Article

Performance of zinc borate-treated oriented structural straw board against mold fungi, decay fungi, and termites - a preliminary trial

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Abstract

The performance of zinc borate (ZB)-treated oriented structural straw board (OSSB) against mold fungi, decay fungi, and termites was examined in standard laboratory evaluations. OSSB was fabricated with split wheat straw strands and diphenylmethane diisocyante (pMDI) resin. The ZB was added during panel manufacture to achieve preservative levels (wt.%) of 1.0%, 1.5%, 2.0%, and 3.0%. It was observed that after a four-week exposure to mold fungi all samples had some mold coverage, but the coverage on the ZB-treated samples was significantly lighter compared to the untreated OSSB. Decay test showed that the weight losses of ZB-treated OSSB blocks at 1.0% and 1.5% levels were significantly reduced compared to the untreated OSSB and solid wood controls, indicating superior performance of ZB-treated OSSB against decay fungi. The termite mortality indicated that none of the termites were alive at the conclusion of the test for ZB-treated OSSB. The results from these specific laboratory studies demonstrated that ZB retentions of 1.5% and greater provide performance against decay fungi and termites for OSSB panels. In addition, untreated OSSB has high susceptibility to mold due to the chemical features of wheat straw and incomplete removal of kernels.

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... Because of a shortage of available wood resources and the detrimental environmental impact of burning agricultural residues, studies have been conducted over the last few decades regarding agricultural fiber-based composites in China [6,7]. One viable solution involves using agricultural residues as raw materials for making agricultural fiber-plastic composites (AFPCs). ...
... ZB was primarily used as a preservative and insecticide, containing isolated polyborate anions, and the principal excellences were their relatively lower toxicity and uniform color of treatment. In other studies, ZB was combined with wood flakes during the production of composites to protect the final products from termites and decay [6,16]. Additionally, there is a detailed report published on ZB treatments and their performance [17]. ...
... Moreover, it can be attributed to the different structures between CSF and poplar, such as the specific surface area, crystallinity, and aggregation. Han et al. [6] also reported that the susceptibility of the oriented structural straw board to mold fungi was higher than that of pine wood. Note: a poplar and b rubber used as reference materials. ...
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Article
The effects of alkaline copper quaternary (ACQ) and zinc borate (ZB) on the resistance of corn stalk fiber (CSF)-reinforced high-density polyethylene (HDPE) composites to biodegradation were examined. Both biocides could inhibit termites, mold fungi, and wood-decay fungi, even at high CSF formulations (i.e., 60%). Additionally, ACQ enhanced the resistance of the composite materials to certain biotic stresses better than ZB. The CSF/HDPE composites treated with ACQ at the 3.0% level exhibited a superior performance against termites, white rot fungi, and brown rot fungi. ACQ treatment at the 1% level was optimal for inhibiting soft rot fungi. Furthermore, mold growth was not observed on ACQ-treated CSF/HDPE samples. The untreated CSF/HDPE composites were more susceptible to mold infections and decay than the untreated poplar/HDPE composites, likely because of an incomplete removal of the pith. The chemical features of the corn stalk may also have influenced these differences, but this possibility will need to be explored in future investigations. Furthermore, the CSF component of CSF/HDPE composites is highly susceptible to fungal attacks, with the soft rot fungus inducing the largest mass losses, followed by the white rot fungus, and then the brown rot fungus.
... OSSB is a commercially available composite with structural performance that uses rice or wheat straw and had its first manufacturing plant starting operations in China in 2009(HAN et al., 2012. The straw is split longitudinally prior to the production of the board due to the action of two grooved rollers with different tangential speed, so the binder is allowed to have contact with the inside of the split straw (BACH; DOMIER; HOLOWACH, 1999). ...
... Another feature of OSSB is the use of formaldehyde-free adhesive (i.e. p-MDI resin) in its composition, due to a better adhesion to straw in general (BACH; DOMIER; HOLOWACH, 1999;HAN et al., 2012;CHENG;HAN;FANG, 2013). Also, the limits of formaldehyde release of adhesives applied to lignocellulosic composites are under focus due to society's demand for more ecological processes and because its contribution to poor indoor air quality (STEFANOWSKI; CURLING; ORMONDROYD, 2017;WANG et al., 2018). ...
