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Study on chickpea drought tolerance lines under dryland condition of Iran

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Drought is one of the most important abiotic stresses, which limits crop production in different parts of the world. Estimates of yield losses due to drought range from 15 to 60% which depend on geographical region and length of crop season. Plants adapt to drought environment either through escape, avoidance, or tolerance mechanisms. Chickpea is planted on 700,000 hectares in Iran. This area is fourth in the world after India, Pakistan and Turkey. Major chickpea area (95%) is planted in rainfed condition and is grown in rotation with cereals mainly wheat and barely. Most of the farmers grow this crop on marginal areas in the spring season. Terminal drought stress is one of the major yield reducer in chickpea in Iran. Major successes due to breeding have been achieved, in the selection for drought escape. The aim of present study was to find early maturity chickpea lines, which can escape terminal drought stress. The experiment material comprised 40 kabuli chickpea lines with susceptible check (ILC 3279) in RCBD design with two replications at research stations of Kermanshah, Shirvan, Orumieh and Zanjan Province during 2002-03 and 2003-04. The experiments were sown late (10 April) by 20 days in comparison to normal sowing date for terminal drought stress. These materials were sent by ICARDA as CIDTN through Iran-ICARDA cooperation. The genotypes were recorded for drought tolerance score on a 1-9 scale on the basis of ICARDA recommendation. The result of pooled analysis of this study showed that difference between yield and drought tolerance of lines were significant. The results showed that 35 lines had significant difference at 1% level of probability over susceptible check for drought tolerance. These lines produced higher yield than check significantly. Superior lines for yield and drought tolerance were ILC 1799, ILC 3832, FLIP 98-141, ILC 3182, FLIP 98-142C, ILC 3101, ILC 588 respectively. ILC 1799 has produced the highest yield, which was drought tolerance with high adaptability, early maturity and large seed size.
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Study on chickpea drought tolerance lines under dryland
condition of Iran
Sayyed Hossain Sabaghpour, Ali Akbar Mahmodi1, Ali Saeed2, Masood Kamel3 and
R. S. Malhotra4Sayyed Hossain Sabaghpour et al.
National Food Legume Coordinator of Iran, Dryland Agricultural Research Institute, Food Legume
Department, Kermanshah, Iran. P.O. Box No. 67145-1164.
1 Shivran Dryland Agricultural Research Station, Shirvan, Khorasan Shomali Province, Iran.
2 Agricultural Research Center of Western Azarbijan Province, Ormieh, Iran.
3 Agricultural Research Center of Zanjan Province, Zanjan, Iran.
4 Integrated Gene Management Programme, International Center for Agricultural Research in the
Dry Areas (ICARDA), P.O. Box No. 5466, Aleppo, Syria. Chickpea drought tolerance lines of Iran
Abstract
Drought is one of the most important abiotic stresses,
which limits crop production in different parts of the
world. Estimates of yield losses due to drought range
from 15 to 60% which depend on geographical region and
length of crop season. Plants adapt to drought
environment either through escape, avoidance, or
tolerance mechanisms. Chickpea is planted on 700,000
hectares in Iran. This area is fourth in the world after
India, Pakistan and Turkey. Major chickpea area (95%) is
planted in rainfed condition and is grown in rotation with
cereals mainly wheat and barely. Most of the farmers
grow this crop on marginal areas in the spring season.
Terminal drought stress is one of the major yield reducer
in chickpea in Iran. Major successes due to breeding
have been achieved, in the selection for drought escape.
The aim of present study was to find early maturity
chickpea lines, which can escape terminal drought stress.
