Akbari, O. et al. PD-L1 and PD-L2 modulate airway inflammation and iNKT-cell-dependent airway hyperreactivity in opposing directions. Mucosal Immunol. 3, 81-91

Department of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California, USA.
Mucosal Immunology (Impact Factor: 7.37). 10/2009; 3(1):81-91. DOI: 10.1038/mi.2009.112
Source: PubMed


Interactions of the inhibitory receptor programmed death-1 (PD-1) with its ligands, programmed death ligand (PD-L)1 and PD-L2, regulate T-cell activation and tolerance. In this study, we investigated the role of PD-L1 and PD-L2 in regulating invariant natural killer T (iNKT)-cell-mediated airway hyperreactivity (AHR) in a murine model of asthma. We found that the severity of AHR and airway inflammation is significantly greater in PD-L2(-/-) mice compared with wild-type mice after either ovalbumin (OVA) sensitization and challenge or administration of alpha-galactosylceramide (alpha-GalCer). iNKT cells from PD-L2(-/-) mice produced significantly more interleukin (IL)-4 than iNKT cells from control mice. Moreover, blockade of PD-L2 interactions of wild-type iNKT cells in vitro with monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) resulted in significantly enhanced levels of IL-4 production. In contrast, PD-L1(-/-) mice showed significantly reduced AHR and enhanced production of interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) by iNKT cells. iNKT-deficient Jalpha18(-/-) mice reconstituted with iNKT cells from PD-L2(-/-) mice developed high levels of AHR, whereas mice reconstituted with iNKT cells from PD-L1(-/-) mice developed lower levels of AHR compared with control. As PD-L2 is not expressed on iNKT cells but rather is expressed on lung dendritic cells (DCs), in which its expression is upregulated by allergen challenge or IL-4, these findings suggest an important role of PD-L2 on lung DCs in modulating asthma pathogenesis. These studies also indicate that PD-L1 and PD-L2 have important but opposing roles in the regulation of AHR and iNKT-cell-mediated activation.