... Another feature of OSSB is the use of formaldehyde-free adhesive (i.e. p-MDI resin) in its composition, due to a better adhesion to straw in general (BACH; DOMIER; HOLOWACH, 1999;HAN et al., 2012;CHENG;HAN;FANG, 2013). Also, the limits of formaldehyde release of adhesives applied to lignocellulosic composites are under focus due to society's demand for more ecological processes and because its contribution to poor indoor air quality (STEFANOWSKI; CURLING; ORMONDROYD, 2017;WANG et al., 2018). ...
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Article
Oriented Structural Straw Board (OSSB) panels are composites made from straw originally from agricultural residues and nonformaldehyde based adhesive, whose main application is for construction as a closing and ceiling material. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of the polyurethane adhesive content on physical and mechanical properties of OSSB produced with locally available SbS (soybean straw). Four castor oil based polyurethane ratios (6%, 9%, 12% and 15%, by mass of the SbS) were tested. OSSB was evaluated according to European standards for wood-based composites; also, a physical and chemical characterization of the SbS was performed. SbS has an irregular shape, which reduced the OSSB mechanical performance due to the low densification of the composite and the development of transversal cracks on the SbS after the OSSB manufacturing process. The static bending and thickness swelling performance of SbS OSSB was not improved by the increase of polyurethane adhesive content. SbS low ash content and neutral pH extractives indicates that probably its chemical properties should not affect the setting of the adhesive.
... For zinc boratetreated particleboard samples, BAE values were 2.34 and Biological performance of particleboard incorporated with boron minerals 11.7 % at 2 and 10 % loading levels, respectively. These values were high enough to protect wood-based composites when 0.5 % BAE loading level was considered since most of the previous studies suggest the use of a nearly 0.5 % BAE loading level to protect wood-based composites against fungal decay (Murphy et al. 1993;Tsunoda 2001;Tsunoda et al. 2002;Akbulut et al. 2004;Ayrılmış et al. 2005;Kartal et al. 2007;Han et al. 2012;Xu et al. 2013). However, for biological performance, the AWPA T1-12 Standard Method (AWPA 2012) requires zinc borate retention at the levels of 0.75, 0.88, and 1 % for laminated strand lumber, OSB, and engineered wood siding materials, respectively. ...
... The increased weight losses also supported the phenomenon of boron release in these specimens. Previous studies suggested that boron compounds at a level of between 0.5 and 1.5 % BAE may protect wood-based composites against termite attack (Tsunoda 2001;Tsunoda et al. 2002;Akbulut et al. 2004;Ayrılmış et al. 2005;Kartal et al. 2007;Usta et al. 2009;Han et al. 2012). Treatment of composite wood products by non-pressure processes using zinc borate is standardized in the AWPA T1-12 Standard Method (AWPA 2012). ...
... The lowest ratings were observed in zinc borate-treated specimens; however, particleboard specimens containing boron minerals had higher mold ratings compared to those treated with zinc borate or with boric acid plus borax. Han et al. (2012) reported that oriented structural straw boards containing zinc borate at a level of 1.5 % or higher showed some resistance to mold growth and no complete protection was observed. Xu et al. (2013) found that borate treatments at 1 and 2 % BAE levels of zinc and calcium borates effectively prevented Each value is the average of 10 specimens. ...
