Dual antimicrobial and blood repellent finishes for cotton hospital fabrics

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Antimicrobial and blood repellant finish has been applied to cotton fabrics used for surgical gowns, bed linens and drapes to reduce the surgical site infections. The extract of neem was applied to the fabric for imparting antimicrobial activity by pad-dry-cure method. The neem treated fabric was then imparted blood repellency through two different techniques, namely by treatment with fluoropolymer (3%, 4% and 5% owf) using pad-dry-cure method and by 'sputter deposition of teflon' technique using argon plasma. The antimicrobial activity is found to be higher for teflon deposited fabric than for the fluoropolymer finished fabric. Blood repellency increases with the higher concentration of fluoropolymer and the highest repellency for the teflon deposited fabric is observed at 80W power and 20 min exposure in the plasma chamber.

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... They also take roles on wound healing and replacing or supporting for unsanitary and injured body parts. For these purposes, gowns, sheets, masks and other medical textiles are in use in hospitals [1]. Pathogens can cause contamination among medical staff and patients via blood borne or other body fluids. ...
... Some of them were fluorocarbons, silicones, PCs, polyamides, alkyl ketene dimers, ZnO, TiO 2 etc. [7]. Fluorocarbons stand out amongst all common used materials for hydrophobic performance because they have a lower surface energy of about 10 mN.m -1 [1]. The fluorocarbons can also show extreme oil and soil repellency characteristics on textiles [2]. ...
... The reason for this can be explained with solution components' characteristics. Reported surface tension value of distilled water was 72.7 mN.m -1 [45] while that of fluorocarbon was lower than 10 mN.m -1 [1]. Since the diluted solutions had higher water content than concentrated solutions, it can be expected to have higher surface tension values for more diluted solutions. ...
This study focuses on the development of superhydrophobic and alcohol-repellent medical nonwoven fabrics via electrohydrodynamic atomization (electrospraying). It also compares the effectiveness of electrospraying with conventional pad-dry-cure finishing application. A commercial fluorochemical finishing agent was used to prepare fluorochemical solutions at varying concentrations (0.9–9 wt%). Electrospraying characteristics of these solutions were determined with characterizing their solution properties such as viscosity, conductivity and surface tension. After the successful applications of fluorochemical solutions on nonwoven fabrics via padding and electrospraying, wet pick-up ratios and weight gains of these fabrics were calculated. Also, water and alcohol repellencies of the coated fabrics were characterized with water contact angle and alcohol contact angle measurements. According to our findings, electrospraying application yielded less chemical consumption and higher water contact angle and alcohol contact angle results than padding. Increasing solution concentration and application time for electrospraying enhanced water contact angle values, which reached a maximum level (up to 156°) and afterwards remained almost constant depending on these variables. Thus, their limits to achieve superhydrophobic surfaces were able to be determined. Electrosprayed nonwovens were also shown to be alcohol-repellent against alcohol/water mixture of 70/30 (v/v%) whereas that was 30/70 (v/v%) for padded nonwovens. The investigation of the electrosprayed surfaces revealed a very less coating on the uppermost side of surface fibres which mostly led to the enhanced water and alcohol repellencies. One of the other important outcomes of this study is that there was no significant change on the comfort properties of nonwoven fabrics after the electrospraying application.
... Both engineered antimicrobial operators, for example, triclosan, metal and their salts, organo-metallics, phenols, quaternary ammonium mixes and regular specialists, for example, neem removes, common colors, chitosan, tulsi leaf extricates, Aloe Vera separates, tea tree oil are promptly accessible in the market as antimicrobial specialists for characteristic and manufactured material materials. These characteristic natural antibacterial concentrates can be utilized as finishing specialists in the freestate or as microcapsules to improve the solidness and controlled arrival of the concentrates [25][26][27] . ...
... The treated sample showed higher bacterial reduction percentage of about 92.84 and 50.25 against S.aureus and E.coli. It was concluded that Prickly chaff leaf extracts have antimicrobial character due to the presence of a chemical substance called 'betaine', identified using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) technique 26,27 . ...
