The soil map of the Flemish region converted to the 3rd edition of the World Reference Base for soil resources

Technical Report (PDF Available) · October 2014with 659 Reads
DOI: 10.13140/2.1.4381.4089
Abstract
The legend of the detailed soil maps (scale 1 : 20 000) of the Flemish region has been converted to the 3rd edition of the World Reference Base for Soil Resources (WRB). WRB is the international soil classification system which has been adopted to harmonize soil information data within Europe. The objective of the current assignment was to complete the systematic conversion of all the detailed soil maps including the coastal area such that these can be presented on maps at a 1 : 20 000 to 1 : 50 000 scale and can be generalized to produce maps at a 1 : 250 000 scale. [...] Converting the legend of the soil map of Belgium into WRB does not imply substituting one classification system with another one. Map users who would need detailed information, can still refer to the information as provided by the soil type on the original soil map. Rather than seeing the present exercise as a conversion of legends, the original soil types have been reorganized in higher ranked classification categories determined by the Reference Soil Groups and qualifiers, and overall shedding new insights into the soil geography of the Flemish region.
Ontwikkelen en toepassen van een methodiek voor de vertaling van de
Belgische bodemclassificatie van de kustpolders naar het internationale
WRB systeem en generaliseren van de WRB-bodemkaart voor gans
Vlaanderen naar het 1 : 250 000 schaalniveau
The soil map of the Flemish region converted to the 3rd
edition of the World Reference Base for soil resources
Stefaan Dondeyne, Laura Vanierschot, Roger Langohr
Eric Van Ranst and Jozef Deckers
Oct. 2014
Opdracht van de Vlaamse Overheid
Bestek nr. BOD/STUD/2013/01
Contents
Contents............................................................................................................................................................3
Acknowledgement ...........................................................................................................................................5
Abstract............................................................................................................................................................7
Samenvatting ...................................................................................................................................................9
1. Background and objectives.......................................................................................................................11
2. The soil map of Belgium............................................................................................................................12
2.1 The soil survey project..........................................................................................................................12
2.2 Legend of the soil map of Belgium........................................................................................................14
The inland parts .....................................................................................................................................14
Legend of the polders ............................................................................................................................17
3. The World Reference Base for Soil Resources........................................................................................20
3.1 WRB as a classification system.............................................................................................................20
Example.................................................................................................................................................22
3.2 WRB for constructing map legends.......................................................................................................25
3.3 Characteristics of the Reference Soil groups of the Flemish region..................................................... 27
Histosols ................................................................................................................................................28
Anthrosols..............................................................................................................................................29
Technosols.............................................................................................................................................30
Leptosols................................................................................................................................................32
Gleysols .................................................................................................................................................32
Podzols...................................................................................................................................................33
Planosols................................................................................................................................................35
Stagnosols..............................................................................................................................................36
Phaeozems .............................................................................................................................................38
Umbrisols...............................................................................................................................................39
Retisols ..................................................................................................................................................40
Alisols and Luvisols...............................................................................................................................42
Cambisols ..............................................................................................................................................44
Arenosols...............................................................................................................................................47
Fluvisols.................................................................................................................................................48
Regosols.................................................................................................................................................48
4. General approach......................................................................................................................................50
4.1 Soil variability per soil district.............................................................................................................50
4.2 Use of legacy soil profile data..............................................................................................................52
4.3 Heuristic rules ......................................................................................................................................53
Identification of Reference Soil Groups................................................................................................53
Qualifiers for drainage status.................................................................................................................55
Variations in parent material, and/or occurrence of substratum ............................................................55
Qualifiers pertaining to base saturation .................................................................................................57
Qualifiers pertaining to soil texture.......................................................................................................58
4.4 Convertion of the mapping units of the coastal polders and dunes ......................................................60
5. Conversion to WRB units.........................................................................................................................62
5.1 Classification of soil profiles................................................................................................................62
5.2 File attribute table of the conversion....................................................................................................63
5.3 Map legends and soil classification......................................................................................................65
Map legends...........................................................................................................................................65
Soil classification...................................................................................................................................67
5.4 Supplementary qualifiers......................................................................................................................69
Soil map of the Flemish region converted to 3rd edition of WRB
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5.5 Generalisation to 1 : 250 000 scale map..............................................................................................70
6. Discussion and conclusions.......................................................................................................................72
6.1 General considerations.........................................................................................................................72
6.2 Observations and encountered difficulties............................................................................................73
Soils with profile development "..h"......................................................................................................73
Errors in the digital soil map..................................................................................................................74
6.3 Limitations of the current maps............................................................................................................78
Nature of legacy data.............................................................................................................................79
Cartographic inconsistency....................................................................................................................79
Accuracy of the original maps...............................................................................................................80
Land-use changes...................................................................................................................................82
References......................................................................................................................................................83
Annexes ..........................................................................................................................................................85
Annex 1 - Definitions of WRB terms...........................................................................................................85
Definitions of used (or relevant) horizons and diagnostic properties.....................................................85
Definitions of used (or relevant) qualifiers............................................................................................88
Annex 2. Correlation table of the mapping units of coastal plain with the standardlegend of the soil map
of Belgium...................................................................................................................................................92
Annex 3 - Classification of 540 legacy soil profiles according to WRB-2007;........................................... 98
Annex 4 – Conversion of the soil types of the coastal areas to Soil Units according to WRB-2007.........123
Annex 5 – Conversion of the 200 most common soil types (in terms of area) to WRB-2014 Reference Soil
Groups with two first Principal Qualifiers, grouped per soil district of the Flemish region.................... 133
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Acknowledgement
As the first author, and on behalf of the co-authors, I should like to express our gratitude to
the administration of the Flemish region for entrusting us with the task of converting the
legend of the Soil Map of Belgium to a legend according to the international soil
classification system “World Reference Base for Soil Resources” for the Flemish region.
Taking the elaboration and testing of the methods into account, this project took more than
four years. If this may seem long, one should consider that hundreds of people have
contributed to the original soil survey work carried out over more than 40 years. By now
disclosing the soil maps with an international legend, we hope that this enormous work
will be valued even more and eventually will contribute to better land management.
In the course of the work, we very much enjoyed the kind support and collaboration of
many colleagues and friends whom we all like to thank. First and foremost, the work
benefited from the contributions, critical comments and revisions of the steering
committee most in particular: Carole Ampe, Geert Baert, Jean Chapelle, Nathalie Cools,
Patrick Engels, Jérôme Juilleret, Roger Langohr, Xavier Legrain, Simone Marx, Katrien
Oorts, Joost Salomez, Martine Swerts, Karen Vancampenhout.
This work also benefited from my participation in international field excursions with the
IUSS Working Group WRB and so from the fruitful interactions with its members. A
special word of thanks to Peter Schad, Chair of the IUSS Working Group WRB, for
enlightening us on many aspects of WRB. From the Department of Earth and
Environmental Sciences, we are grateful to Hubert Gulinck for drawing our attention to the
existence of the “land systems map” of the Flemish region. We also like to thank for their
kind cooperation, our colleagues working on the AARDEWERK project, particularly
Veronique Beckers, Philippe Van De Vreken and Jos Van Orshoven. For administrative
matters we could always count on the prompt and effective support of the late Sofie
Bruneel and Ludo Engelen; for computer issues and for printing maps, we thank Hilde
Vandenhoeck, Greet Willems and Johan Boon.
Soil map of the Flemish region converted to 3rd edition of WRB
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I particularly want to thank Xavier Legrain of the Université de Liège, Gembloux Agro-
Bio Tech who assisted in converting the legend of the soil district “Krijtland”; and special
thanks to Laura Vanierschot (KU Leuven) who in the final stage of report writing and map
editing helped to finalise the work. We are also grateful to Jan Claesen and Anika Devroe
from ARCHEBO, Rik van de Konijnenburg from HAAST, Inger Woltinge and Nick
Krekelberg from BAAC, Jan De Beenhouwer from FODIO, Walter Sevenants from
TrihArch for inviting us at archaeological excavation sites to make pedologic observations.
Finally, I should like to dedicate this work to Rudi Dudal whose enthusiasm for soil
geography has been most inspirational. Only, I wished that he could have seen this project
through till the end.
