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Reasons to Use Virtual Reality in Education and Training Courses and a Model to Determine When to Use Virtual Reality

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Many studies have been conducted on the use of virtual reality in education and training. This article lists examples of such research. Reasons to use virtual reality are discussed. Advantages and disadvantages of using virtual reality are presented, as well as suggestions on when to use and when not to use virtual reality. A model that can be used to determine when to use virtual reality in an education or training course is presented.
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THEMES IN SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY EDUCATION
Special Issue, Pages 59-70
Klidarithmos Computer Books
59
Reasons to Use Virtual Reality in Education
and Training Courses and a Model to Determine
When to Use Virtual Reality
Veronica S. Pantelidis
pantelidisv@ecu.edu
Department of Library Science, College of Education,
East Carolina University, Greenville, North Carolina, USA
Abstract
Many studies have been conducted on the use of virtual reality in education and training. This
article lists examples of such research. Reasons to use virtual reality are discussed.
Advantages and disadvantages of using virtual reality are presented, as well as suggestions on
when to use and when not to use virtual reality. A model that can be used to determine when
to use virtual reality in an education or training course is presented.
Use of virtual reality in education
The use of virtual reality (VR) in education can be considered as one of the natural
evolutions of computer-assisted instruction (CAI) or computer-based training (CBT).
Use of computers as instructional aids has a long history going back to the early
1950s. Serious studies began in the early 1960s. Since the advent of the microcom-
puter in 1977, computers, particularly microcomputers or personal computers (PCs),
have become a growing and recognized delivery system for many forms of education.
Virtual reality, which can be used on all types of computers, has followed that trend.
In her extensive bibliography on virtual reality in education and training, Pantelidis
(1991-2009) lists over 800 printed resources, such as articles and reports, on this
application of virtual reality, going back to 1989. The list is by no means complete
and comprehensive.
Research on the use of virtual reality in education
Many studies have been conducted on the applications and effectiveness of virtual
reality in education and training since the 1980s. McLellan (1996, 2003) provides
V. S. Pantelidis
60
comprehensive and in-depth reviews of the literature related to the research and use
of virtual reality for education and training in editions of The Handbook of Research
for Educational Communications and Technology. McLellan traces early use of virtual
reality in training to flight simulators with head-mounted displays developed at
Wright-Patterson Air Force Base in Ohio in the 1960s and 1970s (1996, p. 458.).
Youngblut (1998) conducted an extensive survey of research and educational uses of
virtual reality during the 1990’s. The survey attempted to answer questions about
the use and effectiveness of virtual reality in kindergarten through grade 12 educa-
tion. Youngblut found that there are unique capabilities of virtual reality, and the ma-
jority of uses included aspects of constructivist learning (1998, p. 93). Studies
showed potential educational effectiveness for special needs students (1998, p. 98).
The role of the teacher changed to facilitator (1998, p. 100). Students enjoy using pre-
developed applications and developing their own virtual worlds (1998, p. 100). The
majority of the teachers in the studies reviewed said they would use virtual reality
technology if it were affordable, available, and easy to use for students and teachers
(1998, p. 101).
Chen (2006) asserts that “although VR is recognized as an impressive learning tool,
there are still many issues that need further investigation including, identifying the
appropriate theories and/or models to guide its design and development, investigat-
ing how its attributes are able to support learning, finding out whether its use can
improve the intended performance and understanding, and investigating ways to
reach more effective learning when using this technology, and investigating its im-
pact on learners with different aptitudes”. Her research resulted in insights to a fea-
sible instructional design theoretical framework, as well as an instructional devel-
opment framework for VR-based learning environments (2006, p. 39).
A model developed by Salzman, Dede, Loftin, and Chen (1999) describes how virtual
reality aids complex conceptual learning, and how virtual reality’s features and other
factors shape the learning process and learning outcomes. The model resulted from a
study to identify, use, and evaluate immersive virtual reality's affordances as a means
to facilitate the mastery of complex, abstract concepts.
Studies show that a virtual environment can “stimulate learning and comprehension,
because it provides a tight coupling between symbolic and experiential information”
(Bowman, Hodges, Allison, & Wineman, 1998). Numerous studies have focused on
how children and young learners interact and learn in a 3D environment. Children
and young learners have been studied in high-end projection environments, such as a
CAVE (Roussos, Johnson, Moher, Leigh, Vasilakis, & Barnes, 1999). Their activity
within interactive virtual environments has been examined to learn how interaction
and conceptual learning are related in the context of a virtual environment, the Vir-
tual Playground (Roussou, 2004a; Roussou, 2004b; Roussou, Oliver, & Slater, 2006).
Reasons to Use VR in Education and Training
61
Chee (2001) argues for the need to root learning in experience, using physics as an
example. He states that physics students have little “feel” and “understanding of the
qualitative dimensions of the phenomena they study”. Chee believes that virtual real-
ity can be used to achieve this goal, “providing a foundation for students' conceptual
and higher-order learning”.
