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Preventing Mental Health Disorders in School-Age Children: A Review of the Effectiveness of Prevention Programs

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  • Science Systems & Communities Consulting
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... School-based programs focused on externalising problems usually aim to reduce the symptomatology or factors that have been found to mediate the onset of externalising problems (Greenberg, Domitrovich & Bumbarger, 2000). School-based interventions are implemented at three levels: universal, selective and indicative. ...
... Children with externalising problems more often suffer from a lack of social skills, and cognitive distortions and deficits, which both contribute to the problems and are the consequence of those problems (Greenberg, Domitrovich, & Bumbarger, 2000). Neuropsychological factors contribute the most to behavioral problems (Moffitt, 1993). ...
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School-based programs focused on externalizing problems in students are recognized as an important part of school life and work. The aim of this paper is the systematization of scientific studies in the form of systematic presentations and meta-analysis of school programs, in which externalising problems in students is among the criteria for assessing the effectiveness of the program. Scientific results published in English in the last seven years are included in the systematization. Bases searched during research are: Google Scholar, PsycINFO, Web of Science (WOS), Education Resources Information Center (ERIC) and Scopus. The results of the research indicate that the most successful school-based interventions resulting in the prevention and reduction of externalizing problems are based on socio-emotional learning, that they are mostly implemented by teachers, that they are incorporated into the curriculum, and that their success depends on the quality of implementation.
... The mental health of adolescents is deep-rooted in positive child and parents bond (Elgar, Craig, Tirtis, 2013). An increase in the incidence of mental issues within families has been linked to limited prosocial communication (Barret, Duffy, Dadds & Rapee, 2001;Greenberg, Domitrovich, & Bumbarger, 1999). Consequently, mental health must be assessed from multiple perspectives comprising, biological, social, cultural, and psychological (Kendler, 2008). ...
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The aim of this research was to investigate the association between authoritative parenting style, resilience, and mental health in adolescents. The sample comprised of 300 high school students to university freshmen of age group 15 to 20 years. Data was collected by using purposive sampling techniques from various government and private educational institutions of Islamabad, Rawalpindi, and Wah Cantt. Gafoor and Kukuran's (2014) Parenting Style Scale was used to measure perceived parenting style. Resilience Scale (RS-14) by Wagnild (2010) was used to measure resilience. The mental health of adolescents was assessed by using the WarwickEdinburgh Mental Well-being scale developed by Tennant et al., 2007. Results of the present study revealed that authoritative parenting style was positively correlated with mental health. Results also indicated that resilience moderated authoritative parenting style with mental health. Furthermore, results demonstrated that males have better mental health as they are more resilient compared to females. Moreover, this study provides strong evidence highlighting the crucial role of parenting on mental health which will help the parents to adopt positive and beneficial rearing practices and to avoid toxic upbringing patterns.
... Our results suggest that self-reported depression symptoms are also managed by a universal anxiety-prevention program implemented in classrooms. This appears consistent with previous contributions that universal prevention interventions may potentially promote enhancement in levels of functioning in multiple problem areas [69]. ...
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The efficacy of the Cool Kids program has been consistently demonstrated both within Australia and internationally, but limited data are available on the use of Cool Kids as a universal program. The purpose of the study is to evaluate Cool Kids as a universal program for preventing childhood anxiety in the school context. There were 73 Italian children (35 boys and 36 girls, ages 10–13 years) attending the last year of primary school and the first year of middle school who participated in an active intervention based on a school adaptation of the Cool Kids protocol. Results of t-test analyses highlighted a downward trend of anxiety symptoms, especially in total anxiety, somatic anxiety, generalized anxiety, separation anxiety, social anxiety and school phobia at post-treatment assessed by children. Even the score of depression symptoms, measured as a second outcome measure, decreased after the treatment. This study contributes to the evidence base for the Cool Kids program as a universal program for preventing childhood anxiety in the school context. Although these preliminary results show some promise, their replication in future research is necessary given current study limitations.