Stefaan Dondeyne
Leuven
Soil map of the Flemish region converted to 3rd edition of WRB
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Abstract
The legend of the detailed soil maps (scale 1 : 20 000) of the Flemish region has been
converted to the 3rd edition of the World Reference Base for Soil Resources (WRB). WRB
is the international soil classification system which has been adopted to harmonize soil
information data within Europe. The objective of the current assignment was to complete
the systematic conversion of all the detailed soil maps including the coastal area such that
these can be presented on maps at a 1 : 20 000 to 1 : 50 000 scale and can be generalized to
produce maps at a 1 : 250 000 scale.
The legend of the soil map of Belgium is based on soil texture, drainage status and profile
development, while the WRB classification is based on diagnostic features defined by
morphological, physical and chemical properties. For the Flemish region there are more
than 4000 different soil types (or mapping units) recognised. To take regional variability
into account, the classification of these soil types has been done for 24 soil districts.
Overall 16 Reference Soil Groups have been identified. More specific properties on these
Reference Soil Groups are indicated with up to three Principal Qualifiers; additionally,
information on drainage, soil texture, soil chemical fertility and other morphologic
characteristics are retained as Supplementary Qualifiers.
The conversion of the legend of the soil map of Belgium to WRB is based on insights
gained from classifying more than 540 legacy soil profiles as well as field observations.
From these insights heuristic rules were deduced for correlating soil types to Reference
Soil Groups. The database AARDEWERK-93 and the AARDEWERK-STAT were used
to further assess the chemical soil fertility status (Dystric, Eutric, Salic or Calcaric) for
each soil type and according to the various soil districts. Wherever ambiguities were
encountered for further correlating the soil types to WRB units, the central concept of each
soil type, as described in the explanatory text was taken as reference.
The conversion of the legend of the soil map of Belgium to WRB results into a regrouping
of the soil types into broader WRB soil units. These Soil Units, defined as Reference Soil
Groups with Qualifiers, can neatly be represented on 1 : 40 000 scale maps. This
Soil map of the Flemish region converted to 3rd edition of WRB
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conversion served as a basis for further generalising the soil map, which can be presented
at a 1 : 250 000 scale. The mapping units of this map contains information on the
dominant Soil Unit (i.e. the most common); and two associated Soil Units (second and
third most common).
Converting the legend of the soil map of Belgium into WRB does not imply substituting
one classification system with another one. Map users who would need detailed
information, can still refer to the information as provided by the soil type on the original
soil map. Rather than seeing the present exercise as a conversion of legends, the original
soil types have been reorganised in higher ranked classification categories determined by
the Reference Soil Groups and qualifiers, and overall shedding new insights into the soil
geography of the Flemish region.
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Samenvatting
De legende van de gedetailleerde bodemkaarten (schaal 1: 20 000) van het Vlaamse
Gewest is omgezet naar de 3de editie van het internationaal bodemclassificatiesysteem
World Reference Base for Soil Resources (WRB). Het WRB bodemclassificatiesysteem is
de standaard om bodemgegevens te harmoniseren binnen Europa. Het doel van de huidige
opdracht was de systematische omzetting van alle gedetailleerde bodemkaarten, inclusief
de bodemkaarten van de kuststreek, zodat deze kunnen voorgesteld worden op een schaal
van 1 : 20 000 tot 1 : 50 000. Deze kaarten dienden voor een verdere generalisatie naar een
schaal 1 : 250 000 door te voeren.
De legende van de bodemkaart van België is gebaseerd op drie hoofdkenmerken: bodem
textuur, drainage status en de ontwikkeling van het bodemprofiel. De WRB classificatie is
gebaseerd op diagnostische kenmerken gedefinieerd door morfologische, fysische en
chemische bodemeigenschappen. Voor het Vlaamse Gewest zijn er meer dan 4000
bodemtypes (die overeenkomen met kaarteenheden). Om regionale variabiliteit in rekening
te brengen, is de indeling van deze bodemtypes gedaan voor 24 bodemdistricten. Bij de
omzetting naar WRB werden voor het Vlaamse gewest, 16 Reference Soil Groups
herkend. Specifieke kenmerken van deze Reference Soil Groups werden aangegeven met
niet meer dan drie Principal Qualifiers; verdere informatie over drainage toestand,
bodemtextuur, bodem chemische vruchtbaarheid en bodem-morfologische kenmerken
worden weergegeven als Supplementary Qualifiers.
De omzetting van de legende van de bodemkaart van België naar WRB is gebaseerd op
inzichten uit de classificatie van meer dan 540 historische bodemprofielen en van
bijkomende veldwaarnemingen. Vanuit deze inzichten werden heuristische regels afgeleid
voor het correleren van de bodemtypen met Reference Soil Groups. De databases
AARDEWERK-93 en de AARDEWERK-STAT werden gebruikt om de chemische
bodemvruchtbaarheid in te schatten (Dystric, Eutric, Salic of Calcaric) voor elk
bodemtype en er bodemdistrict. Wanneer de omzetting niet meteen duidelijk was, bij
gebrek aan gegevens, werd het centrale concept behorend tot het bodemtype beschreven in
de begeleidende nota’s van de originele kaartbladen als richtlijn genomen.
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De omzetting van de legende van de bodemkaart van België naar WRB leidt tot een
hergroepering van de bodemtypes in bredere WRB classificatie eenheden. Deze Soil Units,
gedefinieerd als Reference Soil Groups met hun Qualifiers, kunnen worden weergegeven
op kaarten op een 1: 40 000 schaal. Deze omzetting werd verder gebruikt om een
veralgemeende kaart te maken die kan weergegeven worden op een schaal 1 : 250 000. De
kaarteenheden van deze kaart bevat informatie over de dominante Soil Units (d.w.z. de
meest voorkomende Soil Unit), en de tweede en derde meest voorkomende Soil Units
(geassocieerde bodems).
Het omzetten van de legende van de bodemkaart van België in WRB komt niet neer op het
vervangen van een classificatiesysteem met een andere. Kaartgebruikers die de
gedetailleerde informatie van de oorspronkelijke kaarten nodig hebben, kunnen deze nog
steeds gebruiken maar de Belgische bodemtypes passen nu in ruimer classificatiesysteem
bestaande uit de WRB Reference Soil Groups met hun Qualifiers.
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1. Background and objectives
Within the European Union there is a general interest to prepare joint soil maps at a
1 : 250 000 scale in order to harmonize agricultural and environmental policies. The
World Reference Base for Soil Resources which is the international soil classification
system endorsed by the International Union of Soil Sciences, has been adopted as the
common classification system for Europe. As soil surveys in most European countries
were conducted independently, the challenge is now to convert the national legends into a
common WRB legend. The authorities of both the Flemish and the Walloon regions
therefore commissioned studies to elaborate a methodology for converting the legend of
the soil map of Belgium to the World Reference Base for Soil Resources (WRB) (Bouhon
and Dondeyne, 2011; Dondeyne et al. 2012). These studies have shown that though some
general rules could be established for converting mapping units from the soil map of
Belgium to WRB, local particularities needed to be taken into account.
In general the WRB Reference Soil Groups combined with one, two or three Principal
Qualifiers, allow to represent the salient soil information of the original soil maps. As the
class definitions of WRB are broader than the ones of the Belgian classes, original
mapping units can be generalized and adequately be presented on maps at a 1 : 50 000
scale. These maps have the advantage to provide the soil information in an internationally
accepted legend. The combination of Reference Soil Groups with Principal Qualifiers
also proved to be a good basis for further generalizing to derive maps at a 1 : 250 000
scale.
In this text, technical terms or names specific to WRB have been written in italics, e.g.