Dalgarno, Hedberg, and Harper (2002) believe that the most important potential con-
tribution of 3D learning environments (3DLEs) to conceptual understanding is
through facilitation of spatial knowledge development. They have identified aspects
of a research agenda to test this, including “exploration of the characteristics of
3DLEs that are most important for spatial learning along with issues in designing ap-
propriate learning tasks”.
Selvarian (2004) researched the potential of spatial and social technologies in a vir-
tual learning environment (VLE) through presence. She proposed a VLE model and
hypotheses that correlated the spatial and social technologies with spatial and social
presence, respectively, and with low- and high-level learning, respectively. Findings
from her research “offer educators a valuable guide for the design of VLEs that en-
hance low- and high-level learning through spatial and social presence”.
Reasons to use virtual reality in education and training
Reasons to use virtual reality can parallel all the reasons one would use a two-
dimensional, computer-assisted instruction simulation (Pantelidis, 1993). At every
level of education, virtual reality has the potential to make a difference, to lead learn-
ers to new discoveries, to motivate and encourage and excite. The learner can par-
ticipate in the learning environment with a sense of presence, of being part of the en-
vironment.
The reasons to use virtual reality in education and training relate particularly to its
capabilities. Winn (1993), in A conceptual basis for educational applications of virtual
reality, states that
1) “Immersive VR furnishes first-person non-symbolic experiences that are specifi-
cally designed to help students learn material.
2) These experiences cannot be obtained in any other way in formal education.
3) This kind of experience makes up the bulk of our daily interaction with the
world, though schools tend to promote third-person symbolic experiences.
4) Constructivism provides the best theory on which to develop educational appli-
cations of VR.
5) The convergence of theories of knowledge construction with VR technology
permits learning to be boosted by the manipulation of the relative size of objects
in virtual worlds, by the transduction of otherwise imperceptible sources of in-
V. S. Pantelidis
62
formation, and by the reification of abstract ideas that have so far defied repre-
sentation”.
Winn concludes that “VR promotes the best and probably only strategy that allows
students to learn from non-symbolic first-person experience. Since a great many stu-
dents fail in school because they do not master the symbol systems of the disciplines
they study, although they are perfectly capable of mastering the concepts that lie at
the heart of the disciplines, it can be concluded that VR provides a route to success
for children who might otherwise fail in our education system as it is currently con-
strued”.
Pantelidis (1995) gives the following reasons to use virtual reality in education:
Virtual reality provides new forms and methods of visualization, drawing on the
strengths of visual representations. It provides an alternate method for presen-
tation of material. In some instances, VR can more accurately illustrate some fea-
tures, processes, and so forth than by other means, allowing extreme close-up
examination of an object, observation from a great distance, and observation
and examination of areas and events unavailable by other means.
Virtual reality motivates students. It requires interaction and encourages active
participation rather than passivity. Some types of virtual reality, for example,
collaborative virtual reality using text input with virtual worlds, encourage or
require collaboration and provide a social atmosphere.
Virtual reality allows the learner to proceed through an experience during a
broad time period not fixed by a regular class schedule, at their own pace. It al-
lows the disabled to participate in an experiment or learning environment when
they cannot do so otherwise. It transcends language barriers. VR with text ac-
cess provides equal opportunity for communication with students in other cul-
tures and allows the student to take on the role of a person in different cultures.
Mantovani (2001) discusses these potential benefits of the use of VR in education and
training: visualization and reification, an alternate method for presentation of mate-
rial; learning in contexts impossible or difficult to experience in real life; motivation
enhancement; collaboration fostering; adaptability, offering the possibility for learn-
ing to be tailored to learner’s characteristics and needs; and evaluation and assess-
ment, offering great potential as a tool for evaluation because of easy monitoring and
recording of sessions in a virtual environment.
Advantages of using virtual reality
The advantages of using VR to teach educational objectives are similar in many ways
to the advantages of using a computer or interactive simulation, particularly a three-
dimensional computer simulation. Computer-based simulations have been used for
many years in computer-assisted instruction (CAI). In fact, advantages of computer-
Reasons to Use VR in Education and Training
63
based simulations are well known. Zacharia (2003), referring to Chou (1998) asserts
that “researchers attribute success of simulations to the empowerment of students,
the unique instructional capabilities, the support for new instructional approaches,
the development of cognitive skills, and the development of attitudes”. Ferry et al.
(2004) state that “Whilst we acknowledge that a simulation is only a representation
of real-life, there are features that can enhance real-life experience. For example, a
simulation can provide authentic and relevant scenarios, make use of pressure situa-
tion that tap users’ emotions and force them to act, they provide a sense of unre-
stricted options and they can be replayed”, referencing Aldrich (2004). Steinberg
(2000) contends that “students should know that simulations make it possible to ex-
plore new domains, make predictions, design experiments, and interpret results”.
One major advantage of using virtual reality to teach objectives is that it is highly mo-
tivating. An investigation by Mikropoulos, Chalkidis, Katsikis, and Emvalotis (1998)
of the attitude of education students towards virtual reality as a tool in the educa-
tional process, and towards virtual learning environments on specific disciplines,
found students had a favourable attitude towards virtual reality in the educational
process.