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Available from: Abinav Kumar Singh, Feb 13, 2015
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    • "IMLET 5646 1–9 killed or live S. pneumoniae before, during or after sensitization with the model allergen OVA [23], possibly involving regulatory T-cells (Treg) to suppress Th2 T-cell cytokine release [23]. This is supported by the fact that S. pneumoniae infection is known to promote induction of Tregs more than any other Gram-positive bacteria, resulting in a reduced Th2 response and asthma-like phenotype [24] [25]. Killed pneumococcal components [12] [26] or pneumococcal vaccines [12] [26] have been used in a few studies as novel immunomodulatory approaches for prevention of allergic airway disease by mimicking the effect of an infection. "
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    ABSTRACT: Colonization with Streptococcus pneumoniae (S. pneumoniae) is associated with an increased risk for recurrent wheeze and asthma. Killed S. pneumoniae showed some potential as an effective immunomodulatory therapy in a murine model of asthma. Murine studies demonstrated protection against allergic asthma by symbiotic bacteria via triggering regulatory T cell response: treatment with killed S. pneumoniae resulted in suppressed levels of allergen-specific Th2 cytokines, while early immunization generated a protective Th1 response. We investigated the impact of lung infection with live S. pneumoniae on both the development and maintenance of allergic airway inflammation and respiratory tolerance in mice. BALB/c mice were infected intratracheally with S. pneumoniae either prior to or after tolerance or allergy were induced, using ovalbumin (OVA) as model allergen. Infection of mice with S. pneumoniae prior to sensitization or after manifestation of allergic airway inflammation suppressed the development of an allergic phenotype as judged by reduced eosinophil counts in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, decreased IgE serum levels and Th2 cytokines, relative to non-infected allergic control mice. In contrast, infection of mice with S. pneumoniae after manifestation of allergic airway inflammation combined with late mucosal re-challenge did not affect the allergic response. Moreover, induction and maintenance of respiratory tolerance to OVA challenge were not altered in S. pneumoniae-infected mice, demonstrating that mice remained tolerant to the model allergen and were protected from the development of allergic airway inflammation regardless of the time point of infection. Our results suggest that a bacterial infection may decrease the manifestation of an allergic phenotype not only prior to sensitization but also after manifestation of allergic airway inflammation in mice, whereas both, induction and maintenance of respiratory tolerance are not affected by pneumococcal pneumonia. These data may point to a role for undisturbed development and maintenance of mucosal tolerance for the prevention of allergic inflammation also in humans.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2015 · Immunology Letters
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    • "Data suggest that the cytokine environment may have an important role in differentially regulating PD-L1 and PD-L2 expression and modulating inflammatory responses in the lung microenvironment. In fact, studies also show that PD-L1 and PD-L2 have important but opposing roles in modulating and polarizing iNKT-cell function in airway hyper-responsiveness (AHR) and airway inflammation (Akbari et al., 2010). Shin et al. (2005) have shown that PD-L2, but not PD-L1 was found to elicit direct activating effects on DCs and this effect is supposed to enhance immune responses. "
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    ABSTRACT: Stroke outcome is worsened by the infiltration of inflammatory immune cells into ischemic brains. Our recent study demonstrated that PD-L1- and to a lesser extent PD-L2-deficient mice had smaller brain infarcts and fewer brain-infiltrating cells vs. WT mice, suggesting a pathogenic role for PD-Ligands in experimental stroke. We sought to ascertain PD-L1 and PD-L2-expressing cell types that affect T-cell activation, post-stroke in the context of other known co-stimulatory molecules. Thus, cells from male WT and PD-L-deficient mice undergoing 60 min of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) followed by 96h of reperfusion were treated with neutralizing antibodies to study co-stimulatory and co-inhibitory interactions between CD80, CTLA-4, PD-1 and PD-Ls that regulate CD8+ and CD4+ T-cell activation. We found that antibody neutralization of PD-1 and CTLA-4 signaling post-MCAO resulted in higher proliferation in WT CD8+ and CD4+ T-cells, confirming an inhibitory role of PD-1 and CTLA-4 on T-cell activation. Also, CD80/CD28 interactions played a prominent regulatory role for the CD8+ T-cells and the PD-1/PD-L2 interactions were dominant in controlling the CD4+ T-cell responses in WT mice after stroke. A suppressive phenotype in PD-L1-deficient mice was attributed to CD80/CTLA-4 and PD-1/PD-L2 interactions. PD-L2 was crucial in modulating CD4+ T-cell responses, whereas PD-L1 regulated both CD8+ and CD4+ T-cells. To establish the contribution of PD-L1 and PD-L2 on regulatory B-cells (Bregs), infarct volumes were evaluated in male PD-L1- and PD-L2-deficient mice receiving IL-10+ B-cells 4h post-MCAO. PD-L2- but not PD-L1-deficient recipients of IL-10+ B-cells had markedly reduced infarct volumes, indicating a regulatory role of PD-L2 on Bregs. These results imply that PD-L1 and PD-L2 differentially control induction of T- and Breg-cell responses after MCAO, thus suggesting that selective targeting of PD-L1 and PD-L2 might represent a valuable therapeutic strategy in stroke.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2014 · Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
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    • "As demonstrated above, cytokine production by iNKT cells is altered by the absence of PD-L1 or PD-L2. As both PD-L1 and PD-L2 can be expressed by DCs [13], [33], [34] we sought to determine the role of DC expression of these co-stimulatory molecules on cytokine secretion by iNKT cells. DCs were isolated from the lungs of IAV infected PD-L1−/−, PD-L2−/− and BALB/c mice and loaded with an iNKT cell stimulating ligand, α-galactosylceramide, prior to co-culture with BALB/c iNKT cells. "
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    ABSTRACT: There is evidence indicating that invariant Natural Killer T (iNKT) cells play an important role in defense against influenza A virus (IAV). However, the effect of inhibitory receptor, programmed death-1 (PD-1), and its ligands, programmed death ligand (PD-L) 1 and 2 on iNKT cells in protection against IAV remains to be elucidated. Here we investigated the effects of these co-stimulatory molecules on iNKT cells in the response to influenza. We discovered that compare to the wild type, PD-L1 deficient mice show reduced sensitivity to IAV infection as evident by reduced weight loss, decreased pulmonary inflammation and cellular infiltration. In contrast, PD-L2 deficient mice showed augmented weight loss, pulmonary inflammation and cellular infiltration compare to the wild type mice after influenza infection. Adoptive transfer of iNKT cells from wild type, PD-L1 or PD-L2 deficient mice into iNKT cell deficient mice recapitulated these findings. Interestingly, in our transfer system PD-L1(-/-)-derived iNKT cells produced high levels of interferon-gamma whereas PD-L2(-/-)-derived iNKT cells produced high amounts of interleukin-4 and 13 suggesting a role for these cytokines in sensitivity to influenza. We identified that PD-L1 negatively regulates the frequency of iNKT cell subsets in the lungs of IAV infected mice. Altogether, these results demonstrate that lack of PD-L1 expression by iNKT cells reduces the sensitivity to IAV and that the presence of PD-L2 is important for dampening the deleterious inflammatory responses after IAV infection. Our findings potentially have clinical implications for developing new therapies for influenza.
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