Reference Soil Groups, Eutric Cambisols; terms or designations of soil types specific to
the legend of the soil map of Belgium, or specific to the Flemish region, have been used in
bold, e.g. textural classes A.., soil types as Aba1, u-Ldp, or names of soil districts
Maasvlakte, Krijtland, …
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2. The soil map of Belgium
2.1 The soil survey project
The systematic soil survey of Belgium started within the framework of the Committee for
the Establishment of the Soil and Vegetation Map of Belgium in 1947. The soil survey was
initiated just after World War II, out of an urgent concern for increasing agricultural
production (Dudal et al., 2001). The basic aim of this committee, sponsored by the then
Institute for Encouraging Scientific Research in Industry and Agriculture1
(IWONL/IRSIA) was to identify, classify and map the soils of Belgium. The greatest part
of this work has been carried out between 1947 and 1974 by the Soil Survey Centre
(CVB/CCS) in Ghent under the direction of Prof. R. Tavernier. This centre did the overall
coordination, supervision and operated in close cooperation with the Faculties of
Agriculture of Gembloux, Gent and Leuven. In 1975 the Soil Survey Centre of southern
Belgium (Gembloux) was charged to complete the soil survey in the southern parts of
Belgium.
During the fieldwork, the surveyors were using copies of the cadastral maps at a 1 : 5000
scale to locate their field observations and to draft mapping units. These units were then
transferred on a topographic base map at a 1 : 10 000 scale and finally reduced and
published at a 1 : 20 000 scale, as illustrated in Fig. 2.1.
The published map sheets covered at most an area of 80 km² each (8 × 10 km²), and were
digitized in the 1990s. For the Flemish region, the digital version can be consulted through
internet applications at
https://dov.vlaanderen.be/dovweb/html/bodemloketten.html#bodemkaarten and scanned
versions of the original soil maps, together with the explanatory booklets, can also be
downloaded from this site. Printed versions of the maps, together with their accompanying
explanatory notes, can still be purchased at the Laboratory of Soil Science, Ghent
1 In the 1990s the IWONL/IRSIA was reorganised in the Vlaams Instituut voor de Bevordering van het
Wetenschappelijk-technologsch Onderzoek in de Industrie (IWT) for the Flemish community, and in the
Fonds pour la formation à la Recherche dans l'Industrie et dans l'Agriculture (FRIA) for the Francophone
community
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University, for maps of the northern part of the country, and at the Gembloux Agro-Bio
Tech campus of the University of Liège, for the southern part of the country. For the
Walloon region, the digital version of the maps can be consulted at
http://cartopro3.wallonie.be/CIGALE/viewer.htm.
Figure 2.1 - Illustration of the soil mapping processes: (1) soil units and observations were drafted on
copies of the cadastral plan (scale 1 : 5000); (2) mapping units were transposed to topographic base maps
(scale 1 : 10 000); and (3) maps were published in colour and at a 1 : 20 000 scale (adapted from Legrain
et al., 2012 - scales not respected)
Field observations by soil augers were made with a density ranging from 1 to 2.5 per
hectare done to a standard depth of 125 cm unless impenetrable layers or rocks were
encountered. Besides, over the whole territory, about 15 000 soil profiles have been
described and analysed, the data of which have been entered into the soil database
AARDEWERK (Van Orshoven et al., 1988; 1993). The database AARDEWERK has
recently been revised and complemented for the Flemish region which resulted in the new
AARDEWERK-Vlaanderen-2010 database (Beckers et al., 2011). AARDEWERK-
Vlaanderen-2010 has recently be complemented with a statistical application allowing to
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determine average values (median and their ranges) as AARDEWERK-STAT (Beckers et
al., 2012). These data are also available at
https://dov.vlaanderen.be/dovweb/html/index.html.
2.2 Legend of the soil map of Belgium
The inland parts
The general legend of the soil map of Belgium2, and the corresponding soil classification
system, is based on morphogenetic properties readily identifiable in the field. The
principal properties are soil texture, drainage status and profile development. Soil series
are defined as a combination of class definitions of these properties, as explained below.
Soil variants are recognized based on (i) the occurrence of lithologic discontinuities
(substratum), (ii) admixtures of parent materials (e.g. limestone in a soil otherwise derived
from loess), (iii) variations in the profile development (e.g. strongly mottling in and above
an Argic horizon, or the occurrence of a Fragic horizon). Soil phases are recognized
according to the depth or thickness of particular characteristics, for example whether the
Argic horizon is immediately under the plough layer or not.
The soil textural classes, is the first property considered for defining soil series and these
are defined according to Fig. 2.2.a. The class definitions are based on the relative content
of clay, silt and sand. These classes differ from e.g. the international used USDA or FAO
classes. As a consequence, the Belgian class for “heavy clay” (symbol “U”) is much wider
than what is defined as heavy clay in the FAO soil textural classes (Fig. 2.2.b).
The Belgian classes also differ from the international definition as the silt fraction is
defined by particle size ranging from 2 to 50 µm instead of 2 to 63 µm in the FAO textural
classes and which are also used in WRB3. Beside these 7 textural classes, additional
symbols are used for special cases. For example, when there is more than 5% (by volume)
2 For more details on the legend see Maréchal and Tavernier (1974), Van Ranst and Sys (2000), and Bah et
al. (2005).
3 The FAO textural classes use the same names and define classes on the same ratio of percentage clay, silt
and sand as the USDA textural classes, but the latter also has silt defined as particles with size range of 2-50
µm.
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of gravel or stones the symbol G is used; the symbol V is used for peat soils saturated
predominantly by groundwater, and W when they are predominantly saturated by
rainwater.
Figure 2.2 – Textural classes according to (A) Belgian textural classes (adapted from Van Ranst and Sys,
2000); and (B) FAO textural classes (adapted from FAO, 2006). In the Belgian classification system, the
symbol for the textural classes are used as the first symbol in the code determining the soil series
The drainage status is the second property by which a soil series is defined. Drainage
classes are defined according to depth at which redoximorphic mottling and/or reduction
colours occur. A differentiation in critical depth is made between the silty and clayey
textures and the sandy textures (Table 2.1).
Table 2.1 - Definitions of drainage classes according to the legend of the soil map of Belgium
Depth of occurrence (cm)
Definition Silty & Clayey (A, L, E, U) Sandy (Z, S, P)
Symbol R
edoxmorphic
mottling Reduction
colours
Redoxmorphic
mottling
Reduction
colours
No groundwater within 125 cm of soil surface
.a. excessively drained - - >120 -
.b. well drained - - 90-120 -
.c. moderately well drained >80 - 60-90 -
.d. imperfectly drained 50-80 - 40-60 -
.h. poorly drained 20-50 - 20-40 -
.i. very poorly drained 0-20 - - -
Groundwater present within 125 cm of soil surface
.e. poorly drained 20-50 >80 20-40 >100
.f. very poorly drained 0-20 40-80 0-20 50-100
.g. extremely poorly drained 0 <40 0 <50
(adapted from: Van Ranst and Sys, 2000; p. 15)
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The soil profile development is taken as a third property (and symbol), defining the core
soil series. Their definition and the corresponding symbols are presented in Table 2.2, as
well as, where applicable, the equivalent diagnostic horizons according to WRB.
Variants and phases of these core soil series are defined by three properties that can be
indicated by additional symbols depending on the complexity of the profile.
Table 2.2 - Class definitions of soil profile development and corresponding diagnostic horizons
according to WRB-2007
Symbol Definition Diagnostic horizon or properties
..a soils with a textural B horizon Argic horizon
..b soils with a structure or colour B horizon Cambic horizon, Brunic qualifier
..c soils with strongly mottled or broken texture B
horizon Argic horizon with retic properties, Fragic
horizon
..d soils with yellow-red texture B horizon (does not occur in the Flemish region,
only in the Walloon region)
..e soils with a thick dark A horizon and calcaric
subsoil Mollic horizon
..f soils with a poorly expressed iron and/or
humus B horizon Cambic horizon, or Brunic qualifier
..g soils with a well developed iron and/or humus
B horizon Spodic horizon
..h Soils with a broken iron and/or humus B
horizon; often under thick anthropogenic
layers
Terric horizon, with Relocati-spodic
horizons
..m Soils with a thick anthropic humus A horizon Plaggic horizon, Terric horizon
..p Soils “without a profile development”; though
mostly with a structure or colour B horizon
when in colluvial or alluvial deposits
Cambic horizon (in most cases), or Brunic
qualifier, or Fluvisols, or Regosols
..x Soils with undifferentiated profile
development; mostly in Tertiairy marine
deposits
Cambic horizon, Argic horizon
(adapted from Maréchal and Tavernier, 1974)
With some training and experience, all of these characteristics can readily be identified in
the field, particularly as the definition of “soil profile development” did not require any
physico-chemical analysis. Still very often the soil surveyors checked for the presence of
CaCO3 using concentrated HCl, and whereby no reaction was taken as an indication of the
presence of Bt horizon. Soil surveyors could hence directly indicate the classification in
the field, be it while augering or when describing a soil profile pit.