VR grabs and holds the attention of students. This has been documented in the re-
ports of a number of research studies. Students find it exciting and challenging to
walk through an environment in three dimensions, interact with an environment, and
create their own three dimensional (3D) worlds.
Virtual reality can more accurately illustrate some features, processes, and so forth
than by other means. VR allows extreme close-up examination of an object. VR gives
the opportunity for insights based on new perspectives. Looking at the model of an
object from the inside or the top or bottom shows areas never seen before. For ex-
ample, once a molecule is modeled in VR, students can study it in detail, go inside the
molecule, walk around, and become familiar with its parts. VR allows examination of
an object from a distance, showing the whole rather than a part. A VR model of a
neighborhood gives the inhabitants a different perspective on the interconnections
between buildings, streets, and open areas.
VR can change the way a learner interacts with the subject matter. VR requires inter-
action. It encourages active participation rather than passivity. The participant who
interacts with the virtual environment is encouraged to continue interacting by see-
ing the results immediately. VR provides an opportunity for the learner to make dis-
coveries previously unknown. New perspectives are made possible by modeling the
real world, and studying the model can provide insights never before realized. VR
allows the disabled to participate in an experiment or learning environment when
they cannot do so otherwise. They can do chemistry and physics lab experiments and
learn by doing. VR allows a learner to proceed through an experience at his or her
own pace. The learner decides what to do when interacting with the virtual environ-
V. S. Pantelidis
64
ment. VR allows a learner to proceed through an experience during a broad time pe-
riod not fixed by a regular class schedule.
VR allows a learner to learn by doing, a constructivist approach. VR provides experi-
ence with new technologies through actual use. A simulation of a new process with a
new piece of equipment can train a worker. VR provides a way for some objectives to
be taught via distance education which were previously impossible to teach in that
way.
Disadvantages of using virtual reality
The disadvantages of using virtual reality are primarily related to cost, time neces-
sary for learning how to use hardware and software, possible health and safety ef-
fects, and dealing with possible reluctance to use and integrate new technology into a
course or curriculum. As with all new technology, each of these issues may fade as
time goes by and virtual reality becomes more commonly used in areas outside of
education.
When to use and when not to use virtual reality
Virtual reality is not appropriate for every instructional objective. There are some
teaching scenarios when VR can be used and some when it should not be used.
Pantelidis (1996) makes the following suggestions on when to use and when not to
use virtual reality in education.
Use or consider using virtual reality when
a simulation could be used.
teaching or training using the real thing is dangerous, impossible, inconvenient,
or difficult.
a model of an environment will teach or train as well as the real thing.
interacting with a model is as motivating as or more motivating than interacting
with the real thing.
travel, cost, and/or logistics of gathering a class for training make an alternative
attractive.
shared experiences of a group in a shared environment are important.
the experience of creating a simulated environment or model is important to the
learning objective.
information visualization is needed, manipulating and rearranging information,
using graphic symbols, so it can be more easily understood.
Reasons to Use VR in Education and Training
65
a training situation needs to be made really real.
needed to make perceptible the imperceptible.
developing participatory environments and activities that can only exist as com-
puter-generated worlds.
teaching tasks involving manual dexterity or physical movement.
essential to make learning more interesting and fun.
needed to give the disabled the opportunity to do experiments, and activities
that they cannot do otherwise.
mistakes made by the learner or trainee using the real thing could be devastat-
ing and/or demoralizing to the learner, harmful to the environment, capable of
causing unintended property damage, capable of causing damage to equipment,
or costly.
Do not use virtual reality if
no substitution is possible for teaching/training with the real thing.
interaction with real humans, either teachers or students, is necessary.
using a virtual environment could be physically or emotionally damaging.
using a virtual environment can result in "literalization" (Stuart, 1992), a simu-
lation so convincing that some users could confuse model with reality.
virtual reality is too expensive to justify using, considering the expected learning
outcome.
A model to determine when to use virtual reality
in education and training courses
Educators and trainers make use of many instructional aids in teaching courses, such
as textbooks, videotapes, films, computer software, and, increasingly, the Internet
and the World Wide Web with podcasts, blogs, and virtual environments. Learning
theory, instructional theory, learning styles, and types of intelligence are used to help
determine which type of aid or medium should be used. What is being taught, how it
is being taught, the behavioral outcome, and other factors also help determine the
medium chosen.
A course of study can be composed of hundreds of specific objectives, each of which
must be mastered by the student. Traditionally, objectives have been taught using
textbooks, lectures, discussions, and some forms of media. Virtual reality can be used
to teach some of these objectives, and it can be used to determine whether certain
objectives have been mastered.
V. S. Pantelidis
66
The educator or trainer must decide when and where to use VR. A model for deter-
mining when to use VR in any one course can help in making these decisions. Decid-
ing when to use VR leads to decisions on where to use VR.
