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Anti-microbial activity of sesame oil

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Abstract

The present study was designed to evaluate the anti-microbial activity of sesame oil against selected gram positive and gram negative microorganism. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) study revealed that sesame oil shows that potent MIC value against Salmonella typhi is 10 µl/ml. But, for other organism the MIC values were in the range of 350-500 µl/ml. The sesame oil shows best antimicrobial activity with zone of inhibition range 15-25 mm and also equal with standard Kenamycin (19-40 mm) and also it shows highest zone of inhibition against Sal-monella typhi. From this study it has been concluded that sesame oil exhibited potent antimicrobial activity with selected microbial strains.
Saleem | Int. J. Res. Phytochem. Pharmacol. 2011, 1(1), 21-23
©JK Welfare & Pharmascope Foundation | International Journal of Research in Phytochemistry & Pharmacology 21
Anti-microbial activity of sesame oil
T.S. Mohamed Saleem*
Department of Pharmacology, Annamacharya College of Pharamcy, Rajampet 516126, India
ABSTRACT
The present study was designed to evaluate the anti-microbial activity of sesame oil against selected gram positive
and gram negative microorganism. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) study revealed that sesame oil
shows that potent MIC value against Salmonella typhi is 10 µl/ml. But, for other organism the MIC values were in
the range of 350-500 µl/ml. The sesame oil shows best antimicrobial activity with zone of inhibition range 15-25
mm and also equal with standard Kenamycin (19-40 mm) and also it shows highest zone of inhibition against Sal-
monella typhi. From this study it has been concluded that sesame oil exhibited potent antimicrobial activity with
selected microbial strains.
Keywords: Anti-bacterial activity; cup plate method; minimum inhibitory concentration; Sesamum indicuum
INTRODUCTION
Many efforts have been made to discover new antimi-
crobial compounds from various kinds of sources such
as micro-organisms, animals, and plants. One of such
resources is folk medicines. Systematic screening of
them may result in the discovery of novel effective
compounds (Tomoko et al., 2002). Contrary to the syn-
thetic drugs, antimicrobials of plant origin are not as-
sociated with many side effects and have an enormous
therapeutic potential to heal many infectious diseases
(Iwu et al., 1999).
In recent years, a large number of oils and their consti-
tuents have been investigated for their antimicrobial
properties against bacteria and fungi. Sesame (Sesa-
mum indicum L., Pedaliaceae) is a very old cultivated
crop and thought to have originated in Africa (Ram et
al., 1990). Chlorosesamone obtained from roots of se-
same has antifungal activity (Begum et al., 2000). Se-
same lignans have antioxidant and health promoting
activities (Kato et al., 1998). High amounts of both se-
samin and sesamolin have been identified in sesame
(Sirato-Yasumoto et al., 2001). Both sesamin and se-
samolin were reported to increase both the hepatic
mitochondrial and the peroxisomal fatty acid oxidation
rate. Sesame seed consumption appears to increase
plasma gamma-tocopherol and enhanced vitamin E
activity which is believed to prevent cancer and heart
disease (Cooney et al., 2001). The current research
presents an evaluation of antibacterial activity of se-
same oil and its inhibitory effect against common bac-
terial organism.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Sesame oil was obtained from local market and used
for this study. Microorganisms obtained from parent
institute.
Microorganism
The following microorganisms were used for antimi-
crobial activity. Bacillus subtilis (NCIM 2480), Staphylo-
coccus aureus (NCIM 2602), Escherichia coli (NCIM
2981), Salmonella typhi (NCIM 2493), Proteus vulgaris
(NCIM 2813), Cornebacterium diphtheria, Streptomyces
gresius. All the microorganisms were maintained at 4°
C on nutrient agar slants.
Determination of minimum inhibitory concentrations
(MIC) using macrodilution method
The Minimum Inhibitory Concentrations (MICs) of se-
same oil found to be active by the diffusion test were
determined based on the macrodilution method
(Berghe and Vlietinck, 1991) with some modifications
as follows. The sesame oil was serially diluted (two-
fold) in a series of test tubes using nutrient broth sup-
plemented with 10% glucose and 0.05% phenol red
(colour indicator). These were later inoculated with
0.2ml suspension of the test organisms. The final con-
centrations were in the range 1000 to 10 µl/mL in the
medium. Microbial growth was determined by observ-
ing for color change in the tube (red to yellow when
there is growth). The lowest concentration that
showed no change of color was considered as the MIC.