... Medical textiles used in hospitals for hygienic and healthcare purposes such as surgical gowns, bed linens, and drapes need to be blood and water repellents in order to reduce surgical site infections. It is due to the fact that blood and body fluids are carriers of different microorganisms and can be transferred through the barrier materials by wicking of fluids or pressure or leaning on a flooded area of product [80]. Various classes of chemicals have been introduced to impart blood and water repellency to the fabrics. ...
... For ideal blood and water repellency properties, the surface tension of the fabric has to be much lower than that of blood and body fluids whose surface tension ranges in between 42 and 60 dynes/cm. The surface tension of fluorocarbon water repellent agent is 10 dynes/cm which is lower than other commonly used blood repellents [36,80]. In a research study by Lee et al., 100% cotton fabrics and 55%/45% wood pulp/polyester spunlaced nonwoven fabrics were treated with chitosan and fluoropolymers using the pad-dry-cure and pad-cure methods, respectively. ...
This chapter provides an overview of the textile-based materials for different applications in medical sectors and represents the most important surface modification and finishing techniques used for the improvement of performance and functionality of the medical textiles. Textile materials can be used in the form of fibers, filaments, yarns and fabrics as a specific medical device for the treatment or preventing deterioration of chronic disease. Some of the most important applications of textile-based materials in the medical fields include protective surgical gowns, hygienic products (e.g., sanitary napkins and baby diapers), compression fabrics, wound dressing, sutures, extracorporeal devices, orthotics and prosthetic materials. In order to meet the requirements of textile-based materials for a specific medical usage, various surface coating, plasma treatment and medical finishing can be applied onto the materials. Textile products can be functionally modified by different polymers, active agents and physical treatments. By virtue of modern technology with the development of new manufacturing techniques and novel environmentally friendly materials, the market of medical textiles has been rapidly growing in recent decades and will continue to grow in the future.
... Nowadays, functional textiles fascinated consumers interest due to their crucial benefits as they enhance the native properties and promote new functions in the textile products like flame retardency, UV resistance, photo-catalytic, antimicrobial, antibiotic and wrinkle recovery to the fabrics (Javid et al., 2014). In medical field, textile consumers are becoming more aware and conscious of the deleterious effect that microorganisms may have upon textile materials like drapes, bed sheets, pillow cases, gowns and masks which are frequently used in hospitals (Thelagavath and Kannaian, 2008). In this context, Li et al. (2013a,b) grafted moxa oil microcapsules made with gelatin and arabic gum on cotton fabric and investigated their antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and the results showed strong antibacterial effect. ...
The last decade has witnessed a burgeoning global movement towards essential and vegetable oils in the food, agriculture, pharmaceutical, cosmetic, and textile industries thanks to their natural and safe status, broad acceptance by consumers, and versatile functional properties. However, efforts to develop new therapy or functional agents based on plant oils have met with challenges of limited stability and/or reduced efficacy. As a result, there has been increased research interest in the encapsulation of plant oils, whereby the nanocarriers serve as barrier between plant oils and the environment and control oil release leading to improved efficacy, reduced toxicity and enhanced patient compliance and convenience. In this review, special concern has been addressed to the encapsulation of essential and vegetable oils in three types of nanocarriers: polymeric nanoparticles, liposomes and solid lipid nanoparticles. First, the chemical composition of essential and vegetable oils was handled. Moreover, we gather together the research findings reported by the literature regarding the different techniques used to generate these nanocarriers with their significant findings. Finally, differences and similarities between these nanocarriers are discussed, along with current and future applications that are warranted by their structures and properties.
... Unlike chemical polymeric or nano-based materials, the natural compounds do not produce toxic effects. Extracts of Vitex trifolia, 173,174 Punica granatum, [175][176][177] Allium sativum, [178][179][180] Acacia nilotica, 181 Andrographis paniculata, 182,183 Sphaeranthus indicus, 184 Strobilanthes cusia, 185,186 Chromolaena odorata, 187 Aloe barbadensis, [188][189][190] and Azadirachta indica 113,191 have antimicrobial properties. Also, the combination of eugenol, eugenol acetate, carvacrol, thymol, and vanillin, 115 Melaleuca alternifolia, 116 ginkgo leaf extract, 117 and ginkgo extract in combination with sumac (Anacardiaceae family) 118 have been studied for their antiviral properties. ...