The author proposes such a model. The model considers the research on the reasons
to use and advantages of using simulations, particularly computer-generated simula-
tions. Findings on reasons to use and advantages of using virtual reality are then con-
sidered. The author believes that using research findings for both computer-
generated simulations and virtual reality makes the model more flexible. Although
specific, the model is broad enough to adjust for changes in the technology of virtual
reality in the future.
The 10-step model to determine when to use virtual reality includes the following
steps.
Step 1. The specific course objectives are defined.
Step 2. The objectives that could use a simulation, a computer-generated simulation,
or virtual reality (a 3D simulation) as a measurement or means for attainment are
selected. Reasons to use and advantages of using simulations and virtual reality are
considered when making the selections.
Step 3. Refine the selection list by choosing those that can use a 3D simulation, using
virtual reality, as a measurement or means for attainment of course objectives.
Step 4. For every objective in the list, perform the following substeps:
Substep 1. Determine level of realism required, on a scale from very symbolic to very
real.
Substep 2. Determine type of immersion and presence needed, on a scale from no
immersion into the 3D environment (for example, desktop VR) to full immersion (us-
ing head-mounted display, gloves, and so forth), and no feeling of presence to strong
feeling of presence.
Substep 3. Determine type of interaction with, and sensory input and output to and
from, the virtual world or environment needed, (for example, haptic - tactile or feel-
ing, 3D sound, audio, visual, text, gesture).
Step 5. According to Step 5 choices, VR software, hardware and/or delivery system
(for example, Internet/World Wide Web) are chosen.
Reasons to Use VR in Education and Training
67
Step 6. The virtual environment (VE) is designed and built.
According to requirements of the objective, it may be built
by instructor or virtual world builder,
by the students,
or obtained prebuilt and modified.
Step 7. The resulting virtual environment is evaluated using a pilot group of students.
Step 8. Evaluation results are used to modify the virtual environment. Steps 7 and 8
are repeated until the virtual environment is shown to successfully measure or aid in
attainment of the objective.
Step 9. The virtual environment is evaluated using the target population.
Step 10. Evaluation results are used to modify the virtual environment. Steps 9 and
10 are repeated as needed to keep the virtual environment relevant to the objective.
Evaluation and modification continues as long as the virtual environment is used
with the target population.
The model is shown in Figure 1.
The author has used this model as part of student assignments in virtual reality
courses since 1995. It has been revised a number of times. The model is based on the
work of Dr. Leslie J. Briggs and Dr. Robert Gagné (see Gagné & Briggs, 1979, for a
thorough explanation of their model for instructional design).
It is a tribute to the work of Briggs and Gagné, and to that of leaders in the use of
simulation in teaching, such as Dr. Martha Jane K. Zachert (see Zachert, 1975; Zachert
& Pantelidis, 1971), that their models and the results of their work, can be adapted
and used with the still evolving technology of virtual reality at the beginning of the
21st century.
Conclusion
Virtual reality has a place in education and training. Research on educational applica-
tions of VR, as well as research on the educational use of simulations has shown its
value. There are many reasons to use VR and advantages to using VR. The educator or
trainer has only to determine when to use it. The use of a model can help make that
determination. Such a model can play a part in the continuing search for ways to use
virtual reality in education and training courses.
V. S. Pantelidis
68
Figure 1. Model for determining when to use virtual reality in education and
training courses. Copyright 1997, 2009 by Veronica Sexauer Pantelidis.
Reasons to Use VR in Education and Training
69
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... The concept of using VR as a medium for instruction can be dated back to the 1950s which set its course for popular adoption in 1977 with the introduction of microcomputers (Pantelidis, 2010). However, the purpose of using VR in the education domain needs to be justified from a pedagogical point of view, as described by Pantelidis (2010). ...
... The concept of using VR as a medium for instruction can be dated back to the 1950s which set its course for popular adoption in 1977 with the introduction of microcomputers (Pantelidis, 2010). However, the purpose of using VR in the education domain needs to be justified from a pedagogical point of view, as described by Pantelidis (2010). He theorized the affordance of this technology as suitable for constructivist, self-regulated and experiential learning through a first-person perspective in an immersive environment (Pantelidis, 2010). ...
... However, the purpose of using VR in the education domain needs to be justified from a pedagogical point of view, as described by Pantelidis (2010). He theorized the affordance of this technology as suitable for constructivist, self-regulated and experiential learning through a first-person perspective in an immersive environment (Pantelidis, 2010). VR in education and training is a convenient alternative for simulation where learning in the real environment poses risks to the learners or if the difference in cost is significant between an actual and a virtual environment. ...
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Virtual Reality (VR) refers to a visual experience that creates a fully immersive sensation surrounded by three-dimensional (3D) stereoscopic images of a virtually artificial or pre-recorded environment. Differing new aspects of VR usage in different domains (e.g., aviation, healthcare, military, education etc.) have sprung up in the past few decades. However, ethical problems in the use of VR along with its physical and psychological harm calls for a critical evaluation of the technology before it can be utilized for everyday use. The goal of this paper is to inspect the ethical implications involving both personal as well as the societal impact of deploying VR in education and training purposes. In addition, a few recommendations for ensuring the ethical use of VR in the future is presented.