The experiment material comprised 40 kabuli chickpea
lines with susceptible check ( ILC 3279) in RCBD design
with two replications at research stations of Kermanshah,
Shirvan, Orumieh and Zanjan Province during 2002-03
and 2003-04. The experiments were sown late (10 April)
by 20 days in comparison to normal sowing date for
terminal drought stress. These materials were sent by
ICARDA as CIDTN through Iran-ICARDA cooperation. The
genotypes were recorded for drought tolerance score on
a 1-9 scale on the basis of ICARDA recommendation. The
result of pooled analysis of this study showed that
difference between yield and drought tolerance of lines
were significant. The results showed that 35 lines had
significant difference at 1% level of probability over
susceptible check for drought tolerance. These lines
produced higher yield than check significantly. Superior
lines for yield and drought tolerance were ILC 1799, ILC
3832, FLIP 98-141, ILC 3182, FLIP 98-142C, ILC 3101, ILC
588 respectively. ILC 1799 has produced the highest
yield, which was drought tolerance with high adaptability,
early maturity and large seed size.
Key words: Drought tolerance, dryland, chickpea.
Introduction
Drought is the most common adverse environment,
which limits crop production in different parts of the
world special in Iran that is considered as dry and semi
dry country. Often drought is accompanied by relatively
high temperatures, which promote evaportranspiration
and hence could accentuate the effects of drought and
thereby further reduce crop yields. 49.78 percent of
crops are planted in rainfall in Iran due to water
limitation and rate of rainfall. Productivity of crops in
rainfed area in Iran is 42 percent of irrigated field.
Estimates of yield losses due to terminal drought range
from 35 to 50% across the SAT and WANA
(Sabaghpour, 2003). Rahangdale et al. (1994)
reported that water stress decreased seed yield 15.2%.
Yield reduction differ range 30 to 60 percent in
chickpea, which depend on geographical region and
length of crop season. Plants adapt to drought
environments either through escape, avoidance, or
tolerance mechanisms (Sabaghpour, 2003). Chickpea
genotypes with high growth vigor are early maturity.
Initial growth vigor is suitable character for large-scale
evaluation of germplasm and breeding materials
(Sabaghpour et al., 2003). Chickpea (Cicer arietinum
L.) is planted on 700,000 hectares in Iran and ranks
fourth in the world after India, Turkey and Pakistan.
Chickpea productivity in Iran is less than half of world
average yield. 95 percent of chickpea areas (665000
ha) are planted in rainfed condition and is grown. Most
of the farmers grow this crop in marginal areas in the
spring. Due to lack of rainfall during flowering, podding
and seed filling, terminal drought stress is major abiotic
stress for reducing chickpea productivity in Iran.
Therefore, selection for early maturity chickpea line is
the most important objective for escaping terminal
drought stress.
Indian J. Crop Science, 1(1-2): 70-73 (2006)
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Materials and methods
Objective of present study was to find chickpea drought
tolerance with desirable characters. The experiment
was conducted during two years on 2002-2003 and
2003-2004 using a randomized complete block design
with two replications, at four different locations at
Kermanshah, Shirvan, Zanjan and Oromieh Research
Station in Iran. Materials comprised 40 lines along with
susceptible check (ILC 3279) with origin of India,
Turkey, Morocco, Tunisia, ICARDA and ICRISAT. The
genotypes were planted as single rows, with spacing of
30 cm between rows and 10 cm between plants within
a row. Date of planting postpone 20 days in normal
planting for more force terminal drought stress.
Appropriate pesticide was used to control pest.
Fertilizers were applied prior to ploughing at the
recommended rates of 20 and 30 kg/ha for N, P2O5
respectively. Days to 50% Flowering, Days to maturity,
initial growth vigor, drought tolerance score, 100-seed
weight and seed yield were recorded during cropping
season. The genotypes were recorded for vigor score
on a 1-5 scale (1=Very good, 2=Good, 3=Average, 4=
poor and 5- very poor) on the basis of ICARDA
recommendation. Selection for high growth vigor
enhances chance for escaping terminal drought stress
(Sabaghpour and Kumar, 2003). Also on the basis of
ICARDA recommendation, the drought tolerance rated
on drought tolerance score (DTS) as following:
1. Free, early flowering, good early plant vigor,
100% pod setting
2. Highly tolerant, early flowering, good early plant
vigor, 96-99% pod setting
3. Tolerant, early flowering, good early plant vigor,
86-95% pod setting
4. Moderately tolerant, early flowering, moderate
early plant vigor, 76-85% pod setting
5. Intermediate, medium flowering, poor early plant
vigor, 51-75% pod setting
6. Moderately susceptible, medium flowering, lack of
early plant vigor, 26-50% pod setting
7. Susceptible, late flowering, lack of early plant
vigor, 11-25% pod setting
8. Highly susceptible, late flowering, lack of early
plant vigor, 1-10% pod setting
9. 100% plants killed, lack of early plant vigor, no
flowering, no pod setting
Combined analysis was done on drought
tolerance score and seed yield.