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To illustrate the classification system, consider for example the “core soil series” Zbg; the
first capital means the soil texture is sand (Z); the second symbol means the drainage
status is well drained (.b.); and the third symbol (..g) indicates that the soil profile
development corresponds to a “Spodic horizon”. Such well drained Podzols have in most
cases a clearly bleached horizon, which qualifies as an Albic horizon, and in WRB would
hence be classified as an Albic Podzol. An example of such a soil profile is shown in Fig.
2.3.
Figure 2.3 – Albic Podzol in a landscape of sand dunes in the Campine region (northern part of
Flemish region, map sheets Turnhout - Arendonk); this landscape unit is actually mapped as
“ZAg” being a complex of the soil series Zag, Zbg, Zcg and Zdg and this mapping unit has
typically been used for sand dunes, as apparent from the shaded terrain image.
Legend of the polders
The legend used for the coastal plain is based on geomorphologic characteristics, rather
than on strict soil properties; the mapping units however are also all defined in terms of
soil properties whereby mostly the soil texture, variations in sediment deposits, and
variations in organic matter content, including peat, are taken into account.
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The coastal plain can be divided into coastal sand dunes, polders and fringes of the
polders, the latter are part of the polders with marine deposits shallowly overlying
quaternary cover sands (Dekzanden, series P) or tertiary deposits (series T).
The major geomorphic units, based on the legend of the soil map, are presented in Fig. 2.4.
The dunes are subdivided into high dunes (series A), lower dunes (series B), and levelled
dune soils (series C) and dune fringes (series D). At the time of the soil survey the
polders have been subdivided according to their presumed relative age - based on the then
accepted hypotheses of different sea transgression and regressions - and which can be
summarized as:
o Old land polders with deposits, earliest starting from 200-800 AD, but mostly from
the 4th – 8th century AD (Oudland)
o Mid-land polders, with deposits from the 11th century AD (Middellandpolders),
and
o Newland polders, with poldering after the 12th -14th century AD (Nieuwland) and
poldering of the IJzer estuary and Zwin (from 13th – 19th C AD)
o Historical polders of Oostende, with poldering mostly in the 17th-18th century AD
polders (Nieuwland).
More recent research has shown that the formation of the polders was a more complex
process than implied by this model (Baeteman, 1985; 1999; Baeteman et al., 2002).
Within the polders local and/or old depressions, such as sedimentation basins with peat in
the subsurface (Poelgronden and Komgronden), mudflats (Oudekleiplaatgronden,
Schorgronden), tidal flats (Waddengronden), old channels (Geulgronden), creek ridges
(Kreekruggen) which are in-filled tidal channels or sand-filled tidal channels and old back
swamps (Moeren) are still recognised (see Annex 2 for the relation between soil type and
these landscape units). The conversion of soil types to WRB-2007, for each of these
detailed landscape units of the coastal plain is given in Annex 4.
The broad geomorphologic units, as implicitly included in the legend of the coastal plain
are presented in Fig. 2.4. Besides the above-mentioned units, it can be seen on the map
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that large areas have been excavated, be it for clay (series OG) or for peat (series OV).
One mapping unit refers to a particular type of anthropogenic soils, and concerns former
habitation areas but with soils rich in organic matter and having high phosphorus content
(series OC). The tidal muds and tidal flats of the Zwin area in the north-eastern part, is an
additional particular unit series OS4.
Figure 2.4 – Geomorphologic units of the coastal plains
4 It seems that this mapping unit was added during the digitalization of the map (as the paper map of this part
was never printed), and OS may stand for ‘open schor’.
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3. The World Reference Base for Soil Resources5
3.1 WRB as a classification system
The World Reference Base for Soil Resources (WRB) was developed drawing on the
insights and experiences gained through the elaboration of the FAO-UNESCO legend of
the Soil Map of the World (FAO-UNESCO, 1974; FAO, 1988). WRB is in the first place
intended to facilitate the exchange of information and experience by providing a common
scientific language, and so strengthening applications of soil science and enhancing
communication with other disciplines. It was developed and is still being revised by an
international working group of soil scientists, coordinated by the International Union of
Soil Science. In the period 1998–2006, WRB became the official reference soil
nomenclature and soil classification for the European Commission, and has since been
widely adopted as tool to harmonize and exchange soil information.
Although WRB draws on the FAO Legend of the Soil Map of the World, it was initially
conceived as a two tiers soil classification system rather than a legend. In the 3rd edition of
WRB (IUSS Working Group WRB, 2014) the classification system has been adapted so as
to accommodate rules for creating map legends. At the first level of classification, 32
Reference Soil Groups are distinguished. Reference Soil Groups are defined by a set of
diagnostic horizons, properties and materials. At a second level, qualifiers are added,
which serve as “adjectives” to the Reference Soil Groups. Two levels of details can be
expressed with the qualifiers: firstly, principal qualifiers are used to indicate either
properties typical for the particular Reference Soil Group or properties that show some
intergrading with other Reference Soil Groups. Secondly, more information on the soil can
be provided with the Supplementary Qualifiers, which are meant for presenting properties
that are not specific to a particular Reference Soil Group (e.g. texture, occurrence of lithic
discontinuities, colour, humus content, …).
A determination key enables to determine to which Reference Soil Group a particular soil
belongs. The key requires checking diagnostic features6, which are defined in terms of
5 Based on IUSS Working Group WRB (2007, 2010 and 2014).
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morphology and physico-chemical analytical properties. The soil belongs to the first
Reference Soil Group for which all specified requirements are met. The 32 Reference Soil
Groups, are listed in Table 3.1, according to a simplified key. For the full key and
definitions see IUSS Working Group (2014). For the second level of classification,
qualifiers are taken from the list of Principal and Supplementary Qualifiers as indicated in
the key, corresponding to the definitions of each of the qualifiers.
Table 3.1 - Rationalized key to the WRB Reference Soil Groups and their occurrence in
Belgium
Occurrence in Belgium
Description Confirmed Not confirmed
A. Organic soils
1. Soils with thick organic layers Histosols
B. Mineral soils
2. Soils with strong human influence
Soils with long and intensive agricultural use Anthrosols
Soils characterised by human artefacts (>20% volume) Technosols
3. Soils with strong limitation to root growth
Permafrost affected soils Cryosols
Thin or extremely gravely and stony soils Leptosols
High content of exchangeable Na in the subsoil Solonetz
Alternating wet-dry conditions, rich in swelling clays Vertisols
High concentration of soluble salts Solonchaks
4. Soils distinguished by Fe/Al chemistry
Groundwater-affected soils, underwater soils and soils in tidal
areas Gleysols
Allophanes or Al-humus complexes Andosols
Subsoil accumulation of humus and/or oxides Podzols
Accumulation and redistribution of Fe Plinthosols
Low-activity clay, P fixation, many Fe oxides, strongly structured
Nitisols
Dominance of kaolinite and oxides Ferralsols
Stagnating water, abrupt textural difference Planosols
Stagnating water, structural difference and/or moderate textural
difference Stagnosols
5. Soils with pronounced accumulation of organic matter in the
topsoil
Blackish topsoil, secondary carbonates: Chernozems
Dark topsoil, secondary carbonates: Kastanozems
Dark topsoil, no secondary carbonates (unless very deep), high
base status: Phaeozems
Dark topsoil, low base status: Umbrisols
6 These features may be diagnostic horizons, properties and/or materials
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Table 3.1 - Rationalized key to the WRB Reference Soil Groups and their occurrence in
Belgium
Occurrence in Belgium
Description Confirmed Not confirmed
6. Sois with accumulation of moderately soluble salts or non-saline
substances
Accumulation of, and cementation by, secondary silica Durisols
Accumulation of secondary gypsum Gypsisols
Accumulation of secondary carbonates Calcisols
7. Soils with a clay-enriched subsoil
Retic properties Retisols
Low-activity clays, low base status Acrisols
Low-activity clays, high base status Lixisols
High-activity clays, low base status Alisols
High-activity clays, high base status Luvisols
8. Soils with little or no profile differentiation
Moderately developed soils Cambisols
Sandy soils Arenosols
Soils with stratified fluviatile, marine or lacustrine sediments Fluvisols
Soils with no significant profile development Regosols
*(adapted from: IUSS Working Group, 2014 and complemented with own terrain observations and
information derived from the soil map of Belgium)
Example
To illustrate how a soil profile is classified in WRB – and how it was classified according
to the legend of the soil map of Belgium – the description of soil profile “Meerbeek-01”
(province of Vlaams-Brabant) is presented (Fig. 3.1 & Table 3.2) Following the 3rd edition
of WRB (IUSS Working Group, 2014) this soil qualifies as an Eutric Endogleyic Cambisol
(Colluvic, Siltic). The upper 80 cm of this soil consists of colluvium, of which the Bw
horizon (35-80 cm) qualifies as a Cambic horizon, as it has well developed soil aggregate
structures and it has colours distinct from the overlying horizon; colours are one Munsell
colour value higher, and also one colour chroma higher. This material is overlying a
buried Luvisol composed of an E horizon (at 80-100 cm) and an argic horizon (100-140
cm). Going through the key to the Reference Soil Groups (IUSS Working Group WRB,
2014; p. 79-110), as the Cambic horizon occurs within the first 50 cm, and as no other
diagnostic horizon occurs within the first meter, the soil keys out as a Cambisol.
