary glands, or the evaluation of saliva in individuals with specific conditions, such as the use of orthodontic brackets, were excluded. In addition, duplicate articles are eliminated, and finally, 14 articles were included in the present study. Nowadays mobile phone is very popular, causing concern about the effect it has on people’s health. Parotid salivary glands are in close contact with a cell phone while talking with the phone and the possibility of being affected by them; so this study was designed to investigate the effect of cell phone use on salivary components.
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Handheld mobile phones emit nonionizing electromagnetic radiations and generate heat during use which can be absorbed by the adjacent tissues. This study observed functional and volumetric changes in the parotid glands associated with mobile phone use. Unstimulated parotid salivary flow rate was measured bilaterally in 142 individuals divided into 2 groups of heavy users and control subjects using a modified Schirmer test. Bilateral parotid ultrasonography was performed to evaluate gland volume. Variation and correlation tests were used to statistically analyze the results. A significant increase in salivary flow rate along with increased blood flow rate and volume of the parotid glands of the side where mobile phones are frequently placed was observed in the heavy user group. Heavy users of mobile phones demonstrated increased salivary flow rate, blood flow rate, and volume of parotid glands.
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Saliva has multiple essential functions in relation to the digestive process taking place in the upper parts of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. This paper reviews the role of human saliva and its compositional elements in relation to the GI functions of taste, mastication, bolus formation, enzymatic digestion, and swallowing. The indirect function of saliva in the digestive process that includes maintenance of an intact dentition and mucosa is also reviewed. Finally, pathophysiological considerations of salivary dysfunction in relation to some GI functions are considered.
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Background: Use of cellular telephones is increasing exponentially and has become part of everyday life. Concerns about possible carcinogenic effects of radiofrequency signals have been raised, although they are based on limited scientific evidence. Methods: A retrospective cohort study of cancer incidence was conducted in Denmark of all users of cellular telephones during the period from 1982 through 1995. Subscriber lists from the two Danish operating companies identified 420 095 cellular telephone users. Cancer incidence was determined by linkage with the Danish Cancer Registry. All statistical tests are two-sided. Results: Overall, 3391 cancers were observed with 3825 expected, yielding a significantly decreased standardized incidence ratio (SIR) of 0.89 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.86 to 0.92). A substantial proportion of this decreased risk was attributed to deficits of lung cancer and other smoking-related cancers. No excesses were observed for cancers of the brain or nervous system (SIR = 0.95; 95% CI = 0.81 to 1.12) or of the salivary gland (SIR = 0.72; 95% CI = 0.29 to 1.49) or for leukemia (SIR = 0.97; 95% CI = 0.78–1.21), cancers of a priori interest. Risk for these cancers also did not vary by duration of cellular telephone use, time since first subscription, age at first subscription, or type of cellular telephone (analogue or digital). Analysis of brain and nervous system tumors showed no statistically significant SIRs for any subtype or anatomic location. Conclusions: The results of this investigation, the first nationwide cancer incidence study of cellular phone users, do not support the hypothesis of an association between use of these telephones and tumors of the brain or salivary gland, leukemia, or other cancers.
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It is possible that electromagnetic field (EMF) generated by mobile phones (MP) may have an influence on the autonomic nervous system (ANS) and modulates the function of circulatory system. The aim of the study was to estimate the influence of the call with a mobile phone on heart rate variability (HRV) in young healthy people. The time and frequency domain HRV analyses were performed to assess the changes in sympathovagal balance in a group of 32 healthy students with normal electrocardiogram (ECG) and echocardiogram at rest. The frequency domain variables were computed: ultra low frequency (ULF) power, very low frequency (VLF) power, low frequency (LF) power, high frequency (HF) power and LF/HF ratio was determined. ECG Holter monitoring was recorded in standardized conditions: from 08:00 to 09:00 in the morning in a sitting position, within 20 min periods: before the telephone call (period I), during the call with use of mobile phone (period II), and after the telephone call (period III). During 20 min call with a mobile phone time domain parameters such as standard deviation of all normal sinus RR intervals (SDNN [ms] - period I: 73.94±25.02, period II: 91.63±35.99, period III: 75.06±27.62; I-II: p
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In this study we evaluated for a realistic head model the 3D temperature rise induced by a mobile phone. This was done numerically with the consecutive use of an FDTD model to predict the absorbed electromagnetic power distribution, and a thermal model describing bioheat transfer both by conduction and by blood flow. We calculated a maximum rise in brain temperature of 0.11 degrees C for an antenna with an average emitted power of 0.25 W, the maximum value in common mobile phones, and indefinite exposure. Maximum temperature rise is at the skin. The power distributions were characterized by a maximum averaged SAR over an arbitrarily shaped 10 g volume of approximately 1.6 W kg(-1). Although these power distributions are not in compliance with all proposed safety standards, temperature rises are far too small to have lasting effects. We verified our simulations by measuring the skin temperature rise experimentally. Our simulation method can be instrumental in further development of safety standards.