Results and discussion
The results of combined analysis on drought tolerance
score showed that no significant difference among the
years and location. But, interaction of genotypes ×
location was significant at 1% level of probability. The
results of combined analysis of present study on
drought tolerance score showed that a significant
difference among the genotypes at 1% level of
probability. The results of combined analysis on seed
yield showed that among the years and location were
not significant difference. The result indicated that
interaction of genotypes × location was significant at
1% level of probability. A significant difference was also
found among the genotypes yield (Table 1). 35
genotypes were significant tolerance to drought in
comparison to suceptible check at 1% level of
probability. These lines produced significantly higher
yield than suceptible check. Genotypes such as ILC
ILC 3832, FLIP 98-141, ILC 3182, FLIP 98-142C, ILC
3101 and ILC 588 were superior in respect of drought
tolerance and yield in comprison to other genotypes
(Table 2).
Table 1. Combined analysis of variance for grain
yield at four locations in 2002-2003 and 2003- 2004
cropping season
S.O.V. df. M.S.
Location 3686758.06 ns
Year 153095.99 ns
Location× Year 36835611.99**
Rep (Location ×Year) 827806.44
Genotype 40 83027.71**
Genotype × Year 40 23610.72ns
Genotype × Location 120 22947.95ns
Genotype × Year× Location 120 20859.1*
Error 320 15014.24
655 Total
ns, *, ** : Non significant, significant at 5% and 1% probability
levels, respectively
Plants adapt to drought environments either
through escape, avoidance, or tolerance mechanisms.
Drought escape is a particularly important strategy of
matching phenological development with the period of
soil miosture availability to minimize the impact of
drought stress on crop production in enviroments
where the growing season is short and terminal
drought stress predominates (Turner, 1986 a,b).
Drought escape is the most impotant success for
breeders so far in comparison with other mechanisms.
Famers usually are not able to plant chickpea in the
begaining of March due to high miosture in field.
Therefore, they often have to plant chickpea in the end
March in Iran. Flowering time in chickpea will start in
the first of May which rainfall will stop in many years.
Indian J. Crop Science 1, 1-2 (2006)
Chickpea drought tolerance lines of Iran [ 71 ]
Indian J. Crop Science 1, 1-2 (2006)
[ 72 ] Sayyed Hossain Sabaghpour et al.
Table 2. Mean of agronomic characters in different location during 2002-2004
ENT Genotype DF DM Growth vigor DTS Class PH 100-sw Kg/ha Class
1ILC 588 59 101 32.5 A23 32 421 A
2ILC 1799 58.5 98.5 33.25 A22 36 519 A
3ILC 3101 58.5 102.5 33.88 A23 31 438 A
4ILC 3105 57.5 101.5 43.75 A24 29 357 A
5ILC 3182 59 101.5 33.63 A23 29 446 A
6ILC 3832 57.5 102.5 53.5 A24 31 514 A
7ILC 3843 59 101.5 33.25 A25 38 414 A
8ILC 4134 58 103 33.38 A25 32 403 A
9FLIP 87-85C 58 105 43.13 A23 34 373 A
10 FLIP 88-42C 58 100.5 23.75 A25 33 397 A