... Capacities, such as emotion regulation, self-control and coping skills contribute to the ability to successfully confront daily challenges. Many researchers have emphasized the importance of working on key general determinants of mental health, rather than targeting problem-specific determinants, such as violence or bullying, in order to prevent a wider range of problems in children (Greenberg et al., 2000;Browne et al., 2004;Desjardins et al., 2008). ...
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Passport: Skills for Life is a universal, primary school mental health promotion program to increase children's coping skills. A stratified randomized control study with pretest, post-test and 1-year follow-up included 1,492 3 rd to 6 th grade children, from higher and lower socio-economic levels, randomly assigned by school to receive the program or a control group. Implementation and effects were evaluated by questionnaires and focus groups with children, parents and teachers as well as classroom observations. Program activities were well implemented and greatly appreciated, with perceived improvements in resolving conflicts, communicating feelings and coping. Compared to the controls, participants had increased emotional awareness, sustained 1 year later; conceived of more ways to cope in fictitious situations and reported using more, and more useful strategies, sustained 1 year later. Positive Academic Behaviors increased, but were not sustained the following year. This is a promising program to improve coping and emotional awareness that merits further research on its effects.
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CONTEXT Previous reviews of mental health interventions have focused on adolescents (10–19 years), with a paucity of comprehensive evidence syntheses on preventive interventions for school-aged children (5–10 years). OBJECTIVE To summarize and synthesize the available evidence from systematic reviews of mental health and positive development interventions for children aged 5–14.9 years in both high-income (HIC) and low- and middle-income countries (LMIC), with a focus on preventive and promotive strategies. DATA SOURCES This overview includes all relevant reviews from OVID Medline, The Cochrane Library, and Campbell Systematic Reviews through December 2020. STUDY SELECTION We included systematic reviews that synthesized empirical studies using experimental or quasi-experimental designs to evaluate the effectiveness of interventions in children aged 5–14.9 years. DATA EXTRACTION Data extraction and quality assessment were completed independently and in duplicate by two review authors. The AMSTAR2 tool was used to assess methodological quality. RESULTS We included 162 reviews. The greatest evidence was found in support of school-based universal and anti-bullying interventions in predominantly HIC. Moderate evidence was found for the use of substance abuse prevention, and early learning and positive development interventions in mixed settings. In LMIC-only contexts, the most promising evidence was found for positive youth development programs. LIMITATIONS The review was primarily limited by paucity of high-quality research due to methodological issues and high heterogeneity. CONCLUSIONS This overview of reviews highlights the need for further research to consolidate findings and understand the specific criteria involved in creating positive mental health and development outcomes from the various interventions considered.