Article
We compared resistance to decay, mold fungi, termites and insect larvae of particleboards incorporated with the raw boron minerals ulexite and colemanite to that of particleboards impregnated with the commercial boron preservative zinc borate, or boric acid plus a borax mixture. We also quantified water absorption, thickness swell and boron release of particleboards. Ulexite had the best decay resistance, and colemanite had the best termite resistance. However, ulexite and colemanite were not as effective as zinc borate or the boric acid/borax mixture in preventing mold growth. In general, the boric acid/borax mixture combination was more effective against Anobium larvae than the other treatments. Less boron was released by specimens containing zinc borate and colemanite than by those containing ulexite or the boric acid/borax mixture. In general, water absorption and thickness swell were similar among the different treatments, but both were slightly higher in the ulexite-incorporated specimens. Further mechanical tests will be needed to evaluate the particleboard properties and thereby the compatibility of these boron minerals with various manufacturing processes. © 2016 Northeast Forestry University and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg
... (Shmulsky and Jones 2011) According to Terzi (2018), boron-based preservatives available in various forms, for example, pure compounds, minerals or their combinations, are among the most promising biocides for protecting wood against biodegradation by fungi, termites, insects and thermal degradation. However, according to Han et al. (2012), few works have combined boron-based preservatives with wood particles during OSB manufacturing to provide termite and rot resistance to finished products. Adding that, the most promising option for moderate degradation risks was the use of leach-resistant borates, for example, zinc borate during panel manufacture, to the heat treatment process in OSB panels, its metrics and data mapping. ...
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Article
Given the need for durable and low-maintenance products, thermal modification has emerged as an environmentally friendly alternative, replacing chemical treatments. Although the literature reports a large number of articles related to the wood thermal treatment, nevertheless there is a much smaller number related to the thermal treatment of Oriented Strand Board (OSB) panels, which are scarce, limited or contradictory. This panel is used as a building material for internal and covered exterior functions in roofs, walls, floors, structural elements and other uses, currently being widely studied. Therefore, this research aims to present a bibliometric and systematic literature review on heat treatment of OSB panels published between 2000 and 2020 in the Scopus database, through extensive bibliographic review and using a simple and integrative systematic, containing its metrics and main findings. It was found that, despite the progressive growth of interest from the scientific community in relation to wood modification, thermal-based modifications still have much less studies compared to other techniques. At the end, gaps, opportunities and potential areas for future research related to thermal modification of panels are presented.
... However, these materials may be susceptible to biodegradation. Zinc borate is used to lend durability to these products, including oriented strand board (OSB), laminated strand lumber, oriented structural straw board, particle board, engineered bamboo scrimber, waferboard, and wood-plastic composites [44][45][46][47][48][49]. ...
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Article
Zinc borates are important chemical products having industrial applications as functional additives in polymers, bio-composites, paints and ceramics. Of the thirteen well documented hydrated binary zinc borates, Zn[B3O4(OH)3] (2ZnO∙3B2O3∙3H2O) is manufactured in the largest quantity and is known as an article of commerce as 2ZnO∙3B2O3∙3.5H2O. Other hydrated zinc borates in commercial use include 4ZnO∙B2O3∙H2O, 3ZnO∙3B2O3∙5H2O and 2ZnO∙3B2O3∙7H2O. The history, chemistry, and applications of these and other hydrated zinc borate phases are briefly reviewed, and outstanding problems in the field are highlighted.
... Concentrations of ≥2.25% boric acid in a 10% sucrose solution were shown to deter feeding in house flies (Hogsette and Koehler 1994) and ≥ 6.25% boric acid in dry-mixed and wet-mixed baits deterred German cockroaches from feeding (Strong et al. 1993). Deterrence of boric acid at high concentrations has prompted the use of borates to protect and preserve wood against termites (Kartal 2010, Han et al. 2012, Lopez-Naranjo et al. 2016) and wood-boring beetles (Robinson 1967, French 1969, Palanti et al. 2012. ...
Article
Boric acid has been used as an insecticide in the successful control of agricultural, public health and urban pests long before the advent of synthetic organic pesticides. Boric acid products, formulated as dusts, sprays, granular baits, pastes, gels, and liquids, are widely available to consumers and pest management professionals, especially to control pest infestations within homes. Boric acid dust is commonly used against bed bugs (Cimex lectularius L. [Hemiptera: Cimicidae]), but its efficacy has not been demonstrated. We evaluated the efficacy of boric acid as an ingestible and residual contact insecticide on bed bugs, and compared its efficacy on the German cockroach (Blattella germanica L. [Blattodea: Ectobiidae]) which is known to be susceptible to boric acid by both routes. Dose-response studies of 0-5% boric acid in blood demonstrated that ingested boric acid caused rapid mortality at concentrations of ≥2%, and even 0.5% and 1% boric acid caused 100% mortality, albeit at a slower time course. In contrast, bed bugs survived contact with high concentrations of boric acid dust. Smaller boric acid particles did not increase mortality of either unfed or recently fed bed bugs. The same boric acid products were effective at causing mortality of German cockroaches by both contact and ingestion. We thus conclude that although boric acid is an excellent candidate active ingredient for an ingestible bait formulation, residual applications of dust or spray would be ineffective in bed bug interventions.