11 FLIP 95-74C 61.5 101.5 34.13 A24 40 347 A
12 FLIP 98-114C 56.5 102 33.25 A21 31 328 A
13 FLIP 97-21C 60 104.5 34.75 A24 35 351 A
14 FLIP 97-48C 56 101.5 32.75 A24 29 410 A
15 FLIP 97-49C 58.5 102 33.75 A24 34 401 A
16 FLIP 97-111C 56.5 108 36.13 C23 35 237 C
17 FLIP 97-254C 58.5 100 34.25 A24 26 397 A
18 FLIP 97-258C 60 105.5 34.5 A23 36 378 A
19 FLIP 97-265C 56 102 33.88 A23 31 373 A
20 FLIP 98-24C 60 100 33.63 A22 33 393 A
21 FLIP 98-55C 61 105 45.5 B26 35 255 C
22 FLIP 98-91C 57 99.5 33.25 A23 29 396 A
23 FLIP 98-106C 58.5 102.5 43.13 A23 35 361 A
24 FLIP 98-107C 61.5 102.5 35.25 A26 28 320 A
25 FLIP 98-113C 60 104 45.13 A24 31 367 A
26 FLIP 98-121C 60 101 34.13 A21 35 400 A
27 FLIP 98-130C 61.5 103 34.75 A26 30 341 A
28 FLIP 98-131C 61.5 103 34.63 A26 32 333 A
29 FLIP 98-134C 59 103 44.13 A26 35 341 A
30 FLIP 98-141C 57 103 42.88 A23 32 450 A
31 FLIP 98-142C 54.5 99 32.38 A22 33 445 A
32 FLIP 98-142C 58 104.5 43.13 A24 29 342 A
33 FLIP 98-206C 62 106 35.75 B26 33 283 A
34 FLIP 99-1C 62 102.5 34.5 A23 34 303 A
35 FLIP 99-34C 59 104 34.25 A22 30 305 A
36 FLIP 99-46C 63.5 100 36C23 35 252 B
37 FLIP 99-48C 60 109 45.88 B21 30 304 A
38 FLIP 00-40C 61.5 103 33.88 A24 34 388 A
39 FLIP 00-44C 60.5 101 34A24 38 378 A
40 ICCV –2 56.5 100 43.88 A22 25 385 A
41 ILC 3279 64.5 117.5 37.75 C28 29 133 C
Chickpea need the highest water during flowering,
podding and seed filling. Therefore, terminal drought
stress in most important abiotic stress affecting to low
productivity in Iran. Postpone for date of sowing is
suitable mothology to find early maturity genotypes.
Several short-duration genotypes of legumes show
higher and more stable yields than longer duration
types (Mc Blain and Hume, 1980; Hall and Grantz
1981; Hall and Patel, 1985; Rose et al., 1992). Overall
based on the mean of grain yield, drought tolerance
score, seed size and early maturity, ILC 1799 was the
most desiable line. The suceptible check (ILC 3279)
had the lowest productivity and the most late maturity
References
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Indian J. Crop Science 1, 1-2 (2006)
Chickpea drought tolerance lines of Iran [ 73 ]
... However, chickpea production is threatened by abiotic stresses such as drought along with temperature extremes (high and low) [74][75][76][77]. In chickpea, drought causes several morphological [78] biochemical [79] metabolic and physiological adversities [80] at various growth stages which in turn negatively impacts crop productivity [81]. ...
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... The occurrence of a short dry period during flowering, but also during fruit set and seed filling has been shown to reduce yield by 15-60 % (Yücel, 2019). These reductions have been shown to be dependent on both the geographical area and duration of the dry spell (Sabaghpour et al., 2006). The climatic trend facilitated the development of all the respective reproductive phases of chickpea accessions under the best conditions. ...