Antimicrobial activity
Cup plate method using Mueller-Hinton agar medium
was employed to study the preliminary antibacterial
activity of sesame oil against different microbial
strains. The agar medium was purchased from HI me-
dia Laboratories Ltd., Mumbai, India. Preparation of
www.ijrpp.pharmascope.org
Research Article
* Corresponding Author
Email: saleemcology@gmail.com
Contact: +91-9542326252
Received on: 26-11-2010
Revised on: 30-11-2010
Accepted on: 5-12-2010
Saleem | Int. J. Res. Phytochem. Pharmacol. 2011, 1(1), 21-23
22 ©JK Welfare & Pharmascope Foundation | International Journal of Research in Phytochemistry & Pharmacology
nutrient broth, subculture, base layer medium, agar
medium and peptone water was done as per the stan-
dard procedure. The cups each of 9mm diameter were
made by scooping out medium with a sterilized cork
borer in a petri dish which was streaked with the or-
ganisms. The sesame oil (50 µL) was added separately
in the cups and petri dishes were subsequently incu-
bated. Kenamycin (30 µg) were used as standard refer-
ence drugs. Zone of inhibition produced by sesame oil
was measured in mm
RESULTS
Antimicrobial activity
The result of MIC of the sesame oil is shown in Table 1.
The lowest MIC of sesame oil (10 µl) was recorded
against Salmonella typhi. The MIC for other microor-
ganisms was found 350 µl for Cornebacterium diphthe-
ria, Bacillus subtillis, Staphylococcus aureus, Strepto-
myces gresius and 500 µl for Proteus vulgaris and
Escherichia coli. The antimicrobial activities of sesame
oil against the test microorganisms examined in this
study. The results are shown in Table 2. The sesame oil
exhibited strong antimicrobial effects against the test
microorganisms, with inhibition zones ranging from 15
to 25 mm. Notably, Salmonella typhi & Cornebacterium
diphtheria were more susceptible to the extract (inhibi-
tion zone: 24 & 25 mm respectively) compared to the
standard Kenamycin whose inhibition zones ranged
from 19-40 mm.
DISCUSSION
In this study we have reported the antimicrobial activi-
ty of sesame oil against gram positive and gram nega-
tive organism. The results of this study revealed that
MIC of sesame oil against Salmonella typhi is 10 µl/ml.
But, for other organism the MIC values were in the
range of 350-500 µl/ml. The sesame oil shows best
antimicrobial activity and also equal with standard Ke-
namucin and also it shows highest zone of inhibition
against Salmonella typhi. Anand et al. (2008) reported
that sesame oil is found to have the antibacterial activi-
ty against Streptococcus mutans, Lactobacilli acidophi-
lus, and total bacteria. This type of screening by using
sesame oil with very effective antibacterial and anti-
fungal activity could be promising agents for the future
more wide research.
CONCLUSION
From this study it has been concluded that sesame oil
exhibited potent antimicrobial activity with selected
microbial strains.
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Table 1. MIC value of sesame oil
S.No
Micro organism
MIC value of
sesame oil in µl
1
Bacillus subtillis
350
2
Cornebacterium diph-
theria
350
3
Proteus vulgaris
500
4
Salmonella typhi
10
5
Staphylococcus aureus
350
6
Streptomyces gresius
350
7
Escherichia coli
500
Table 2. Anti-microbial activity of sesame oil
Micro organism
Zone of inhibition
(mm)
Kenamycin
Sesame
oil
Bacillus subtillis
23
18
Cornebacterium
diphtheria
40
24
Proteus vulgaris
24
20
Salmonella typhi
24
25
Staphylococcus
aureus
25
19
Streptomyces
gresius
19
20
Escherichia coli
19
15
Saleem | Int. J. Res. Phytochem. Pharmacol. 2011, 1(1), 21-23
©JK Welfare & Pharmascope Foundation | International Journal of Research in Phytochemistry & Pharmacology 23
preparated from tropical and subtropical plants on
methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. J Health
Sci 2002;48: 273276.
... On the other hand, in vitro study using the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) method on agar plate had revealed that sesame oil exhibited potent antimicrobial activity against S. typhi and E. coli when applied at concentrations of 10 μl/m and 500 μl/ml, respectively (Saleem, 2011). ...
... The antimicrobial effect of sesame oil or sesamol against S. aureus in food products is not studied previously, even though in vitro study on culture media conducted by Saleem (2011) using minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) method revealed that sesame oil at concentration of 350 μl/ml exhibited a potent MIC value against S. aureus. Likewise, Alshahrani et al. (2020) in Saudi Arabia and Heidari-Soureshjani et al. ...
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New Antimicrobials of Plant Origin): Perspectives on New Crops and New Uses
  • Mw Iwu
  • Ar Duncan
  • Co Okunji
Iwu MW, Duncan AR, Okunji CO. New Antimicrobials of Plant Origin. In: Janick J. (ed.): Perspectives on New Crops and New Uses. ASHS Press, Alexandria, VA: 1999;457–462.