... However, due to its high mammalian and environmental toxicity, it has been banned by EU legislation in 2003 and is being phased out also by other countries. Presently, anti-termite wood preservative treatments include those containing boron (Gentz and Grace 2006;Nami Kartal et al. 2007;Kose et al. 2011;Han et al. 2012;Li et al. 2012), copper and/or zinc (Tascioglu and Tsunoda 2010;Wu et al. 2012;Maistrello et al. 2012a;Akhtari and Nicholas 2013). More treatments are being discovered and tested, such as those derived from plants (Kartal et al. , 2012(Kartal et al. , 2013. ...
Chapter
A standard is a technical document approved by a recognized certification body at national or international level, which defines and unifies the characteristics and specifications of a process, product or service, to ensure quality and safe, reliable performances in respect to environment. The use of international standards allows to remove barriers to world trade, and their importance is particularly recognized in the field of wood technology, to guarantee that preservatives are effective in protecting wood from biotic degradation agents, such as termites. In the European Union, the USA, Australia and Japan, the existing standard norms to test efficacy against termites are exclusively related to subterranean species (Rhinotermitidae). Due to the great differences in biological features, these standards are not suitable for drywood termites (Kalotermitidae) that, on the other hand, are increasingly indicated as serious wood pests, worldwide. This chapter aims at filling this gap by outlining the differences in biology, ecology and behaviour of the two types of termites and their importance as invasive pests, describing the importance and features of standard norms and reviewing the available standards for wood protection against termites. Finally, a proposal for a standard protocol is presented, specifically developed to determine the efficacy of preventive wood treatments on drywood termites.
... The attempts to apply cereal straw in wood-based materials production have been undertaken for many years. OSB was manufactured from split straw with aspen strands or wheat straw (Han et al. 2010(Han et al. , 2012Cheng et al. 2013). Particleboards were also manufactured with wheat straw (Boquillon et al. 2004;Zhang et al. 2003;Bekhta et al. 2013) and rape straw (Dziurka and Mirski 2013). ...
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Article
In this study, reducing the density of oriented strand board (OSB) in the core layer where strands were replaced by rape straw particles was evaluated. The use of rape particles in the core layer did not significantly affect the mechanical properties of OSB. This type of board had only slightly deteriorated properties compared with conventional OSB. However, with a decreasing density, significant changes occurred in the modulus of rupture (MOR) and modulus of elasticity (MOE) determined for the shorter axis. The lowest possible density value was determined based on statistical analysis, allowing for the production of OSB that met the requirements of EN 300 (2006) for OSB type 3. The analysis showed that panels of this type can be produced at a density of 530 kg/m3.
... The most common biocide added to OSB is zinc borate [3,4]. Zinc borate is also used to protect other bio-based composites from fungal and insect attack, for example, waferboard, oriented structural straw-board, particleboard, medium density fibreboard, laminated strand lumber, bamboo scrimber, and wood plastic composites [4][5][6]. Zinc borate is added to OSB as a fine dry powder (1 to 2% w/w) when wood, adhesive, and wax are blended together during the manufacture of OSB [2]. The resulting composite is resistant to both fungal and termite attack, although higher loadings of zinc borate are required to prevent such attack when wood composites are subjected to severe leaching with water [7]. ...