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In 1995 many people reported symptoms such as headaches, feelings of discomfort, warmth behind/around or on the ear and difficulties concentrating while using mobile phones. The number of complaints was higher for people using the digital (GSM) system, i.e. with pulse modulated fields, than for those using the analogue (NMT) system. Our main hypothesis was that GSM users experience more symptoms than NMT users. An epidemiological investigation was initiated including 6379 GSM users and 5613 NMT 900 users in Sweden, and 2500 from each category in Norway. The adjusted odds ratio did not indicate any increased risk for symptoms for GSM users compared with NMT 900 users. Our hypothesis was therefore disproved. However, we observed a statistically significant lower risk for sensations of warmth on the ear for GSM users compared with NMT 900 users. The same trend was seen in Norway for sensations of warmth behind/around the ear and in Sweden for headaches and fatigue. Factors distinguishing the two systems (radio frequency emission, phone temperatures and various ergonomic factors) may be responsible for these results, as well as for a secondary finding: a statistically significant association between calling time/number of calls per day and the prevalence of warmth behind/around or on the ear, headaches and fatigue.
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To investigate the association between the use of cellular or cordless telephones and the risk for salivary gland tumours. Cases were assessed from the six regional cancer registries in Sweden. Four controls matched for sex and age in five year age groups were selected for each case. A total of 293 living cases and 1172 controls were included. There were 267 (91%) participating cases and 1053 (90%) controls. Overall no significantly increased risk was found. Odds ratios were 0.92 (95% CI 0.58 to 1.44) for use of analogue phones, 1.01 (95% CI 0.68 to 1.50) for use of digital phones, and 0.99 (95% CI 0.68 to 1.43) for use of cordless phones. Similar results were found for different salivary gland localisations. No effect of tumour induction period or latency was seen, although few subjects reported use for more than 10 years. No association between the use of cellular or cordless phones and salivary gland tumours was found, although this study does not permit conclusions for long term heavy use.
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The objective of this nationwide study was to assess the association between cellular phone use and development of parotid gland tumors (PGTs). The methods were based on the international INTERPHONE study that aimed to evaluate possible adverse effects of cellular phone use. The study included 402 benign and 58 malignant incident cases of PGTs diagnosed in Israel at age 18 years or more, in 2001–2003, and 1,266 population individually matched controls. For the entire group, no increased risk of PGTs was observed for ever having been a regular cellular phone user (odds ratio = 0.87; p = 0.3) or for any other measure of exposure investigated. However, analysis restricted to regular users or to conditions that may yield higher levels of exposure (e.g., heavy use in rural areas) showed consistently elevated risks. For ipsilateral use, the odds ratios in the highest category of cumulative number of calls and call time without use of hands-free devices were 1.58 (95% confidence interval: 1.11, 2.24) and 1.49 (95% confidence interval: 1.05, 2.13), respectively. The risk for contralateral use was not significantly different from 1. A positive dose-response trend was found for these measurements. Based on the largest number of benign PGT patients reported to date, our results suggest an association between cellular phone use and PGTs.
Article
Male laboratory rats (Rattus norvegicus) ranging between 130 and 160 g were subjected to ambient temperatures of 34.5 degrees C from 0 to 28 days. The submaxillary gland, liver, spleen, and kidney were weighed. The acini size and the mitotic index of the acinar cells after intraperitoneal injection of vinblastine sulfate and colchicine were recorded for the submaxillary and parotid glands. The submaxillary glands showed increased growth rate over the initial 5 days, whereas the growth rate of the other organs decreased. The submaxillary gland enlargement was due to an initial hyperplasia of the acini cells reaching a maximum on the 2nd day. This was followed by hypertrophy of the Acini reaching a maximum on the l0th day. The parotid acini at control values throughout the experiment. It is postulated that the gland enlargement is effected to increase evaporative heat loss during the early stages of acclimatization prior to the lowering of heat production resulting from biochemical adaptation.
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Radiotherapy (RT) is a common treatment for head and neck cancers, and frequently causes permanent salivary dysfunction and xerostomia. This 2-year longitudinal study evaluated unstimulated and stimulated parotid flow rates in 11 patients with head and neck cancers who received unilateral neck parotid-sparing RT. The results demonstrated that treated parotid glands had essentially no output up to 2 years post-RT. Alternatively, spared parotid flow rates were indistinguishable from pre-RT values at 1 and 2 years post-RT, and increased slightly over time. Total unstimulated and stimulated parotid flow rates 2 years after completion of RT were similar to pre-RT values, suggesting that spared parotid function may compensate for lost function from treated parotid glands. These results demonstrate that unilateral neck parotid-sparing techniques are effective in preserving contralateral parotid glands up to 2 years after the completion of RT.