Subsequently, the Principal Qualifiers are checked in the list from top to down. Gleyic is
the first relevant qualifier referring to the redoximorphic colour patterns which occur
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below 80 cm (in the 2EBg horizon, Fig. 3.1 & Table 3.2). The specifier7 Endo- can be
used here to indicate that this feature occurs below 50 cm and within 100 cm, hence
Endogleyic Cambisol. Assuming that this soil has a base saturation of more than 50%,
further down the list the qualifier Eutric applies, hence Eutric Endogleyic Cambisol.
From the list of Supplementary Qualifiers we retain the qualifier Colluvic to indicate that
the soil consists of colluvium, and the qualifier Siltic as it is a fine textured soil. The
Supplementary Qualifiers are given in alphabetical order, so the full name of the soil is
Eutric Endogleyic Cambisol (Colluvic, Siltic).
To indicate that this colluvial soil is actually overlying a buried Luvisol, the soil can be
named as Eutric Endogleyic Cambisol (Colluvic, Siltic) over Gleyic Luvisol (Cutanic,
Siltic). The buried soil indeed keys out as a Luvisol as it has an argic horizon (2Btg in Fig.
3.1 & Table 3.2) and a base saturation of more than 50%, with the Supplementary
Qualifier Cutanic referring to presence of clay coatings in the 2Btg horizon (Fig. 3.1 &
Table 3.2).
On the original soil map, the site is mapped as an Adp soil type. The first symbol A..
refers to the “Silt or Silt Loam” texture; the second symbol .d. to its imperfect drainage;
and the third ..p would in principle refer to soils “without any soils profile development”
(see Table 2.2). However, as this soil has a clearly developed Cambic horizon, the
practical meaning of symbol ..p is that the soil consists mostly of colluvial deposits of
Holocene age. The Holocene age of this colluvium was attested by the presence of the
remants of a Roman tile at the base of the Bw horizon (Van de Konijnenburg et al., 2013).
7 IUSS Working Group WRB, 2014; p. 13-15 for full definitions
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Figure 3.1 – Soil profile pit “Meerbeek-01”, is a Eutric Endogleyic Cambisol (Colluvic, Siltic), and
mapped as soil type Adp (sheet Erps-Kwerps 89W); below 80 cm a buried profile occurs which is “Gleyic
Luvisol (Cutanic, Siltic)
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Table 3.2 – Description and diagnostic features of soil profile “Meerbeek-01” illustrating the
WRB as a classification system; all colours are moist colours
Horizon
Depth
(cm) Description Diagnostic
features
Ap 0-35 Silt Loam in USDA classes (A in Belgian textural
classes); dark brown 10YR 3/3 (moist); moderate
strong, medium angular to sub-angular blocky structure;
slightly sticky, plastic and friable moist; many fine and
medium roots; few to common tubular and interstitial
pores and many earthworm galleries; small pieces of
bricks (<5 cm) and charcoal, boundary smooth and
abrupt
Ochric horizon,
colluvic material,
Eutric
Bw 35-80 Silt Loam in USDA classes (A in Belgian textural
classes); Brown 10YR 4/4 (moist); moderate to strong
medium angular block structure; slightly sticky, plastic
and friable moist; many fine roots; common tubular and
interstitial pores and many earthworm galleries; piece of
roman tile (5-10 cm), boundary smooth to wavy and
clear
Cambic horizon,
colluvic material,
Eutric
2EBg 80-100 Silt Loam in USDA classes (A in Belgian textural
classes); dull yellowish brown 10YR 5/3 (moist);
common medium distinct brown mottles (10YR 4/6) and
Mn-Fe speckles (5 mm); strong medium angular blocky
structure; few very fine clay coatings on pores and
pedfaces; slightly sticky, plastic and friable moist; many
fine roots; many tubular and interstitial pores, few
earthworm galleries; boundary wavy and gradual
Gleyic properties
in a clay eluviated
horizon, Eutric
2Btg 100-140+ Silt Loam in USDA classes (A in Belgian textural
classes); strongly mottled brown 10YR 4/6 to dull
yellowish brown 10YR5/3 (moist); and Mn-Fe speckles
(> 5 mm); strong medium angular blocky structure; fine,
continuous clay coatings on pores and pedfaces; slightly
sticky, plastic and friable moist; many fine roots; many
tubular and interstitial pores
Argic horizon,
Gleyic properties,
Eutric
3.2 WRB for constructing map legends
Being limited to only two levels of classification, WRB allows for classifying a wide range
of soil properties in a flexible manner, as illustrated by the above example. However,
when generalization is required, as is done when legends of soil maps are constructed, a
choice has to be made on which qualifiers to retain. The guidelines for constructing map
legends have been included in the 3rd edition of WRB, so that legends would
internationally be made in a consistent way.
The rules for creating map legends are summarized here (IUSS WRB Working Group,
2010; p. 11-13):
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A mapping unit consists of
a dominant soil unit8 only, or
a dominant soil unit plus a co-dominant soil unit and/or one or more associated
soil units, or
two or three codominant soil units or
two or three codominant soils plus one or more associated soil units.
Dominant soil units represent 50% of the soil cover, codominant soil units 25 and
< 50% of the soil cover. Associated soil units represent 5 and < 25% of the soil cover, or
are of high relevance in the landscape ecology.
The maximum number of qualifiers depends on the intended map scale and whereby for
the codominant or associated soil units fewer qualifiers (or even no qualifier) may be
provided:
For very small map scales (e.g. smaller than 1:10 000 000), only the Reference Soil
Group (RSG) is used
For larger map scales (e.g. from 1:5 000 000 to 1:10 000 000), the RSG plus the
first applicable principal qualifier are used.
For next larger map scales (e.g. from 1 : 1 000 000 to 1 : 5 000 000), the RSG plus
the first two principal qualifiers are used.
For next larger map scales (e.g. from 1 : 250 000 to 1 : 1 000 000), the RSG plus
the first three applicable principal qualifiers are used.
If there are fewer qualifiers applicable than described above, the lesser number is
used.
Futhermore, depending on the purpose of the map or according to national traditions, at
any scale level, further qualifiers may be added optionally. They may be additional
principal qualifiers from further down the list and not already used in the soil name, or
they may be supplementary qualifiers.
8 The term soil unit is not explicitly defined in the 3rd edition of WRB; we use it to refer to the second
classification level – i.e. RSG with qualifiers – similarly as was done for the FAO legend of the Soil Map of
the World.
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For constructing a map legend, and given the limitation of the legacy soil survey data, we
have opted to correlate the soil types of the Flemish region to Reference Soil Groups,
combined with a maximum of three principal qualifiers. The principal qualifiers are
organised following the rules of WRB, and are stored into three separate fields in the GIS
layer.