... There already exists a range of educational activities and training processes based on VR for higher education with various disciplines (e.g., geoscience [15], climatology [29,68], psychology [31], art [6] and construction management [49]). Using VR as an educational tool provides new forms and methods of visualization and presentation ( [86,87]), motivates students' learning and stimulates their interest [64,75,87], and enhances students' learning and comprehensive by providing a learning context that is hard to replicate or accessible in real life [7]. Learning in VR also has a theoretical root in constructivism learning theory [117], which advocates constructing knowledge based on students' real experiences [99] because "VR promotes the best and probably only strategy that allows students to learn from non-symbolic first-person experience. ...
... There already exists a range of educational activities and training processes based on VR for higher education with various disciplines (e.g., geoscience [15], climatology [29,68], psychology [31], art [6] and construction management [49]). Using VR as an educational tool provides new forms and methods of visualization and presentation ( [86,87]), motivates students' learning and stimulates their interest [64,75,87], and enhances students' learning and comprehensive by providing a learning context that is hard to replicate or accessible in real life [7]. Learning in VR also has a theoretical root in constructivism learning theory [117], which advocates constructing knowledge based on students' real experiences [99] because "VR promotes the best and probably only strategy that allows students to learn from non-symbolic first-person experience. ...
... Learning in VR also has a theoretical root in constructivism learning theory [117], which advocates constructing knowledge based on students' real experiences [99] because "VR promotes the best and probably only strategy that allows students to learn from non-symbolic first-person experience. " [117] As there are many advantages for using VR in education [87], showing great potential for educators, it is crucial to understand the benefits and challenges in integrating VR into the actual classroom as a standard and practical educational tool around the world. Many prior works in HCI have studied specific applications or systems to achieve individual learning goals or explored specific problems conducted in the lab environments [42]. ...
... It helps students to achieve specific goals by providing motivation. Studies have shown that students have a positive attitude towards the use of VR in education (Pantelidis, 2010). VR contributes to attracting and keeping students' attention on the subject (Freina & Ott, 2015). ...
... VR allows examining in a 3D detail in the 3D environment. For example, when a model and structure is given to students, it allows them to analyze in detail from every aspect (Pantelidis, 2010). VR encourages active participation and communication by bringing different perspectives to the way students connect and relate to the subject. ...
... The intense relationships between studied structure, and the real world contribute to the understanding of the models and the subject (Abidi et al., 2018). Students also learn in line with their learning speed can be shown as another advantage of VR applications (Pantelidis, 2010). VR learning takes place based on constructivist learning theory (Carruth, 2017). ...
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The aim of this study was to research the effects of virtual reality and animation supported science teaching software prepared for 6th-grade systems in our body unit circulatory system subject on students’ cognitive load levels, academic success and cognitive levels. Cognitive Level Scale (CLES) and Cognitive Load Scale (CLOS) were used as data collection instrument. When the results of the study were examined, a significant difference was found between cognitive levels of students in favour of the experimental group which received virtual reality software supported teaching. At the same time, since cognitive level scale is an achievement test, a comparison was made between the groups in terms of academic achievement. Academic achievements of the students in the virtual reality software supported experimental group were significantly different and higher when compared with students in the other group. In addition, when cognitive levels of the students were examined, it was found that virtual reality supported experimental group had higher cognitive levels when compared with other groups. When the scores of cognitive load scale were examined, it was found that virtual reality supported experimental group had lower cognitive load. As a conclusion, virtual reality supported science education contributes to students’ academic achievement, their states of having higher cognitive levels and lower cognitive load.
... Ponadto muszą istnieć jasne cele edukacyjne i oraz takie, które wspierają rzeczywistość wirtualną (Choi i in., 2016;Baker i in., 2009). W niektórych przypadkach rzeczywistość wirtualna nie jest najlepszą metodą osiągnięcia celu uczenia się (Pantelidis, 2010), dlatego konieczne jest przyjrzenie się programowi zajęć i określenie, gdzie może pomóc rzeczywistość wirtualna, a gdzie inne metody nauczania będą bardziej odpowiednie. ...