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Article
Oriented strand board (OSB) is an important wood composite used in situations where fungal decay and termite attack can occur. To counter these threats, powdered zinc borate biocide is commonly added to OSB. The effectiveness of biocides depends on their even distribution within composites and resistance to leaching, but little is known about the distribution of zinc borate in OSB. Zinc is denser than wood and it should be possible to map its distribution in OSB using X-ray micro-CT. We test this hypothesis and chemically register zinc in OSB using SEM-EDX. Zinc borate particles aggregated at the wood-adhesive interface in OSB, creating interrupted lines of zinc oriented in the x-y plane. Zinc borate particles were also found in the lumens of wood cells. Zinc was distributed throughout OSB, although slightly less was present in the core of the composite than in surface layers. A network of zinc remained in OSB after leaching in water. The resistance of zinc to leaching may be due to its incorporation in glue-lines within OSB, in addition to its low water-solubility. We conclude that X-ray micro-CT is a powerful tool for studying the distribution of zinc in OSB and other wood composites containing zinc borate.
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The crystalline zinc borate phase ZnB3O4(OH)3, known in commerce as 2ZnO·3B2O3·3.5H2O, is an important industrial material used as a fire-retardant synergist in polymers, a source of micro-nutrients in agriculture, and a preservative in building materials. It lends durability to wood composite building materials by inhibiting attack by wood destroying organisms. The hydrolysis chemistry of this zinc borate is relevant to its industrial use. ZnB3O4(OH)3 exhibits incongruent solubility, reversibly hydrolyzing at neutral pH to insoluble Zn(OH)2 and soluble B(OH)3. It is sparingly soluble with a room temperature solubility of 0.270 wt% in terms of its equivalent oxide components in solution, comprising 0.0267 wt% B2O3 and 0.003 wt% ZnO. Aspects of the hydrolysis chemistry of zinc borate under neutral pH conditions are discussed.
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p class="Normal1"> A caracterização não destrutiva é uma das opções para determinar as propriedades dos materiais sem que o mesmo seja inutilizado posteriormente, geralmente determinando suas propriedades dinâmicas. Para que estas propriedades sejam relacionadas com as estáticas, faz-se necessário o uso de modelos matemáticos de predição. Contudo, a calibração destes modelos varia de acordo com o material considerado e requer a realização de ambos os tipos de ensaios, destrutivo e não destrutivo. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo propor modelos de correlação entre resistência e rigidez na flexão estática de compósitos do tipo OSSB ( Oriented Structural Straw Board ) a partir de sua densidade aparente e frequência de vibração, sendo esta obtida com a técnica de excitação por impulso. Foram caracterizadas placas de OSSB fabricadas com palha de soja e adesivo poliuretano à base de óleo de mamona em quatro porcentagens de adesivo, sendo estas: 6%, 9%, 12% e 15%. Os modelos de regressão múltipla propostos apresentaram boa precisão (R² > 80%) em predizer as propriedades mecânicas na flexão, sendo que o estimador da densidade foi o mais significativo. Observou-se também que o aumento do teor de adesivo nas chapas provocou melhora significativa no desempenho mecânico do material. </p
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Current research trends of non-copper wood preservatives for enhancing durability was reviewed; as a follow-up of the review in 2012 on copper-based wood preservatives. Main environmental friendly non-copper wood preservatives studied by many scientists were boron-based compounds, synthetic compounds from natural products, and pyrethroids family of chemicals, etc. The critical issue regarding treated woods with boron-based compounds used outdoors was the leaching of boron. Many studies mainly focused on boron fixation improvement using variety of polymers. Moreover, the studies showed notable increases in attempts to use natural products used commonly in the medical fields as wood preservatives as well as outdoor use of chemical modified such as acetylated wood developed in purpose of stabilizing dimension.
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Interest in the mechanisms of wood-degrading fungi has grown in tandem with lignocellulose bioconversion efforts, yet many potential biomass feedstocks are non-woody. Using corn stover (Zea mays) as a substrate, we tracked degradative capacities among brown rot fungi from the Antrodia clade, including Postia placenta, the first brown rot fungus to have its genome sequenced. Decay dynamics were compared against Gloeophyllum trabeum from the Gloeophyllum clade. Weight loss induced by P. placenta (6.2 %) and five other Antrodia clade isolates (average 7.4 %) on corn stalk after 12 weeks demonstrated inefficiency among these fungi, relative to decay induced by G. trabeum (44.4 %). Using aspen (Populus sp.) as a woody substrate resulted in, on average, a fourfold increase in weight loss induced by Antrodia clade fungi, while G. trabeum results matched those on stover. The sequence and trajectories of chemical constituent losses differed as a function of substrate but not fungal clade. Instead, chemical data suggest that characters unique to stover limit decay by the Antrodia clade, rather than disparities in growth rate or extractives toxicity. High p-coumaryl lignin content, lacking the methoxy groups characteristically cleaved during brown rot, is among potential rate-distinguishing characters in grasses. This ineptitude among Antrodia clade fungi on grasses was supported by meta-analysis of other unrelated studies using grass substrates. Concerning application, results expose a problem if adopting the strategy of the model decay fungus P. placenta to treat corn stover, a widely available plant feedstock. Overall, the results insinuate phylogenetically distinct modes of brown rot and demonstrate the benefit of using non-woody substrates to probe wood degradation mechanisms.