Additionally, for facilitating the use of the soil map in a GIS environment, we added four
supplementary qualifiers grouped according to thematic properties. These are:
drainage status: Endogleyic, Amphigleyic, Stagnic, …
texture classes: Siltic, Loamic, Arenic, Clayic
chemical fertility: Dystric, Eutric, Calcaric, Salic
morphologic features: Colluvic, Fluvic, Relocatic, Ruptic, Abruptic, Thapto-histic,
The supplementary qualifiers have been organised on the consideration that some GIS
users may be less familiar with WRB as a classification system. Therefore all records
have been explicitly recorded even when this may result to redundant information; e.g.
Eutric” for Phaeozems and Luvisols, “Arenic” even for Arenosols, etc.
The advantage of having e.g. a separate qualifier for drainage is that a GIS user can check
this property for every Reference Soil Group. The qualifier Gleyic, or Stagnic, for
example, are not amongst the Principal Qualifiers for the Anthrosols while it is for most
other Reference Soil Groups; furthermore these qualifiers are implicit to Stagnosols,
Planosols and Gleysols.
3.3 Characteristics of the Reference Soil groups of the Flemish region
In Table 3 the Reference Soil Groups which are known to occur in Belgium have been
presented along with a simplified key. Following the sequence of the key, we present the
major characteristics of the Reference Soil Groups which occur in the Flemish region
(adapted from IUSS Working Group WRB, 2014). Their distribution is illustrated with
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simplified maps derived from the detailed digital soil map. Standard definitions of WRB
terms are presented in Annex 1.
Histosols
Histosols (Fig. 3.2) are dark soils with high accumulation of partially decomposed organic
matter generally developed in wet or cold conditions (from the Greek, histos, meaning
tissue). Production rates of organic matter exceed decomposition rates with accumulation
of organic matter as a result. Low temperatures and/or limited oxygen conditions retard
decomposition. In the Flemish region they can be found in the lowlands, fed by
groundwater (Rheic Histosols). These soils were particular common in the valleys in the
Campine area, but have often been drained and “reclaimed” in the framework of large land
reallotment projects during the late 1950s and 1960s. Histosols are also common as buried
soils in the coastal polders (Fig. 3.2b).
Figure 3.2 – (a) Landscape with Rheic Histosols, soil type V, in the nature conservation area “de Zegge”
province of Antwerp; (b) buried Histosol in the coastal polders, a Fluvic Gleyic Cambisol (Thaptohistic)
soil type OV2, in Dudzele (province of West-Vlaanderen)
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Figure 3.3 - Distribution of Histosols in the Flemish region
Anthrosols
Anthrosols (Fig. 3.4) are formed (or modified) by human activity that caused profound
changes in soil properties (from the Greek anthropos, meaning man). They are found in
areas of long term cultivation where substantial additions of mineral and organic fertilizers
or continuous application of earth as e.g. sods or shells took place. Anthrosols are found in
areas where people have practised agriculture for a long time (Fig. 3.5). Depending on the
origin of the added material and on the farming system, Anthrosols in the rural areas of the
Flemish region are either Plaggic Anthrosols with BS < 50%, and/or pH-H2O < 5.5; or
Terric Anthrosols with BS > 50%, and/or pH-H2O > 5.5.
Plaggic Anthrosols are formed where heather sods were used for bedding livestock, where
afterwards the mixture of sods and excrements was spread on the fields to raise the fertility
of the soil. They have a surface horizon with a high amount of organic matter, at least 50
cm thick. These soils are located in the Campine Region in the eastern part of Flanders.
Terric Antrosols develop through addition of materials rich in earthly manures, compost,
loess or mud at least 50 cm thick. In the soil district “Westelijke Boomse cuesta” around
the town of Sint-Niklaas, they occur as typical raised fields (“Bolle akkers”).
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Figure 3.4 - (a) Plaggic Anthrosol, soil type Scm, in Oud-Turnhout (province of Antwerp); (b) Terric
Anthrosol, soil type Sdm, in Bree (province of Limburg)
Figure 3.5 - Distribution of Anthrosols in the Flemish region
Technosols
Technosols (Fig. 3.6) are soils strongly influenced by human-made material (from Greek
technikos, meaning skilfully made). Technosols contain a significant amount of artefacts
(something in the soil recognizably made or strongly altered by humans or extracted from
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greater depths) or are sealed by technic hard material (hard material created by humans,
having properties unlike natural rock) or contain a geomembrane. They include soils from
wastes (landfills, sludge, cinders, mine spoils and ashes), pavements with their underlying
unconsolidated materials, soils with geomembranes and constructed soils. They occur
mostly in urban and industrial area. Soils in these areas were not surveyed; the mapping
unit are hence indicated as “Technosols/not surveyed” areas (Fig. 3.7), and actually also
include restricted areas such as military zones.
Figure 3.6 - Garbic Technosol, soil type ON around Turnhout (province of Antwerp)
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Figure 3.7 - Technosols, urban areas and not surveyed areas of the Flemish region
Leptosols
Leptosols are shallow soils over hard rock or gravelly material (from the Greek, leptos,
meaning thin). They are common in rocky and mountainous areas where the soil has been
partially eroded. In the Flemish area they occur only locally as rock outcrops, of sandy
ironstone from Tertiary marine deposits; but the area is too small for retaining on the soil
map.
Gleysols
Gleysols (Fig. 3.8) are soils saturated by groundwater near the surface for long periods
(from the Russian, gley, meaning ‘mucky mass’). A gleyic colour pattern develops with
reddish, brownish or yellowish colours on ped surfaces in the upper soil layers and
greyish, bluish colours inside the peds or in deeper soil layers. Gleysols occur mainly in
lowland areas where the groundwater comes close to the surface and the soil is saturated
with groundwater for long periods of time (Fig. 3.9).
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Figure 3.8 - Reductigleyic Gleysol, soil type Lgp, in Kuurne (province of West-Vlaanderen)
Figure 3.9 - Distribution of Gleysols in the Flemish region
Podzols
Podzols (Fig. 3.10) are acidic, mostly coarse textured soils with a bleached horizon
underlain by an accumulation of organic matter, aluminium and iron (from the Russian,
pod, meaning under, and zola, meaning ash, and which refers to the greyish colour of the
Albic horizon). Migration of aluminium, iron and organic compounds took place from the
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surface to the B-horizon with percolating rainwater under acidic conditions. A strongly
bleached Albic material is left behind with a dark spodic horizon containing humus
complexes deposits underneath. They can be found commonly under vegetation with
acidic litter (Fig. 3.11). A low level of nutrients, low pH and limited available moisture
make them unattractive for agriculture. Very often these soils have been perturbated, by
ploughing when used for agriculture, but also by forested who riped the thin iron pan as
illustrated in Fig. 3.10b.
Figure 3.10 – (a) Albic Podzol, soil type Zbg, in Oud-Turnhout (province of Antwerp); (b) Albic Podzol,
(Relocatic), soil type Zcg, in Herentals (province of Antwerp); here the upper parts of the Spodic horizon
have been perturbed as foresters ripped the iron pan of the Podzol
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Figure 3.11 - Distribution of Podzols in the Flemish region
Planosols
Planosols (Fig. 3.12) have coarse-textured surface horizons abruptly over dense and finer
textured subsoil. They are typically in seasonally waterlogged flat lands (from Latin,
planus, meaning flat). The soil profile shows sign of water stagnation, as redoximorphic
mottling above the abrupt textural change. In the Flemish regions these soils are common
where loamy or silty Eolian deposits occur above Tertiary marine clay deposits (Fig. 3.13).
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Figure 3.12 - Retic Planosol, soil type u-Pdc, in Roeselare (province of West-Vlaanderen)
Figure 3.13 - Distribution of Planosols in the Flemish region
Stagnosols
Stagnosols (Fig. 3.14), just as Planosols, are soils with perched watertable (from Latin,
stagnare, to flood), but do not have the abrupt textural change. They show periodically
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reducing conditions resulting in stagnic properties. Infiltration of water is usually limited
by a shallow, impermeable layer. Stagnosols can be found in flat or gently sloping land
(Fig. 3.15).