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Wprowadzenie Zarówno sztuczna inteligencja (AI), jak również wirtualna i rozszerzona rzeczywi-stość (VR/AR) posiadają potężny potencjał do wprowadzania wielu zmian w życiu ludzi. W to wierzą powszechnie nie tylko informatycy, wierzy w to również coraz większa liczba ludzi, którzy, wsłuchując się w narrację informatyków, wspierają się wiedzą zaczerpniętą z książek lub obejrzanych filmów science fiction w poszuki-waniu wsparcia informacyjno-decyzyjnego. Są to pożądane działania, gdyż ci lu-dzie, stając przed problemem decyzyjnym, sami sobie nie radzą w zadawalającym stopniu z podejmowaniem decyzji, albo mogą sobie poradzić, ale pod warunkiem włożenia sporego nakładu pracy, co często jest zadaniem nieatrakcyjnym. Do ta-kich zadań należy edukacja, która, mimo chwalebnych osiągnięć, ciągle obarcza ludzi obowiązkami, nudnymi procedurami zapamiętywania niepotrzebnych (jak się to często wydaje) informacji, które trudno uczącemu się powiązać w logicz-ne ciągi. Zarówno AI, jak też VR/AR, są przez nas w tych rozważaniach nazywane "zjawiskami" 35. Mimo że wymienione zjawiska mają zasięg ponadlokalny, to jednak natężenie ich funkcjonowania 36 jest zintensyfikowane w obszarach miejskich. Być może mają one charakter przejściowy, związany z wyłanianiem się zarówno AI jak i VR/AR w kontekście ich implementacji i wykorzystania, niemniej wydaje się, że miasta z różnych powodów stwarzają warunki dla akceleracji rozwoju tych zjawisk. Autorzy wyznaczyli przestrzeń-tworzoną przez nakładające się na siebie sub-przestrzenie miasta-sztucznej inteligencji i VR/AR. Może ona aktywnie stymulo-wać procesy edukacji. Nadto autorzy postanowili rozpoznać zakres oddziaływania tej przestrzeni na edukację. Aby jednak był sens zagłębiania się w takie rozważania, należy: (1) zdefiniować wy-mienione pojęcia, (2) rozpoznać sensowność ich wyodrębnienia poprzez sformu-łowanie założeń bądź tez, (3) udowodnić (zgodnie z istotą tez) ich prawdziwość, (4) rozpoznać wzajemnie związki między tymi pojęciami i (5) rozpoznać hipotetyczne 35 Użycie przez autorów pojęcia "zjawisko" jest figurą retoryczną, zaś jego uzasadnieniem jest próba objęcia tym sa-mym pojęciem (oznaczającym to, co dane jest w poznaniu zmysłowym) większego zakresu zidentyfikowanych różno-rodnych pojęć w sytuacji, gdy ta różnorodność dla narracji nie ma istotnego znaczenia z punktu widzenia oddziaływa-nia na inne zjawiska (na edukację). 36 Mówiąc o "natężeniu" zjawiska, autorzy mają na myśli charakterystyki ilościowe zjawiska, możliwe do przedstawie-nia w formie punktowej, powierzchniowej czy obszarowej.
... Da ‹Virtuelle Realität› auf drei Grundprinzipien beruht, nämlich der Immersion, der Interaktion der Nutzenden in der Umgebung und der Vermittlung dargestellter Inhalte, bietet VR grosses Potenzial in Bildungskontexten. 3D-animierte Lerninhalte können zum Beispiel Trainings an teuren Objekten oder Besuche unerreichbarer Orte ermöglichen (Salzman u. a. 1999;Pantelidis 2010;Chen 2016;Lloyd, Rogerson, und Stead 2018;Hu Au und Lee 2017). Die Erfahrung des Eintauchens in eine virtuelle interaktive Welt, während man eigentlich im Klassenzimmer sitzt, stimuliert verschiedene Sinne (Tzanavari und Tsapatsoulis 2010;Stein 2012). ...
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Virtual reality (VR), which is based on three fundamental principles, namely immersion, interaction and user involvement, is seen as having great a potential in language learning (Merchant et al. 2014; Chen 2016; Lloyd, Rogerson, and Stead 2018). This paper presents the experience of developing VR sequences in language teaching in the ‹Around the world in 5 days› project. The analysis presented here draws on the sociological perspective of ‹Science and Technology Studies› (STS) to take a critical look at human-machine interaction. Each phase of the project, from the development of lesson planning and VR sequences to user testing and classroom use, was documented and scientifically monitored. The article first gives an overview of approaches to VRLEs in terms of ‹immersion› and ‹presence›, presents the main findings made from theoretical conception to technical implementation.
... Virtual Reality (VR), 3D modeling techniques, and 3D printing have become very popular in various fields such as cultural heritage [2][3][4][5][6], ship design [7][8][9], and education [10][11][12]. Museums and institutions [13] use new media to offer new ways to communicate historical information to visitors and engage with new audiences. Information and communication technologies (ICTs) are known to enhance creativity in cultural and educational experiences, as they encourage learning by exploring an open environment and allow for a nonlinear storyline [14]. ...
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Virtual reality and 3D modeling techniques are increasingly popular modes of representation for historical artifacts and cultural heritage, as they allow for a more immersive experience. This article describes the process that was adopted for the development of a virtual reality application for four ships involved in the historic battle of Navarino. The specific naval battle was the culmination of military operations during the Greek Revolution in 1827, in which the allied British, Russian, and French fleet defeated Turkish-Egyptian forces. Representative 3D models of four significant warships that participated in the battle of Navarino were created: the British “Asia”, the French frigate “Armide”, the Russian “Azov”, and the Ottoman “Kuh-I-Revan”. These historic ships were digitally designed according to historical drawings and a VR battle environment was developed, which visitors can experience. In addition, the 3D models were generated by a 3D printer and painted according to the digitized ship-models. The development was conducted within the realm of the NAVS Project. The VR application, “The Ships of Navarino”, as well as the 3D-printed models were presented as part of a physical exhibition hosted in the Eugenides Foundation in Athens, Greece.