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and Aspergillus niger. The wheat straw benzene-ethanol or ether extracts content decreases after wheat straw treatment with lipases from Candida rugosa. This indirectly indicates that the surface wax of wheat straw is reduced if wheat straw is treated with lipases. The pH-values of wheat straw are somewhat changed by the enzyme treatment indicating that its buffering capacity is decreased. Wheat straw's surface wax is one of the main adhesion inhibitors in its use as a raw material for particleboard. The better properties of UF-bonded particleboard made using enzyme treated wheat straw can be explained on this basis. In this regard the effect of cellulases from Aspergillus niger yields the best result. und Aspergillus niger. Der Extraktgehalt (Benzol/Ethanol oder Äther) ist geringer nach Behandlung mit Lipasen aus Candida rugosa. Dies zeigt indirekt, dass die Wachsschicht der Cuticula durch die Enzymbehandlung reduziert werde. Die pH-Werte des Weizenstrohs werden durch die Enzyme leicht verändert, d.h. die Pufferkapazität wurde verringert. Die oberflächliche Wachsschicht ist eine der hauptsächlichen Einschränkungen beim Verkleben und damit der Verwendung von Weizenstroh als Platenrohmaterial. Die hier festgestellten besseren Platteneigenschaften nach der Enzymbehandlung können auf dieser Grundlage erklärt werden. Die besten Ergebnisse wurden dabei mit Cellulosen aus Aspergillus niger erreicht.
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Experimental panels were prepared to evaluate the effect of borate treatment on the behavior of the treated oriented strandboard (OSB) panels. Polyethylene glycol (PEG) was used as the flowing agent to improve resin fluidity during hot-pressing. The mechanical properties of treated panels containing PEG were found to comply with the CSA 0437 requirements for all properties evaluated. Creep-test results showed no evidence that borate has any adverse effect on the long-term performance of treated panels. The results of leaching tests suggested that panels treated with zinc borate can be used in unprotected environments without any substantial reduction in protection. Decay test results showed that treated panels were not subject to attack by Gloeophyllum trabeum nor Coriolus versicolor. Weight loss for the treated panels was under 2 percent compared to about 40 to 50 percent for the untreated panels. Formosan termite field tests conducted in Hawaii confirmed that 1 percent of zinc borate provides good protection against termite attack. After 24 months of exposure, panels treated with 1 percent of zinc borate were in a very good condition while the untreated panels were heavily attacked.
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The behavior of Formosan subterranean termites (FST) toward zinc borate (ZB) and calcium borate (CB)-treated oriented strandboard (OSB) from southern mixed hardwoods and southern yellow pine was examined in laboratory tests. Loading of ZB and CB in OSB provided protection from severe structural damage, but did not completely eliminate termite activity. The level of borate used showed significant effects on weight loss, percent termite mortality, and termite damage rating. Borate types had a significant effect on the sample weight loss and damage rating, but not on termite mortality. Wood species showed no significant effect on the termite resistance. Correlations between weight loss and damage rating and between weight loss and termite mortality for both wood species were fitted well by a decaying exponential function. A three-way regression analysis showed a significant cur- vilinear relationship among damage rating, weight loss, and termite mortality. Zinc and calcium borate treatment to retention levels greater than 1.0% BAE provided sufficient protection from FST attack. Additional field tests may be needed to determine whether ZB and CB treatments will protect OSB from large-scale attack by FST and if modified OSB panels will be acceptable commercially.
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