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Intensive agriculture and industrial development have damaged ecosystem balance in many parts of the world along with changes in the gaseous composition of the earth atmosphere, hydrology, and the global climate. Legumes are the gift of nature that might appear to safeguard the environment and ensure win–win benefits for society, economy, and environment. Legumes in association with bacteria can fix atmospheric di-nitrogen (N2) in root nodules. Globally, land-based biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) exceeds the amount of industrial nitrogen (N) production by 1.1 times. Such fixed N is partly utilized by the succeeding nonlegumes and thus N fertilizer can be reduced without sacrificing cereal yields. Growing legumes in rotation with cereals can increase soil carbon (C) sequestration by 9–45 Mg C ha–1, and reduce greenhouse gases emissions by 5–7 times compared to nonlegumes. Legumes need less N and can be grown under water deficit conditions. The rate of N could be reduced roughly by 200 kg N ha–1 for nonlegumes grown after grain legumes. Such savings of N from BNF could reduce carbon dioxide (CO2) emission by approximately 200 kg ha–1. Beyond BNF, mineralization of legume residues adds N and other nutrients to the soil and improves soil fertility. Legume plants can improve soil aggregates, increase soil water retention, and have a stronger adaptive capacity to adverse environments. Legumes can smartly mitigate the negative effects of climate change and acclimatize to a vulnerable environment. The inclusion of legumes in the cropping systems increases yields of both legumes and nonlegumes. Legume plants, therefore, should get priority to be included in all cropping systems, forestry, and aesthetics to get maximum social, economic, and environmental benefits. Realizing the importance of legumes, the chapter endeavored to fetch an overall scenario of climate change, multiple dimensions of climate-smart legume-based cropping systems, future research avenues, and policy implications.
Chapter
Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) is an important food legume that plays a critical role in ensuring the food and nutritional security of resource-poor smallholder farmers. However, chickpea production is seriously constrained by various climate-induced stresses, such as drought, heat, cold, salinity, diseases and insect pests. These factors often affect the crop independently or in combinations to severely impact chickpea yields. Intensive breeding efforts made during the past few years have led to the development of elite chickpea cultivars with tolerance to key abiotic and biotic stresses; still, there is enough scope to improve productivity. Furthermore, enhancement of genetic gains in chickpea breeding requires integration of rapid generation advancement, genomics-assisted breeding, high-throughput and precise phenotyping and application of novel breeding approaches to harness the favourable alleles in the modern cultivars tolerant to single or multiple stresses leading to the accelerated replacement of climate-vulnerable cultivars with superior varieties that can sustain production under changing climates.
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Physio-biochemical response and phytochemical variation in three West Asian genotypes (Torbetjam, Izmir and Gaziantep) of fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill) have been investigated in green house conditions to study the impact of water stress at 100, 50 and 35% of field capacity. In the Torbetjam genotype, chlorophyll content, plant growth and yield parameters under intense drought condition were slightly reduced, but content of compatible solutes (proline and glycine betaine) was increased by 36 and 47% as compared to the control. Drought stress promoted enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant system in all of the fennel genotypes. Torbetjam genotype exhibited more antioxidant enzyme activity, and the concentration of antioxidants like anthocyanins, tannins and flavonoids was increased by 127, 73 and 25% compared with control. Under drought stress, Torbetjam genotype resulted in higher monoterpenic constituents like limonene and beta-pinene and fewer stress markers like malondialdehyde and hydrogen peroxide, therefore causing less cellular membrane damage and lipid peroxidation. Based on chemometrical analysis, Torbetjam genotype can be considered as a drought-tolerant genotype.
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This paper briefly reviews the current developments on the role of leaf hydration on leaf growth and photosynthesis and concludes that changes in growth and stomatal action are not always closely correlated with changes in leaf hydration. A case is developed for soil and root water relations affecting leaf growth and stomatal function, and a role for plant growth regulators is postulated. The influence of this changed perspective on the adaptation of plants to water deficits is discussed. In particular, the importance of the adaptation of roots to water deficits is highlighted and the need for more studies on the interaction between the shoot and the root is emphasized.
Article
Drought escape through earliness is a potential strategy for the expansion of soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) production into marginal rainfall areas that has not been fully evaluated. In this study, early-maturing (Maturity Groups II to IV), indeterminate inbred lines of soybeans were developed from six single cross populations and evaluated under naturally occurring terminal drought stress at a latitude normally associated with maturity adaptation corresponding to Groups V to VII. Parallel evaluation under a high yield irrigation regime provided the basis for evaluation of genotypic response to moisture stress. All lines were early enough to exhibit drought escape, but there was an additional response in some genotypes. While all genotypes showed premature senescence under drought stress some genotypes, in the WilliamsxCalland population, continued growth for significantly longer than the parents or the population average under the terminal drought stress. A stress index for maturity was devised to describe the degree of premature senescence, and this index was shown to be a heritable trait not correlated with maturity per se. It is concluded that these lines represent a previously unreported source of tolerance to drought stress and, when used in conjunction with early maturity drought escape, they provide an additional trait for improving soybean tolerance to moisture stress.