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The world has witnessed several incidents of epidemics and pandemics since the beginning of human existence. The gruesome effects of microbial threats create considerable repercussions on the healthcare systems. The continually evolving nature of causative viruses due to mutation or re-assortment sometimes makes existing medicines and vaccines inactive. As a rapid response to such outbreaks, much emphasis has been placed on personal protective equipment (PPE), especially face mask, to prevent infectious diseases from airborne pathogens. Wearing face masks in public reduce disease transmission and creates a sense of community solidarity in collectively fighting the pandemic. However, excessive use of single-use polymer-based face masks can pose a significant challenge to the environment and is increasingly evident in the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. On the contrary, face masks with inherent antimicrobial properties can help in real-time deactivation of microorganisms enabling multiple-use and reduces secondary infections. Given the advantages, several efforts are made incorporating natural and synthetic antimicrobial agents (AMA) to produce face mask with enhanced safety, and the literature about such efforts are summarised. The review also discusses the literature concerning the current and future market potential and environmental impacts of face masks. Among the AMA tested, metal and metal-oxide based materials are more popular and relatively matured technology. However, the repeated use of such a face mask may pose a danger to the user and environment due to leaching/detachment of nanoparticles. So careful consideration is required to select AMA and their incorporation methods to reduce their leaching and environmental impacts. Also, systematic studies are required to establish short-term and long-term benefits.
... The problem of cross infection becomes prominent in the case of textile materials such as pillow cases, bed sheets, drapes, gowns and masks which are frequently used in hospitals. These materials may carry microorganisms which may transfer to patients, hospital staff and visitors (Thelagavath and Kannaian, 2008). Natural fibres such as cotton, wool and silk are more susceptible to microbial attack than synthetics as their porous and hydrophilic structure retains more moisture, oxygen and nutrients required for microbial growth (Abo-Shosha et al., 2008). ...
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Abstract The present study dealt with emulsive fabrication of chitosan microcapsules encapsulating essential oils in the present of bio/surfactant. The size distribution, morphology and stability of microcapsules were examined by using advanced surface characterisation techniques. At cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) concentration of 330 mg/L, the smallest average size of microcapsules was observed as12.8 μm; whereas with biosurfactant at 50 mg/L, the microcapsules of smallest average size of 7.5 μm were observed. The fabricated microcapsules were applied on a desized, bleached and mercerised cotton fabric by using pad-dry-cure method by using a modified dihydroxy ethylene urea as a cross-linking agent. The cross-linking was confirmed by using scanning electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy techniques. The antibacterial activity of finished fabric was evaluated using the turbidity estimation method. The stiffness and wrinkle recovery properties of the treated fabric were also investigated by using the standard methods. In general, antibacterial activity of treated fabric increased with the increase in chitosan and essential oil concentrations, whereas stiffness increased with increase in concentration of chitosan but decreased with increase in essential oil concentration.
... Chemical treatments, namely silver, [3][4][5] zinc oxide, [6][7][8] copper, 3 quaternary ammonium compounds, 9,10 and triclosan, 11 were used in past research as functional antibacterial agents applied to cotton materials for safeguarding against widely available bacterial microorganisms, listed as Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Bacillus species, but all these chemical finishes are not ecofriendly in nature. 12 On the other hand, environmentally friendly natural finish agents such as neem, 13,14 prickly chaff, 12 tulsi leaf, 15 pomegranate, 15 quercus infectoria, 16,17 Mexican daisy, 13 aloe vera, 18 and chitosan 19 are eco-friendly and are used worldwide used on the cotton fabric against the above-stated list of bacteria. ...