... Along with continuous advancements of VR in the technology, engineering, and science realms, VR has been expanded in training and education. The emergence of VR in various training fields was fostered by its capabilities available to use, including first-person non-symbolic experiences, which are unique and non-replicable by other means, as well as cost, time, and risk-free customization of the educational materials (Pantelidis, 2009). The traditional learning methods tend to promote thirdperson symbolic experiences, which are generally portrayed in passive learning tools. ...
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This study is a prototype of the virtual reality-based NIHSS stroke assessment training system and its evaluation. The National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) plays an important role in assessing acute ischemic stroke. However, it has always been a difficult task to train young doctors or medical students. Both educators and learners face different problems. The lack of practice opportunities causes a gap between verbal lectures and clinical practice. In this study, we try to overcome the difficulties of mastering NIHSS. After some investigation, we found that virtual reality (VR) has great potential in this case. We created a virtual reality system in which users will be provided with virtual stroke patients in the hospital. By the designed user and patient’s movements and dialogues, the user can interact with the patient in person and learn through practice. The prototype currently takes a healthy adult as the virtual patient to find out major system usability problems, and actual cases in the real world can be imported into the VR system afterward to provide the learners with an adequate self-improvement space. It can also be a helpful tool for the educators to train professional clinical staff. Heuristic evaluation carried out by designers and neurologists was conducted throughout the development. The VR system is believed to be an effective way to learn NIHSS. It solved some of the current NIHSS training problems and showed its potential value of operating the clinical skill in person in a 3D immersive environment.
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In recent years, virtual reality technologies have become increasingly accessible; and in educational contexts, this technology has the potential to expand the literacy of creativity and provide re-orientations for pedagogical thinking and meaning making. Using the Parallaxic Praxis methodology (Sameshima et al., 2019) to generate data understandings in a research project exploring teacher creativity, artistresearchers used Google Tilt Brush to investigate: How do entanglements of language, literacy and VR alter the pedagogical space of creativity? How is creativity enabled in VR? And, what does this dynamic pedagogical space offer to educators? Pedagogical sites of learning from the virtual renderings generated new perspectives to examine the intersections of creative agency, literacy and expression, learning spaces and research design—all of which are increasingly important as educational practises evolve in the wake of the COVID-19 pandemic.
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Background Physical therapy education benefits from innovative and authentic learning opportunities. However, factors that influence the acceptance of educational technology must be assessed prior to curricular adoption. The purpose of this study was to assess the perceived ease of use and perceived usefulness of a virtual reality (VR) learning experience developed to promote the clinical decision-making of student physical therapists. Methods A VR learning experience was developed, and an established two-stage usability test assessed player experience as well as the user’s perception of both ease of use and usefulness. Two experts evaluated the VR learning experience and provided feedback. Six student physical therapists and five faculty members completed the VR experience, responded to two questionnaires, and participated in a semi-structured interview to further assess ease of use and utility. Results High levels of perceived ease of use, perceived usefulness, and positive player experiences were reported by both faculty and student users. Faculty users perceived a significantly greater amount of educational and clinical utility from the VR simulation than did student users. Semi-structured interviews revealed themes related to ease of use, benefits, modeling of professional behaviors, and realism. Conclusion Quantitative data supported faculty and student users’ perceptions of ease of use, utility towards learning, practical application, and several constructs related to user experience. Qualitative data provided recommendations to modify design features of the VR experience. This study provides a template to design, produce, and assess the usability of an immersive VR learning experience that may be replicated by other health professions educators where current evidence is limited.
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The objective of this research was to investigate the effects of Interactive Computer-Based Simulations (ICBSs) on student's ability to give "scientifically accepted" explanations regarding physical phenomena in Mechanics, Waves/Optics, and Thermal Physics. Four subtopics were presented within each of the three main topics. There was one Interactive Computer-Based Simulation (ICBS) with relevant physics content for each subtopic. Theoretically, each of the ICBSs should serve as a cognitive framework to enhance students' explanations regarding physical phenomena in Mechanics, Waves/Optics, and Thermal Physics. To test this theoretical prediction a self-controlled design was used, where each of the subjects served as his/her own control. A random block design was used where each of the subjects was assigned alternatingly to the experimental and control conditions. The control condition was an assignment to do additional problems in the same content area as the ICBS and required approximately the same amount of time. The ICBSs were integrated into a sixteen-week semester physics content class for prospective physics teachers who served as students in the study. The course used a conceptually oriented approach. After using the ICBS, or for the control condition after doing the additional problem sets, semi structured interviews were obtained. These interview data were used to assess the students' ability to give scientifically acceptable explanations of discrepancies between their predictions and observations following the use of the ICBS. Results indicated that the use of ICBSs in comparison to the control conditions improved students' ability to give "scientifically acceptable" explanations regarding physical phenomena in Mechanics, Waves/Optics, and Thermal Physics.