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Although safety guidelines--to which mobile telephones and their base-stations conform--do protect against excessive microwave heating, there is evidence that the low intensity, pulsed radiation currently used can exert subtle non-thermal influences. If these influences entail adverse health consequences, current guidelines would be inadequate. This review will focus on this possibility. The radiation used is indeed of very low intensity, but an oscillatory similitude between this pulsed microwave radiation and certain electrochemical activities of the living human being should prompt concern. However, being so inherently dependent on aliveness, non-thermal effects cannot be expected to be as robust as thermal ones, as is indeed found; nor can everyone be expected to be affected in the same way by exposure to the same radiation. Notwithstanding uncertainty about whether the non-thermal influences reported do adversely affect health, there are consistencies between some of these effects and the neurological problems reported by some mobile-telephone users and people exposed longterm to base-station radiation. These should be pointers for future research.
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Tumors in the parotid gland may affect salivary flow. The effects of tumor on glandular function and postoperative changes in both resected gland and contralateral gland were not formerly reported. We prospectively evaluated salivary flow rates and composition in patients undergoing parotidectomy preoperatively and postoperatively. Stimulated parotid saliva from 17 patients undergoing parotidectomy was collected bilaterally preoperatively and postoperatively by using a parotid cup. Subjective complaints were recorded. Salivary flow rates, sodium, potassium, and amylase levels were evaluated. None of the patients complained of "dry mouth" before or after surgery. Analysis of the individual results revealed 3 patterns of preoperative and postoperative response, compatible with either a preoperative or postoperative compensatory mechanism in the contralateral gland. The postoperative decrease in flow rate corresponds with the amount of gland removed. Salivary electrolyte composition was unchanged. This study is the first to demonstrate the effects of parotid tumors and their surgery on salivary flow and a compensatory response and its different patterns in human parotid glands after their excision.
Article
Widespread concerns have been raised about the possibility that exposure to the radiofrequency (RF) fields from mobile telephones or their base stations could affect people's health. Such has been the rapid growth of mobile telecommunications that there will be about one billion mobile phone users before 2005. Already there are more mobile than fixed-line users. Developing countries are establishing mobile telecommunications rather than the more expensive fixed-line systems. Thus, if there is any impact on health from mobile telephones, it will affect everyone in the world. The World Health Organization (WHO) established the International EMF Project in 1996 to evaluate the science, recommend research to fill any gaps in knowledge and to conduct formal health risk assessments of RF exposure once recommended research had been completed. In addition, the UK government established an independent expert group to review all the issues concerning health effects of mobile telephones and siting of base stations. Cancer has been suggested as an outcome of exposure to mobile telephones by some scientific reports. This paper reviews the status of the science and WHO's programme to address the key issues. In addition, the main conclusions and recommendations of the UK expert group will be summarised.
Article
Possible risk of cancer associated with use of cellular telephones has lately been a subject of public debate. We conducted a register-based, case-control study on cellular phone use and cancer. The study subjects were all cases of brain tumor (N = 398) and salivary gland cancer (N = 34) diagnosed in Finland in 1996, with five controls per case. Cellular phone use was not associated with brain tumors or salivary gland cancers overall, but there was a weak association between gliomas and analog cellular phones. A register-based approach has limited value in risk assessment of cellular phone use owing to lack of information on exposure.
Article
Our surroundings are full of non-ionizing electromagnetic radiation (EMR) of different frequency and power. The non-ionizing EMRs emitted by television, computer and cellular phone (CF) sets have been increasing over the past few years. The aim of our study was to assess the effects of non-ionizing EMRs (frequency 3 x 10(8) to 3 x 10(11) Hz), emitted by CFs, on cutaneous blood flow in healthy volunteers. Thirty healthy volunteers (14 male and 16 female; age: 18-53 years) entered the study. Measurements of cutaneous blood flow were taken under standard conditions (temperature and humidity), using a laser Doppler He-Ne flowmeter that was applied to the ear skin by an optical fibre probe. Microflow values were recorded without CF contact with the skin (T0), with the CF turned off but in contact with the ear skin (T1), with CF contact and turned on (T2), with CF contact, turned on and receiving (T3). The microflow values were also recorded backwards: with CF contact and set turned on (T4), with CF contact and turned off (T5), without CF contact (T6). The mean value of basal microflow (T0), expressed as perfusion units (PU), was 51.26+/-11.93 PU. During the T1 phase, the microflow increase was 61.38%; in T2 it was 131.74%, in T3 157.67%, in T4 139.21% and in T5 122.90%; in T6, the microflow value was 57.58+/-10 PU (similar to the basal microflow). Statistically significant cutaneous microflow values (p<0.050) were observed comparing the T1 to T5 values with basal microflow (T0). Furthermore, in comparison with T1 values (CF turned off in contact with the ear skin), the T2, T3 and T4 data were statistically significant (T2 vs. T1: t=7.763 with p<0.050; T3 vs. T1: t=9.834 with p<0.050; T4 vs. T1: t=8.885 with p<0.050).