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Kapalı her sınıf kapısının ardında çeşitliliklerle dolu bir dünya vardır. Bu çeşitliliğin tanınması, kabul edilmesi ve hem okula hem de topluma faydalarının açığa çıkarılması, günümüzde eğitim sistemlerinin farkına vardığı ve erişmeye çalıştığı bir amaç haline gelmiştir. Bu amaca erişmenin en etkili yolu olarak değerlendirilen kapsayıcı eğitim modeli, tüm bireylerin nitelikli ve bütünleştirilmiş eğitimden faydalanabilmesi için hem politika hem de uygulama düzeyinde kabul görmeye başlanmıştır. Dünya genelinde çoğu ülke, eğitim sistemlerinde kapsayıcılığı inşa ederek okulun “tüm çocuklara çeşitli alanlarda gelişim ve öğrenme fırsatlarının sunulduğu” yerler olduğu ilkesini hayata geçirmeye çalışmaktadır. Son yıllarda kapsayıcı eğitime yönelik vurgunun artmasıyla birlikte bu alanda yapılan bilimsel çalışmaların sayısı ve niteliği de hızlı bir şekilde artmıştır. Kapsayıcı eğitim, gelişmekte olan ve farklı bağlamlar, dönemler ve bireyler açısından tanımlanması ve uygulanması çeşitlilik gösteren bir model olduğundan, bilimsel çalışmaların da kapsayıcı eğitimi çeşitli bakış açıları ile incelemesi mümkün olmuştur. Bu durumun olası bazı dezavantajlarının (örn. bir eğitim sisteminde ortak bir tanım üzerinde uzlaşma güçlüğü) yanında, kapsayıcı eğitimin doğasına uygun olarak bir çeşitlilik içinde ele alınışını sağlamasının, farklı ortam ve zamanlarda, o ortamın ve zamanın koşullarına uygun bir şekilde tanımlanması ve uygulanışı için bir fırsat olabileceği düşünülmektedir. Nitekim kapsayıcı eğitime yönelik tüm bu kavramsallaştırma ve uygulama çeşitliliği içinde herkesin üzerinde uzlaştığı amaç “tüm bireylerin eğitimden faydalanma fırsatlarının artırılması” şeklinde olmuştur. Benzer şekilde bu kitap, okul sistemlerinin tüm çocuklar için açık hale getirilerek tüm çocukların okullarda elde ettikleri yaşantıların kendi gelişim ve öğrenme süreçlerini kolaylaştırması amacıyla okulların hizmet kapasitelerinin artırılmasına yönelik temel bir hedefi benimsemektedir. Bu kitap, kapsayıcı eğitime ilişkin kavramların, ilkelerin ve uygulamaların bilinirlik düzeyini artırmak ve söz konusu içerikten herkesin faydalanabilmesini sağlamak ve tüm bireylerin rahatlıkla ulaşabilmesi amacıyla açık erişimli olarak yayımlanmıştır. Ayrıca bu kitabın tasarımında görsellik ön plana çıkarılarak ve bazı bölümlerde özetleme yapılarak tüm bireylerin rahatlıkla anlayabileceği bir tasarım benimsenmiştir. Bu çalışmayı hazırlayan akademisyenler ve uzmanlar, tüm okulların bütün çocuklara açık olması ve tüm çocukların nitelikli eğitimden faydalanabilmesi gerektiğine ilişkin akademik, pedagojik ve insani sorumluluk ilkesini benimsemişlerdir. Bu kitaba eğitim uygulayıcılarının, ebeveynlerin, çocukların, akademisyenlerin ve eğitim politikası üretenlerin erişmesi, okuması ve anlam üretmesi hedeflenmiş; çalışma içinde bunun gerçekleşebilmesi için tüm paydaşlar açısından okunabilirliği artıracak bir dil, tasarım ve anlatım kullanılmıştır. Kitap içinde çok sayıda bilgiye yer verilmiş, vurgular yapılmış, görseller kullanılmış, anlatım sadeleştirilmiş, örnekler verilmiş ve önerilerde bulunulmuştur. Bu çalışmanın içeriği, on beş temayı içerecek şekilde on başlık halinde hazırlanmıştır. Çalışmada ilk olarak Kapsayıcı Eğı̇tı̇mı̇n Mantığı ve İlkelerı̇ başlığı altında kapsayıcı eğitime ilişkin bilgi verilmiş, kapsayıcı eğitimin