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This paper describes the design of a simulation designed to support pre-service teacher education. The simulation prototype allows the user to take on the role of the teacher of a virtual Kindergarten classroom (children whose ages range from 5 to 6 years). As the simulation runs, the user is required to make many decisions about structuring the literacy lessons, classroom management, and responses to individual students. The user can monitor and track the progress of three targeted students throughout the course of the simulation. An embedded tool serves as 'thinking space' that is used at decisive points to encourage the user to plan and justify new decisions, and to reflect upon the observed consequences of previous decisions. Other supports within the simulation prototype include links to: textbooks; syllabus documents; in-service materials; sample artefacts collected from schools and classrooms; and other annotated online teaching resources. The initial prototype software of the simulation will be presented at the conference.
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Many researchers and instructional designers increasingly recognise the benefits of utilising three dimensional virtual reality (VR) technology in instruction. In general, there are two types of VR system, the immersive system and the non-immersive system. This article focuses on the latter system that merely uses the conventional personal computer setting. Although VR is recognised as an impressive learning tool, there are still many issues that need further investigations. These include (i) identifying the appropriate theories and/or models to guide its design and development, (ii) investigating how its attributes are able to support learning, finding out whether its use can improve the intended performance and understanding, and investigating ways to reach more effective learning when using this technology, and (iii) investigating its impact on learners with different aptitudes. This project chose a learning problem that was related to novice car driver instruction, to study some aspects of these issues. Indeed, the study provided valuable insights to a feasible instructional design theoretical framework, as well as an instructional development framework for VR based learning environments. In addition, it also developed understanding of the educational effectiveness of such a learning environment and its effect on learners with different aptitude.
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Do computer simulations help students learn science? How can we tell? Are there negative implications of using simulations to teach students about real world phenomena? In this paper I describe my experience using a computer simulation on air resistance. In order to parse out the effects of using the computer simulation and of having an interactive learning environment, I compare two classes which both had interactive learning environments. One class used the simulation and the other class used only a set of paper and pencil activities. In the two different learning environments, there appears to be differences in how students approached learning. However, student performance on a common exam question on air resistance was not significantly different.
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There is some evidence that Virtual Reality (VR) can contribute to raise interest and motivation in students and to effe ctively support knowledge transfer, since the learning process can be settled within an experiential framework. However, the practical potential of VR is still being explored: understanding how to use Virtual Reality to support training and learning activities presents a substantial challenge for the designers and evaluators of this learning technology. This chapter has the main aim of discussing the rationale and main benefits for the use of virtual environments in education and training. A number of key attributes of VR environments will be described and discussed in relationship to educational theory and pedagogical practice, in order to establish a possible theoretical basis for VR learning. Significant research and projects carried out in this field will be also presented, together with suggestions and guidelines for future development of VR learning systems. However, further research is required, both on technological side and on key issues such as transfer of learning, appropriate curriculum implementation, elements of effective VR design, and the psychological and social impact of the technology use.
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The teacher of library science can use case studies, simulations, and role playing to acquaint future librarians with the realities of library management. By using models, contextual statements, incident materials, and course management materials, the students can be involved in specific library problems which will later have broad on-the-job application. In order to most effectively use this method, the instructor must change from the traditional teacher-centered model to a facilitator model where he initiates and evaluates exercises, but is no longer the focus of class attention. Sample exercises, a bibliography, and hints on the design of simulation materials are provided in this textbook. (EMH)
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Electricity and Magnetism is legendarily considered a subject incomprehensible to the students in the college introductory level. From a social constructivist perspective, learners are encouraged to assess the quantity and the quality of prior knowledge in a subject domain and to co-construct shared knowledge and understanding by implementing and building on each other's ideas. They become challenged by new data and perspectives thus stimulate a reconceptualization of knowledge and to be actively engaged in discovering new meanings based on experiences grounded in the real-world phenomena they are expected to learn. This process is categorized as a conceptual change learning environment and can facilitate learning of E & M. Computer simulations are an excellent tool to assist the teacher and leaner in achieving these goals and were used in this study. This study examined the effectiveness of computer simulations within a conceptual change learning environment and compared it to more lecture-centered, traditional ways of teaching E & M. An experimental and control group were compared and the following differences were observed. Statistic analyses were done with ANOVA (F-test). The results indicated that the treatment group significantly outperformed the control group on the achievement test, F(1,54) = 12.34, p <.05 and the treatment group had a higher rate of improvement than the control group on two subscales: Isolation of Variables and Abstract Transformation. The results from the Maryland Physics Expectations Survey (MPEX) showed that the treatment students became more field independent and were aware of more fundamental role played by physics concepts in complex problem solving. The protocol analysis of structured interviews revealed that students in the treatment group tended to visualize the problem from different aspects and articulated what they thought in a more scientific approach. Responses to the instructional evaluation questionnaire indicated overwhelming positive ratings of appropriateness and instructional effectiveness of computer simulation instruction. In conclusion, the CSI developed and evaluated in this study provided opportunities for students to refine their preconceptions and practice using new understandings. It suggests substantial promise for the computer simulation in a classroom environment.