A dishcloth made up of cotton was taken in this research. The dishcloth was treated with a safe natural antibacterial agent, “Withania somnifera” (Ashwagandha). This applied finish is to overcome the growth of bacteria on cloth in vegetarian and nonvegetarian Indian kitchen environments, which would in turn prevent the diseases caused by them. The dishcloth exposed to the kitchen place supports extensively in the multiplication growth of foodborne bacteria genuses, namely Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Bacillus species, Enterococcus species, and Streptococcus species. Ashwagandha plant extract obtained through Solvent extraction technique was used as a finish agent on the cotton cloth, using two finish concentrations, 3 % and 5 % on the weight of the material, both the concentrations with and without citric acid, with pad-dry-cure technique. Antibacterial tests carried out following AATCC 147 (2004), Assessment of Textile Materials: Parallel Streak Method, (disc diffusion method) on the developed (unwashed) cotton fabric samples, which signifies the Ashwagandha plant extract as a good antibacterial agent for dishcloth. The zone of inhibition has been obtained in this research varying from 1.5 to 8.5 mm against all the 13 bacteria for the lower and higher concentrations of the herbal extract. The finish retention, namely the durability test, was carried out using ISO 6330-1984E, Textiles—Domestic Washing and Drying Procedures for Textile Testing, on the treated samples and reveals that the antibacterial treatment carried out in the presence of citric acid could show up activity even after four washing cycles varying from 0.5 to 4 mm, whereas the samples treated in the absence of the acid could not withstand even a single wash.
... Antibacterial/antifungal/ antiviral finish is a special type of protective finish given for the fabrics used in healthcare applications to protect them from parasites such as bacteria, fungi, virus, etc. Synthetic chemicals such as silver 5,6 , zinc oxide 7,8 , copper 3 , quaternary ammonium compounds 9,10 and triclosan 11 were applied as antibacterial agent on cotton fabric to inhibit commonly known bacteria such as Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus species but most of them are not ecofriendly in nature 12 . Similarly eco friendly natural agents such as neem 13,14 , prickly chaff 12 , tulsi leaf 15 , quercus infectoria 16 , mexican daisy 13 , aloe vera 17 and chitosan 18 were applied on cotton fabric against the same set of bacteria. ...
... The main shortcomings of cotton fabrics are that they are easily stained (Liu et al. 2015) and frequently infected by blood stains in hospitals. Such blood-stained fabrics are effective carriers for the transfer of many effective and harmful bloodborne bacteria such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Candida species, Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli (Thiligavathi and Kannaian 2008) and viruses such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis B virus (HBV) (Parthasarathi and Charmini 2015). The extreme moisture absorbance by cotton provides effective nutrients for the growth of microorganisms, which not only affects the appearance and performance of the textiles (Alomayria et al. 2014) but also causes serious illnesses and infection for human beings. ...
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Abstract: A superhydrophobic cotton fabric exhibiting excellent self-cleaning and antibacterial activity prepared by a facile, cost-effective method involving deposition of copper and stearic acid has been reported in this article. The surface morphology and microstructure of the modified fabric have been characterized by scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction analysis and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The antibacterial activity of the as-prepared superhydrophobic textiles has been evaluated by the disc diffusion method using Gram-positive and Gramnegative microorganisms. Evaluation of the modified fabric by a simple washing method and immersion in media of various pH values revealed the durability of the superhydrophobic textiles. In view of the robustness of this technique, it is certain that textiles with the dual functionalities of superhydrophobicity and antibacterial activity could be developed by this method and exploited in application domains in the years to come.
Nanotechnology is an emerging interdisciplinary technology and nanostructures capable of enhancing the physical properties of conventional textiles in areas such as antimicrobial properties, water repellence, soil resistance, antistatic, anti-infrared and flame-retardant properties, dye ability, color fastness, and strength of textile materials. The studies were carried out in order to fine tune the preparation of zinc oxide nanoparticles (NPs) for special applications. Soluble starch (stabilizing agent), zinc nitrate and sodium hydroxide (precursors) were used for the preparation of zinc oxide NPs by wet chemical method. The synthesized NPs were coated on cotton fabric (plain weave), and the antibacterial property of the treated fabric was analyzed. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic analysis, scanning electron microscopy, and physical and chemical characterization were employed to determine the phase and morphology of the final nanoparticle-coated fabric. The results indicated that 2% zinc oxide nanoparticle (200 nm) -coated fabric have high antibacterial efficiency (99.9% against Staphylococcus aureus and 80% against Escherichia coli) and upon washing the coated fabric (five hand washes), the antibacterial activity was found to be 98% against S. aureus and 75% against Escherichia coli.