Figure 3.14 - Endogleyic Stagnosol, soil type Phc¸ in Meulebeke (province of West-Vlaanderen)
Figure 3.15 - Distribution of Stagnosols in the Flemish region
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Phaeozems
Phaeozems (Fig. 3.16) are soils with a deep, dark surface horizon at least 20 cm thick that
is rich in organic matter (Mollic horizon) and without secondary calcium carbonate
concentrations within 1 m (from the Greek, phaios, meaning dusk and the Russian, zemlja,
meaning earth of land). They have a high base saturation (BS > 50% and pH > 5.5). In
the Flemish region Phaeozems often occur in the poorly drained parts of alluvial valleys
(Fig. 3.17). These soils are often used for poplar plantation (Populus spp.) or meadows.
Figure 3.16 - Endogleyic Phaeozem in Meerbeek; soil type Aep (province of Vlaams-Brabant)
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Figure 3.17 - Distribution of Phaeozems in the Flemish region
Umbrisols
Umbrisols (Fig. 3.18) are soils rather similar to Phaeozems but the thick organic rich
surface horizon has a low base saturation (Umbric horizon, BS < 50% and pH < 5.5). In
the Flemish region, they are most common in the Campine region where they occur in the
poorly drained valley bottoms, often associated to Histosols (Fig. 3.19).
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Figure 3.18 - Gleyic Umbrisol, soil type Pfp, in Bree (province of Limburg)
Figure 3.19 - Distribution of Umbrisols in the Flemish region
Retisols
Retisols (Fig. 3.20) are soils with a clay-enriched subsoil and retic properties. Retic
properties refer to the interfingering of coarser-textured, lighther coloured parts (albic
material) into a finer-textured argic horizon that has stronger colours. Stagnic properties
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can be present with or without reducing conditions. The former Albeluvisols with their
albeluvic glossae now are part of the Retisols. In the Flemish region they are most
common in soil type with texture class L.. (zandleem). In silty soils (texture class A.., they
are typically found in old, broadleave forests as in the Zonien forest and Meerdaal forest
(Fig. 3.21).
Figure 3.20 – (a) Eutric Retisol soil type Pbc, in Wevelgem (province of West-Vlaanderen); (b) Eutric
Endogleyic Retisol, soil type Ldc, in Alken (province of Limburg)
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Figure 3.21 - Distribution of Retisols in the Flemish region
Alisols and Luvisols
Alisols are soils with a subsurface horizon of high activity clay accumulation and low base
saturation (BS < 50%, pH-H2O < 5.2) (from the Latin, alumen, alum and referring to their
high content of exchangeable Aluminium). Luvisols (Fig. 3.22) (from the Latin, luere,
meaning to wash) are morphologic similar soils but with high base saturation (BS > 50%,
pH-H2O > 5.5). Alisols, only appear as a sizeable area in the soil district “Krijtplateau
(Fig. 3.23); while Luvisols are the dominant soils in the loess belt (Fig. 3.24). Small
patches of Alisols can however occur in the loess belt under forest.
Both Alisols and Luvisols show marked textural differences within the profile. If the soil
has not been disturbed, under the humus rich surface horizon (Ah), a horizon depleted in
clay occurs (E horizon), below which a subsurface horizon occurs where clay illuviated
(Bt horizon). These soils generally occur on well drained landscapes.
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Figure 3.22 - Haplic Luvisol, soil type Aba0, in Ninove (province of Oost-Vlaanderen)
Figure 3.23 - Distribution of Alisols in the Flemish region; the arrow points to Alisols area in the soil
district “Krijtland”
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Figure 3.24 - Distribution of Luvisols in the Flemish region
Cambisols
Cambisols (Fig. 3.25) are soils that have only moderately developed profile on account of
limited age or rejuvenation of the soil material (from the Latin, cambiare, meaning to
change). Pedogenic processes are evident from colour development and/or structure
formation below the surface horizon. They occur in a wide variety of environments and
under all kinds of vegetation. Cambisols can be very productive agriculturally, especially
in loess areas.
In the Flemish region, a first part of the Cambisols are Fluvic Cambisols (Fig. 3.25a; Fig
3.26a) found in valley bottoms as well as in the polder areas; another part occurs at
footslopes or in dry valleys in colluvial deposits um e.g. the Endogleyic Cambisol
(Colluvic) presented in Fig. 3.1.
A third part of Cambisols are soils with anthropogenic material less than 50 cm thick, and
with no other diagnostic features, except for a Cambic horizon which may be present.
Such soils are either Plaggic Cambisols (BS < 50%) (Fig. 3.25b) or Terric Cambisols (BS
> 50%).
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Figure 3.25 - (a) Fluvic Gleyic Cambisol, soil type Adp in Heverlee (province Vlaams-Brabant); (b)
Plaggic Cambisol, soil type Sbf3 in Overpelt (province of Limburg) (photo HAAST, Rik van de
Konijnenburg)
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Figure 3.26 - Distribution of Cambisols in the Flemish region; (a) Fluvic Cambisols are dominant in the
polders and alluvial valleys; Colluvic Cambisols in dry valleys and footslopes; (b) Terric Cambisols and
Plaggic Cambisols are found in association with Anthrosols; (c) other Cambisols
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Arenosols
Arenosols (Fig. 3.27) have a coarse texture of at least 1 metre or upto a hard layer. Soil
formation is limited by low weathering rate and frequent erosion of the surface. If
vegetation has not developed, shifting sands dominate. Periods of stability are marked by
accumulation of organic matter in the top horizon, lamellae of clay and/or humus and iron
complexes. In the Flemish region they occur as coastal dunes, and in the inland in areas
dominated by cover sands and former shifting dunes (Fig 3.28).
Figure 3.27 -- (a) Landscape of shifting dune sands with Protic Arenosols, soil type X in Oudsberg
(province of Limburg); (b) Brunic Arenosol, soil tybe Zbc in Oud-Turnhout (province Antwerp)
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Figure 3.28 - Distribution of Arenosols in the Flemish region
Fluvisols
Fluvisols are young soils in alluvial (floodplain), lacustrine (lake) and marine deposits
(from the Latin, fluvius, meaning river). They can be found in periodically flooded areas
such as alluvial plains, valleys and tidal marshes. Fluvisols show layering of the sediments
rather than pedogenic horizons. Their characteristics and fertility depend on the nature and
sequence of the sediments and length of periods of soil formation after or between floods.
Fluvisols are not that common in the Flemish region (Fig. 3.29) as soils developed from
fluvial, lacustrine, or marine deposits, often have either a Mollic horizon (hence qualify as
Fluvic Phaeozem), an Umbric horizon (hence Fluvic Umbrisols). When alluvial deposits
are drained, soil formation sets in and a Cambic horizon quickly forms, leading to the
formation of Fluvic Cambisols.
Regosols
Regosols are soils with limited development (from Greek, rhegos, meaning blanket). They
form a classification rest group containing all soils that cannot be accommodated in any of
the other Reference Soil Groups. Regosols profiles show thin surface horizons overlaying
generally unstructured deposits. In the Flemish region many sandy soils with a fine
textured substratum within the first meter, key out as Regosols (Fig. 3.30).
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Figure 3.29 - Distribution of Fluvisols in the Flemish region
Figure 3.30 - Distribution of Regosols in the Flemish region
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4. General approach
A general translation key for converting the legend of the soil map of Belgium to WRB
was developed when we elaborated and tested the method (Dondeyne et al., 2012).
However, the experience showed that such a translation often does not lead to an
unequivocal conversion. Therefore, based on the insights gained from the key, and the
practical knowledge acquired through classifying soil profiles, the following practical rules
were applied. To take variation within the Flemish region into account – due to geology,
land-use history, and differences in soil survey approach - the conversion of the soil types
of the Flemish region has been done for 24 physiographic regions as had been defined by
Honnay (1994), and further refered to as “soil districts”.
4.1 Soil variability per soil district
From the methodological studies in preparation of this work (Dondeyne et al., 2012;
2013), a wide variability in soil properties per mapping units came to light. The natural
variability is partly due to intrinsic variation in geology, land-use and climate, but also to
differences in soil survey approaches in different parts of the country, and which also
shifted over time. To take this variability into account, the soil types have been classified
per soil district. The soil districts were adapted from the 24 “physiographic regions”
defined by Honnay (1994) (Fig. 4.1).