Article
The physiology of three soybean (Glycine max (L). Merrill) cultivars of Maturity Group 00 was studied to determine why the new cultivars Maple Arrow and McCall outyield the older cultivar Altona. Field trials were conducted at Elora, Ontario, in 1977 and 1978. The seed yields of the new cultivars averaged 12% higher than Altona over both years, although the three cultivars were within 3 days of the same maturity. The higher yields in the new cultivars appeared to be related to consistently longer bean-filling periods than in Altona, although a difference (P < 0.05) was detected only in 1978. Rates of bean filling in the new cultivars were no greater than in Altona, which also indicated that longer bean-filling periods contributed to higher yields in the new cultivars. Flowering dates for cultivars were not different. Similar maturity dates indicated that the new cultivars had shorter periods than Altona from maximum bean dry weight to final maturity. Other attributes differed little among cultivars in either year. Total dry matter accumulations were similar until bean filling began. Leaflet areas and dry weights, leaf area durations and harvest indices also did not differ. The results suggested that a long bean-filling period was a desirable trait in early-maturing soybeans.
Article
This chapter describes the various aspects of crop water deficits. The water status of a crop plant is usually defined in terms of its water content, water potential, or the components of water potential. The simplicity of measuring water content led to its early adoption, but the diurnal and seasonal changes in dry weight make comparisons of water content at different times of day or during the season unsatisfactory. Water deficits develop inevitably as a consequence of water loss from the leaf as the stomata open to allow the uptake of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere for photosynthesis. There have been developments in both direct and indirect methods of measuring water deficits that have resulted in considerable progress in the field. The use of infrared thermometry for the measurement of crop water deficits and the use of in situ psychrometers for the measurement of water potential respectively is elaborated. It is found that the identification of the root as the site of sensing soil water deficits does not eliminate the role of turgor pressure as the transducer of water deficits, but moves the emphasis from leaf to the root. It is observed that at the whole crop level, the water use efficiency will depend not only on the transpiration efficiency of the leaves, but also on the water loss from the soil and the optimization of yield per unit of water used.
Breeding for resistance to drought and heat
  • A E Hall
  • P N Patel
Hall A.E. and Patel P.N. 1985. Breeding for resistance to drought and heat. In: Cowpea Research, Production, and Utilization. (pp. 137-151), Singh, S.R. and K. O. Rachie, Eds., Wiley, U.K.
Evaluation of chickpea genotypes for yield stability under moisture deficit
  • S L Rahangdale
  • A M Dhopte
  • K B Wanjar
Rahangdale S.L., Dhopte A.M.. and Wanjar K.B. 1994. Evaluation of chickpea genotypes for yield stability under moisture deficit. Annals of plant physiology, 8:179-184.
Mechanism of drought tolerance in crops. Agricultural Aridity and Drought Scientific and Extension Quarterly of Jahad Agriculture, N0.10 winter
  • S H Sabaghpour
Sabaghpour S. H. 2003. Mechanism of drought tolerance in crops. Agricultural Aridity and Drought Scientific and Extension Quarterly of Jahad Agriculture, N0.10 winter 2004. 21-32pp.
Present status and future prospects of chickpea cultivation in Iran
  • S H Sabaghpour
  • E Sadeghi
  • R S Malhotra
Sabaghpour S.H., Sadeghi E. and Malhotra R.S. 2003. Present status and future prospects of chickpea cultivation in Iran. International chickpea Conference. 20-22 Jan, 2003, Raipur, India
Role of initial growth vigor in drought escape
  • S H Sabaghpour
  • J Kumar
Sabaghpour S.H. and J. Kumar. 2002. Role of initial growth vigor in drought escape. In proceeding of Seventh international conference on development and management of dryland lands in the 21 st century, Iran. pp 57-58.