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"HISTORY OF MINERALS, ROCKS AND FOSSIL RESINS DISCOVERED IN THE CARPATHIAN REGION" – A NEW HANDBOOK

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Not only mineralogy has a long tradition in the Carpa-thian region but mineral species, first described from here, also have their own, sometimes a long and eventful, history. A classic example is nagyágite: first found in 1747, described at the end of the 1760s, obtained its present name in 1845 but had the first reliable structural model only in 1999. Discred-ited species may also have their exciting story, even if it has already been ended. Synonyms, language and spelling vari-ants of a given mineral name are also of interest. A compre-hensive review of the history of Carpathian minerals, how-ever, had not been published earlier. To fill this gap a long-term research was begun in the 1990s. A bilingual list of valid and discredited species and names (PAPP & SZAKÁLL, 1996) and a paper containing brief case studies (PAPP, 1997) embodied preliminary results of this project. Publication of the first comprehensive topographical miner-alogy of the Carpathian region (SZAKÁLL, 2002), including a geological background and some mining history, made it possible to concentrate even more on the historical aspects of the minerals of the area and to write a book that can be re-garded as a kind of "historical companion" to that excellent topographical mineralogy. The first version of the book was published in Hungarian (PAPP, 2002), and now an updated, corrected and slightly rearranged English version is available (PAPP, 2004). The book discusses the minerals (and rocks, fossil resins and hydrocarbons) that were first described from the Carpa-thian region (i.e. their type locality is in the region). Informa-tion is arranged alphabetically into 230 entries corresponding to mineral names. They include modern scientific names (terminated by -ite or -ine), outdated scientific names (like descriptive, systematic or chemical names), "popular" or "trivial" names and miners' terms and their spelling variants or misspellings, collected from international handbooks and papers. For each entry the chemical formula and symmetry of the mineral (or an explanation of non-species or invalid species names), a reference to the first publication of the name, his-tory of the mineral, type locality and etymological data are given. The historical part of the entries summarises the most important steps of the research history of the mineral from its discovery and reviews the subsequent changes of its status. Details of the descriptions taken from the original papers (given in PAPP, 2002) are omitted but a selection of their data (chemical analyses and basic crystallographic data) is given in tables. 592 synonyms and spelling variants are listed as cross-references and their data are appended to the relevant entry. The chapters on rocks and fossil resins contain 23 and 21 entries plus 19 and 32 cross-reference entries, respec-tively. The text is illustrated by 85 black and white (mainly crystallographic) drawings. Localities mentioned in the entries are listed in a table with their co-ordinates and most of them are shown in a sketch map. Type localities are briefly described in a separate chapter containing 10 historical pictures. Biographical data of 59 eponyms of minerals (persons, whose name was given to the species) along with 49 portraits are given in a special chapter. Further 12 portraits are in-cluded in the second page of the volume. Detailed bibliographical data of ~1270 references cited in the text can be found in the reference list. Advice and help was given by many colleagues of the countries of the region, among them A. (Slo-vakia) and V. M. Kvasnytsya (Ukraine) can be mentioned first. Some of the chapters were reviewed by F. Pertlik (min-erals), F. Koller, Gy. Lelkes-Felvári, Gy. Szakmány (rocks), M. Hámor-Vidó, N. Vávra (fossil resins and hydrocarbons), J. Földessy, I. Gatter (locality descriptions). Special thanks are due to C. J. Stanley (NHM, London) for the English edit-ing. Publication of the book was sponsored by the grant of the Ministry of Cultural Heritage and the National Cultural Fund of Hungary (2312/0348) and by the Hungarian Natural History Museum.: A Kárpát-övezetben felfedezett ásványok / Mineral species discovered in the Carpathian area. Miskolc: Herman Ottó Múzeum.
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Extensive compositional heterogeneity is displayed by Pb-Sb-Au tellurides from the type locality at S \checka\check{\rm{a}} c \checka\check{\rm{a}} rîmb. These phases are collectively considered as varieties of nagyágite in the absence of crystal chemical data confirming the presence of distinct, but topologically closely related compounds. Chemical heterogeneity is seen relative to ‘normal’ nagyágite, with close to the ideal composition Pb3[Pb1.8(Sb1.1,As0.1)1.2]Σ3S6 (AuTe2), which is the primary and common type in the deposit. A modified formula, (Pb3S3)[(Pb2−x )(Sb,As,Te b )1+x (S3−y Te y )]Σ6(Au1−z−w Te2+z S w ), accounts for the chemical variation observed. Values of x (0.2 to 1.15) express substitution of Pb by Sb+As for Me2 in sulfosalt modules in the case of Au-depleted and low-Au nagyágite, and by Sb+As+Te b in high-As and low-Pb varieties (b = x+1−(Sb+As) = 0.24 to 0.29). Excess Te compensates for Au deficiency in the telluride layer, with substitution by S also observed; empirical values of z and w are 0 to 0.45 and 0 to 0.32, respectively. Minor substitution of Te for S (y < 0.17) is noted in all varieties except low-Au. These varieties are formed during replacement of the ‘normal’ type as seen in overprinting relationships in those veins reactivated during rotation of the duplex fault-system responsible for vein formation. Replacement is by coupled dissolution-reprecipitation reactions, as indicated by pseudomorphism of one nagyágite type by another in all cases. Variable rates of both molar-excess and -deficit reaction are invoked to explain the observed chemical and textural modifications. Low-Pb nagyágite is also present in zoned platelets where it grows over resorbed cores of ideal composition. Such platelets are instead interpreted as products of self-patterning in a residual precipitate. A marked depletion in the Au content of some nagyágite lamellae is considered to be a diffusion driven Te for Au substitution in the presence of Te-bearing fluid. Replacement of ‘normal’ nagyágite by other varieties can be linked to high fluid acidity, whereas replacement by galena-altaite symplectites relates to changes in the fTe2/fS2 within a narrow domain defined by coexistence of these two minerals. Nagyágite is a mineral with modular crystal chemistry and is able to adjust to variable rates of fluid infiltration by subtle chemical substitutions. The behavior of nagyágite will map and assist coupling between dissolution and precipitation during such reactions.
Kárpát-övezetben felfedezett ásványok, kőzetek és fosszilis gyanták története History of minerals, rocks and fossil resins discovered in the Carpathian region Minerals of the Carpathians
  • G Papp
  • G Udubaşa
  • R Ďuďa
  • S Szakáll
  • V Kvasnytsya
  • E Koszowska
  • M Novák
PAPP, G. (2002): A Kárpát-övezetben felfedezett ásványok, kőzetek és fosszilis gyanták története. Budapest: Magyar Természettudományi Múzeum. PAPP, G. (2004): History of minerals, rocks and fossil resins discovered in the Carpathian region. Budapest: Magyar Természettudományi Múzeum. SZAKÁLL, S. (ed., with the contributions of UDUBAŞA, G., ĎUĎA, R., SZAKÁLL, S., KVASNYTSYA, V., KOSZOWSKA, E. & NOVÁK, M.) (2002): Minerals of the Carpathians. Prague: Granit. SZAKÁLL, S. & PAPP, G. (1996): A Kárpát-övezetben felfedezett ásványok / Mineral species discovered in the Carpathian area. Miskolc: Herman Ottó Múzeum.
A Kárpát-övezetben felfedezett ásványok / Mineral species discovered in the Carpathian area
  • S Szakáll
  • G Papp
SZAKÁLL, S. & PAPP, G. (1996): A Kárpát-övezetben felfedezett ásványok / Mineral species discovered in the Carpathian area. Miskolc: Herman Ottó Múzeum.