tanımı, bileşenleri, ilkeleri, dezavantajlı bireyler açısından değerlendirilmesi ve önündeki engellere ilişkin bir içerik sunulmuştur. İkinci ve üçüncü olarak Engellı̇ Bireylerde Eğı̇tı̇m, Öğrenme, Gelişı̇m ve Özel İhtı̇yaçların Ekolojisı̇ ile Engellı̇lı̇ğı̇n Medikal, Sosyal ve Bı̇yoekolojı̇k Modellerı̇ başlıkları altında, günümüze dek eğitim sisteminden dışlanma olasılığı en yüksek bireyler olan engel ile tanılanmış olan öğrencilere ilişkin bir içerik sunulmuştur. Elbette bu kitabın yazarları, kapsayıcı eğitimin örnek öğrenci ve/veya öğrenci grubu hedeflemeksizin okulların tüm çocuklar için yeniden tasarlanması gerektiğini öngördüğünü bilmektedir. Ancak Türkiye’de ve dünya genelinde, özel gereksinimli bireylerin ve bu bireyler arasında engel ile tanılanmış olanların eğitim sistemlerindeki dezavantajlı koşullarının ve kapsayıcı eğitim ile ilişkilendirilmelerindeki kuramsal ve uygulamalı zorlukların devam ettiği dikkate alındığında, onlara ilişkin bilgi içeren bu başlıkların eklenmesinde fayda bulunmuştur. Dördüncü olarak Kapsayıcı Eğı̇tı̇mde Akran İlı̇şkı̇lerı̇ başlığı altında akranlarla beraber bütünleştirilmiş eğitimin faydaları ve akran ilişkilerinin kapsayıcılığa katkısı ele alınmıştır. Beşinci olarak Kapsayıcı Bireysel Eğitim Planı Tasarımı ve Uygulamaları başlığı altında kapsayıcı eğitim bağlamında bireysel ihtiyaçlar, kapsayıcı bir bireysel eğitim planının özellikleri ve bireysel eğitim planının kapsayıcılığının önündeki engeller tartışılmıştır. Altıncı ve yedinci başlıklar olan Öğrencı̇ Merkezlı̇ Sınıf Uygulamaları, Uyarlama ve Düzenlemeler ile İşbı̇rlı̇klı̇ Eğı̇tı̇m, Evrensel Tasarım ve Farklılaştırılmış̧ Öğretim içinde sınıf ortamının kapsayıcılığının geliştirilmesine ilişkin detaylı bir içerik sunulmuştur. Sekizinci olarak Kapsayıcı Ölçme, Tanılama ve Değerlendirme başlığı altında, eğitim sistemlerinin en çok tartışılan alanlarından biri olan ölçme, tanılama ve değerlendirmenin kapsayıcı eğitim bağlamında nasıl ele alınıp geliştirilebileceğine ilişkin bir içerik sunulmuştur. Kitabın dokuzuncu başlığı olan Kapsayıcı Rehberlı̇k ve Danışmanlık Pratiklerı̇ içinde okul rehberlik ünitelerinin, tüm çocukların ruh sağlığı ve başarısı için nasıl yeniden yapılandırılıp hizmet verme kapasitelerinin güçlendirilebileceğine ilişkin bir içerik sunulmuştur. Devam eden başlık olan Davranış Gelı̇şı̇mı̇ ve Yönetimı̇ içerisinde davranış süreçleri kapsayıcı eğitim bağlamında incelenmiştir. Takip eden iki bölümde Özel Gereksı̇nı̇mlı̇ Öğrencı̇lerı̇n Sosyal-Duygusal Gelı̇şı̇mı̇ ve Özel Gereksı̇nı̇mlı̇ Öğrencı̇lerı̇n Akademik Gelı̇ şı̇ mı̇ başlıkları altında başta özel gereksinimi bulunanlar olmak üzere tüm öğrencilerin kapsayıcı eğitim süreçleri içerisinde sosyal-duygusal ve akademik açıdan maksimum düzeyde gelişiminin sağlanması adına bilgilendirici ve yönlendirici bir içerik verilmiştir. Kitapta takip eden on üçüncü, on dördüncü ve on beşinci başlıklar olan Kapsayıcı Eğı̇tı̇mde Aile Temellı̇ Uygulamalar, Çocuk Merkezlı̇ Kapsayıcı Aile Uygulamaları ve Öğrenme Desteğı̇ Sunulması ile Çocukları Desteklemede Aile Katılımı ve İletı̇şı̇m başlıklarında, özel olarak okul sisteminin önemli bir paydaşı olan ailelerin kapsayıcı eğitimdeki rolüne yer verilmiş, ailelerin çocukları desteklemede, okul süreçlerine pedagojik, sosyal ve kültürel açıdan katkıda bulunmada ve toplum kapsayıcılığının düzeyini artırmada üstlenebilecekleri rol detaylı bir şekilde anlatılmıştır.
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