Antimicrobial and blood repellant finish has been applied to fabrics, such as, cotton, bamboo/cotton union fabric and activated bamboo charcoal are used for bed linens. The neem extract was applied to the fabric for imparting anti-microbial treatment by pad-dry-cure method. The neem treated fabrics were then imparted blood repellency treatment by fluorocarbon (5% owf) using pad-dry-cure method. The anti-microbial activity and blood repellency is found to be higher for bamboo charcoal than 100% bamboo/cotton union fabric and 100% cotton. It can be identified from soil burial test that the odour absorbency of activated bamboo charcoal is very less compared to bamboo/cotton union fabric and cotton fabric as there is no degradation observed.
Consumers' attitude towards hygiene and active lifestyle has created a rapidly increasing market for a wide range of antimicrobial textiles, which in turn has stimulated intensive research and development. Researchers discovered a unique way to attach biocidal agents permanently and direcdy to a wide variety of surfaces. The resulting non-volatile polymer is unique among antimicrobials in that it does not create a zone of inhibition and does not dissipate over time. This extraordinary technology permits the continuous and durable activity against mildew that is required to prevent infestation. Because the material does not lose effectiveness through absorption or dissipation, micro-organisms have never been shown to develop immunity against it. This technology is used on a variety of woven and nonwoven textiles used in medical facilities. Fenestrations of surgical drapes, mayo stand covers, uniforms, sponges, and linens are among the products that take advantage of the safety profile and antimicrobial effectiveness of the antimicrobial. In the present paper use of antimicrobial finish to the medical applications were discussed, and also several research studies on the antimicrobial finishes in the field of medical applications were reported.
Washing durability of natural and synthetic antimicrobial finishes against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus fumigates was compared. Antimicrobial agents were applied on the cotton fabric by pad-dry-cure and exhaustion method. Antimicrobial activity was determined using AATCC test method-100-1998 and AATCC test method-30-1993. The results indicate that the samples treated with antimicrobial agents considerably retained antimicrobial properties up to 15 washes.
Humans need more protection since environmental pollution becomes more serious problem. In many recent years, the appearance of many infectious diseases has generated the life-threatening and the tremendous challenges have given for medical scientists in diagnosis and treatment methods. Multifunctional protective costumes may be a good solution to protect efficiently human body from such risks. Among initiatives, dual antibacterial and water repellent fabric was able to be a great choice in designing the surgical gown in order to efficiently protect. This work provides usefully interesting information about the synergies among finishing agents on cotton fabric. Accordingly, the experimental results clarified the biocidal and hydrophobic mechanism at the same time under various conditions. In addition, the wearing comforts associated with heat tranfer and air exchange between body skin and fabric layers were concerned to increase the product performances.
Conference Paper
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Spirality is a predicament in knitted fabrics, especially in the apparel industries. Weft knitted fabrics have a propensity to undergo a dimensional change that effect on deformation in which there is a likelihood of the knitted loops to bend resulting the wales to be at diagonal instead of perpendicular to the courses. This creates the snags in fitting and aesthetic values of the garments. So an idea has been made to investigate the problems of spirality in knitted fabrics and find out the solutions for it. This project dealt with the measurement of spirality, finding out the causes and solutions for the spirality.
This research reports the production of self-assembled colloidal silver/silica (Ag/SiO2) nanoflowers, as well as star-like titania included one (TiO2/Ag/SiO2 nanostars) for the first time. We devise a green pathway for self-assembling process via a fast one-pot single-step technique in pure water media without using any chemicals on the account of selecting well-engineered nanostructure components rewarding their zero zeta potential values varying upper and under pH=7. The formation mechanisms of these nanostructures are elaborated and modeled serving as a key major guideline to control the self-assembling of nanostructures. The nanostructures, as well as TiO2 colloidal solutions, are applied to viscose/polyester fabrics via an easily-scalable green water-based pad-dry technique. Successful multifunctional features are recorded for the treated samples. The samples treated with TiO2/Ag/SiO2 nanostars and Ag/SiO2 nanoflowers demonstrate the best and worst photocatalytic activities, respectively. Ozone and polysiloxane biomimetic co-photocatalysis assistant mechanisms are deeply discussed proposing running a chain-reaction mechanism.