Article
Mobile phone users often complain about burning sensations or a heating of the ear region. The increase in temperature may be due to thermal insulation by the phone, heating of the mobile phone resulting from its electrical power dissipation, and radio frequency (RF) exposure. The main objective of this study was to use infrared (IR) camera techniques to find how much each of these factors contributes to the increase in skin temperature resulting from the use of one GSM 900 phone. One subject, a healthy male, took part in the study. He was holding the phone in a normal position when the phone was switched off, when it was switched on but with the antenna replaced by a 50 Omega load to eliminate the RF exposure, and when it was transmitting RF fields. The output power could be fixed, and the minimal and the maximal power levels of the phone were used. The study was designed as a double blind experiment. The changes in temperature after 15 and 30 min of mobile phone use were calculated on the exposed side of the head relative to the unexposed side. The insulation and the electrical power dissipation led to statistically significant rises in the skin temperature, while the RF exposure did not.
Article
The aim of this study was to estimate the accuracy and reproducibility of citric-acid-stimulated parotid saliva sampling. In healthy volunteers a strong correlation (r2 = 0.79) between flow rates from the left and right parotid gland was observed. In patients with Sjögren's syndrome this correlation (r2 = 0.90) was even stronger. The intraindividual variation in healthy volunteers was 23.3 +/- 5.9%. Increasing the number of collections did not reduce this variation significantly. In head and neck cancer patients, to estimate whether repeated measurements result in more reliable baseline values for use in clinical studies, repeated collections did not result in a significant reduction of intrapatient variation, similar to the results with the healthy volunteers. Thus, notwithstanding the good agreement between left and right flow rates, a high variation in parotid flow rates has to be considered when planning clinical trials evaluating the effects of treatment on salivary gland functioning.
Article
Regeneration of the salivary glands' (SGs) normal function for patients with cancer of the head and neck treated with irradiation would be a major contribution to their quality of life. This could be accomplished by re-implantation of autologous SG cells into the residual irradiated tissue or by implantation of tissue-engineered artificial SGs. Both methods depend on the isolation of cells able to propagate and differentiate into SG epithelial cells. Recently, it has been shown that SG integrin alpha(6)beta(1)-expressing (SGIE) cells have stem cell capabilities, but these cells could be isolated only after duct ligation insult requiring surgical intervention. Because such an invasive procedure is not clinically acceptable for these patients, our aim in the present study was to explore the use of immuno-magnetic separation of untreated and short heat stress-conditioned rats as a less-insulting methodology for enhancement of these cells. Our results show that submandibular SGIE cells could be isolated and cultivated from untreated animals. However, short heat stress (HS) increased the number of isolated SGIE cells 4.7-fold and their proliferation and clonal capability 4.6-fold and 3 fold, respectively. We believe that SGIE graft cells may be suitable candidates for future tissue-engineered SGs that have been damaged by irradiation in patients with head and neck cancer.
Article
Regeneration of the salivary glands' (SGs) normal function for patients with cancer of the head and neck treated with irradiation would be a major contribution to their quality of life. This could be accomplished by re-implantation of autologous SG cells into the residual irradiated tissue or by implantation of tissue-engineered artificial SGs. Both methods depend on the isolation of cells able to propagate and differentiate into SG epithelial cells. Recently, it has been shown that SG integrin alpha(6)beta(1)-expressing (SGIE) cells have stem cell capabilities, but these cells could be isolated only after duct ligation insult requiring surgical intervention. Because such an invasive procedure is not clinically acceptable for these patients, our aim in the present study was to explore the use of immuno-magnetic separation of untreated and short heat stress-conditioned rats as a less-insulting methodology for enhancement of these cells. Our results show that submandibular SGIE cells could be isolated and cultivated from untreated animals. However, short heat stress (HS) increased the number of isolated SGIE cells 4.7-fold and their proliferation and clonal capability 4.6-fold and 3 fold, respectively. We believe that SGIE graft cells may be suitable candidates for future tissue-engineered SGs that have been damaged by irradiation in patients with head and neck cancer.
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Saliva and gastrointestinal functions of taste, mastication, swallowing and digestion
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