Wearing of suitable dresses in hospitals and health clubs by the doctor and supporting staff has been accorded a very high priority by the hospital administration in order to protect them from getting infected by the germs and microorganisms and also from spreading the diseases to other patients. Due to the increase in awareness and concern about the healthcare textiles, it has become the need of the hour to develop hospital textiles with functional properties like antimicrobial, odor resistance, and comfort characteristics. In this research work, an attempt has been made to develop medical textiles from polyester-based bamboo charcoal (PBBC) yarn, which has certain unique properties necessary for hospital textiles like anti-bacterial, anti-fungal, and odor resistance. Two types of yarns were used for producing union fabrics, namely (1) PBBC produced by imbuing bamboo charcoal powder into the polyester master batch and (2) lyocell yarns (L). The plain-woven fabrics produced by combining these two yarns in different proportions are reported to have improved comfort properties when compared to 100% bamboo charcoal fabrics and hence could be used for the production of bedding, clothing, surgical gowns, and hospital cloths.
Various herbal species were screened for their antimicrobial activities by employing preliminary (qualitative) antimicrobial tests. Methanolic extraction procedure was followed for extracting the active substances from herbs. Antimicrobial efficacy was assayed by AATCC (agar diffusion and parallel streak) method and Hohenstein modified challenge test. The neem leaves (Azadirachta indica), prickly chaff flower (Achyranthus aspera), tulsi leaves (Ocimum basilicum) and pomegranate rind (Punica granatum) were found to exhibit antimicrobial activity against the strains of Staphylococcus aureus and E. coli. Neem ranked first followed by pomegranate and prickly chaff flower. Despite the negative results of tulsi in the qualitative tests, it showed 73% bacterial reduction in the quantitative challenge test. The treated fabric samples exhibited resistance to degradability as tested by digging soil test.
In order to provide 100% cotton fabric and 55/45% woodpulp/polyester spunlaced nonwoven fabric with barriers against microorganisms and blood, samples are treated with gentamicin, a broad-spectrum antibiotic, and a fluorochemical compound using the pad-cure method. The antimicrobial activity of the samples is analyzed quantitatively by measuring the number of colonies of Klebsiella pneumonia, and qualitatively using the parallel streak method with Staphylococcus aureus. Blood repellency is assessed with spray and impact penetration tests using both synthetic and human blood. Samples treated with both the antibiotic and the fluorochemical (dual finish) show a high reduction rate in the number of colonies grown and clear zones of inhibition, which is the same as the antimicrobial properties of the samples treated with antimicrobial finishing agent only. The blood repellency of dual finished nonwoven fabrics is superior to that of dual finished cotton. The optimum concentration of the fluorochemical for synthetic blood repellency is 5% owf.
The wetting and wicking behavior of linen treated with low-temperature oxygen and argon plasma is presented. Wetting and wicking abilities of plasma treated linen are investigated using contact angles and upward and downward water wicking methods. The downward wicking method is more suitable for distinguishing the effects of plasma treatment under various conditions.
A comprehensive study of morphological and topographical changes in low tempera ture plasma treated flax fibers is reported. Time-series images of fiber surface appearance are examined by environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM). As the exposure time increases, the depth of the micropores etched by the plasma increases with increasing pore width. The surface fibrils remain on the surface at up to 40 minutes of oxygen plasma or 60 minutes of argon plasma exposure. The dominant fabric weight loss of linen during plasma treatment is mainly attributed to fiber surface etching. Fiber contraction is also observed during plasma treatment. The ESEM micrographs show a good correlation with the SEM micrographs. The depth of the etched pits induced by the argon and oxygen plasma is measured by atomic force microscopy (AFM). On the relatively smooth surface of an untreated flax fiber, the argon plasma creates pits of mainly submicrometer size (both depth and diameter), while the oxygen plasma creates pits of a few micrometers. Image processing techniques provide a quantitative description of the surface topography of plasma treated flax fibers, and the FFT power spectra describe periodic surface features. Changes in the surface roughness of the plasma etched flax fibers are quantified by RMS values.
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