For the coastal plain, and in line with the geomorphic units described in section 2.2, the
coastal plain was further subdivided into:
Duinstreek (the coastal dunes)
Oudland (old land polders)
Nieuwland van het Zwin (newland polders of the Zwin)
Middelland (mid-land polders)
Oudland, overgangsgronden (fringes of old land polders)
Nieuwland (newland polders)
Historische polders van Oostende (Newland, of the historical polders of
Oostende)
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Gronden op kleiig material (clayey soils of old back swamps)
Landschap van de Moeren, (old backswamps), and
Zwin (tidal muds and flat of the “Zwin”)
Figure 4.1 – Soil districts of the Flemish region corresponding to broad physographic units of the Flemish
region (adapted from Honnay, 1994). The legend of the soil map of Belgium has been converted to WRB
for each of these districts seperatly.
Overall there are 4005 different soil mapping units9 - further called soil types - according
to the digital soil map of the Flemish region. Ninety percent of the territory is covered by
408 soil types, and 95% by 671 soil types (Table 4.1). The soil district with the highest
soil type diversity is the Depressie van de Netes; in terms of evenness the soil districts do
however not differ all that much. The Shannon diversity index and the Evenness index are
commonly used in ecology and have been proposed by Ibañez et al. (1995) for studying
diversity in soils. Higher Shannon diversity index H' indicate greater soil type diversity.
The evenness index E indicates how close in numbers each soil types are per soil district.
For example if there are 20 polygons with “soil type A”, and 500 with “soil type B”, the
soil district is not very even, while if there are 20 polygons with “soil type A” and 22 with
“soil type B”, the soil district is very even.
9 This is before taking into account the (minor) corrections explained in section 6.2
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Table 4.1 – Soil variability per soil district of the Flemish region, as expressed in the number of
“soil types” (n), the area covered and the Shannon diversity index (H’) and Evenness index (E).
4.2 Use of legacy soil profile data
In total 540 soil profile descriptions have been checked and classified according to WRB-
2007. This classification was done prior to the publication of the 3rd edition of WRB. It
would have taken too much time to redo the classification, according to the newest, 3rd
edition. From the insights gained from classifying all these profiles practical conversion
rules were established; the classification of the 540 legacy soil profiles is presented in
Annex 3.
The databases AARDEWERK-93 (Van Orshoven et al. 1993), and AARDEWERK-STAT
(Beckers et al., 2012) were both used for making inferences on soil qualifiers per soil type
for each of the soil districts. AARDEWERK-93 was particularly used to determine
whether soil groups of a particular soil district could be classified as either Dystric, Eutric
or Calcaric, depending on the soil pH-H2O, as illustrated further down. The assessment
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was done based on the geomatching of soil profile data with soil types represented as
mapping units. The location of the profiles was taken from AARDEWERK-2010; the
analytical data was taken from AARDEWERK-93.
4.3 Heuristic rules
Identification of Reference Soil Groups
The general rules which had been elaborated as part of the methodological study
(Dondeyne et al., 2012; 2013) were refined and adapted to fit the classification according
to the 3rd edition of WRB (Table 4.2). Overall, compared to the 2nd edition, the 3rd edition
of WRB allowed for more straightforward correlation to the Belgian classification system.
The main advantages were: the definition of Retisols corresponds better with the definition
of soil profile development ..c “with the mottled textural B horizon”; the current definition
of Gleysols fits better the drainage class “.g.” (colours indicating reduced condition within
40 cm, rather than 25 cm); the definition for the textural qualifiers are now explicite (i.e.
Loamic, was not mentioned in the previous editiosn) and could also be better correlated
with the Belgian classes.
Table 4.2 – Key for identifying Reference Soil Groups based on the codes of the legend of
the soil map of Belgium (as applied for the Flemish region)
Reference Soil Group Code Additional rule / observations
Histosols V
Anthrosols **m; **h, with “..h” as supplementary
qualifier “Spodi-relocatic”
OC in coastal polders
Technosols / Not surveyed
areas OB, ON, OT, OE, OH,OC
Leptosols - part of the ZAfe, and SAfe will be
include Leptosols, but are
considered too small to be
mentioned
Gleysols *g*, *G*. Reductigleyic Gleysols
*hp, *ip, *Ip, *hP Oxygleyic Gleysols when
occurring in valleys
B Oxygleyic Gleysols
OS Tidalic Gleysols (Zwin area in the
coastal polder)
Podzols **g; **fc; **fx. **F but excluding *gg, taken as
Gleysols
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Table 4.2 – Key for identifying Reference Soil Groups based on the codes of the legend of
the soil map of Belgium (as applied for the Flemish region)
Reference Soil Group Code Additional rule / observations
Planosols u*h*, w*h*, u*dx, u*dP, ...
uADa, gADa typically when there is an abrupt
textural change (light to heavier)
d.Db, r.uP*, r.uS*, ... in coastal area, based on
classification of profiles
Stagnosols *i*, *h* *h* if not in valley position
Phaeozems *ep, *fp,**p(v), **f2, **c2,
**p3, ... and if described in the explanatory
text as having black colours and
high amounts of SOC, and
pH > 5.2
Umbrisols *ep*, *fp*,*p(v), *f2, *c2, *p3,
...
and if described in explanatory text
as having black colours and high
amounts of SOC, and pH < 5.2
Alisols **a if pH-H2O < 5.2
Retisols **c, **a(b) if not *Z**
Luvisols **a*, **p(c), **p1 if pH-H2O >= 5.5
Cambisols **f, **F, **b, **x if not *Z*.
**p “Fluvic Cambisols” in valleys; on
slopes Colluvic, if not Gleysols,
Phaeozems, or Umbrisols
OA, OG*, OO*, OV*, OZ in coastal polders
Arenosols Z*x, Z*f, Z*c, Z*p if not Zg*, or Z*g
Fluvisols w/s-Z/S-e/f-p soils with no structure in alluvial
deposits
r.sPm based on soil profile classification
of the coastal polders
Regosols *Z** Arenic soils but with substratum
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Qualifiers for drainage status
A first set of refining has been made with regards to the drainage status; the rules
presented in Table 4.3 were followed for all soil types.
Table 4.3 – Rules applied for converting information on drainage status as indicated in the
code of the legend of the soil map of Belgium to WRB qualifiers
Code Qualifier
*a* meaning dry, indicated as “-“ no qualifier
*b* meaning dry, indicated as “-“ no qualifier
*c* meaning dry, indicated as “-“ no qualifier; locally when
clayey substratum present, and when mentioned in
explanatory, Stagnic
*A* (= complex of .a. to .d.) meaning dry, indicated as “-“ no qualifier
*d* (endo)gleyic, or stagnic (when clayey substratum present,
and when mentioned in explanatory
*e* (endo)gleyic
*D* (= complex of .c. + .d.) (endo)gleyic or stagnic
*f* (amphi)gleyic
*g* Gleysols
*h* stagnic, or oxygleyic when occurring in valleys
*i*, *I* (= complex of .h. + .i.) stagnic, or oxygleyic when occurring in valleys
How the rules were applied is illustrated in Table 4.4, with a hydrosequence of soils with a
Spodic horizon (code ..g).
Table 4.4 – Example of convertion of drainage classes for different Soil series with a “Spodic
horizon” identified with code “..g”
Soil series Description WRB classification
Zag Sandy Podzols, excessively well
drained, and with a clear Albic horizon
Zbg Sandy Podzols, well drained, and with a
clear Albic horizon
Zcg Sandy Podzols, moderately well
drained, and with a clear Albic horizon
Albic Podzols (Arenic)
Zdg Sandy Podzols, imperfectly drained and
with an Albic horizon Endogleyic Podzols (Arenic)
Zeg Sandy Podzols, poorly drained (and
without an Albic horizon) Endogleyic Podzols (Arenic)
Zfg Sandy Podzols, very poorly drained Amphigleyic Podzols (Arenic)
Zgg Sandy Gleysols; extremely poorly
drained, but with a Spodic horizon Spodic Gleysols (Arenic)
Variations in parent material, and/or occurrence of substratum
Information on occurrence of substratum or variations in parent material implied by codes
of phases or variants were interpreted as indicated in Tabe 4.5 and explicitly recorded as a
supplementary qualifier on morphology.
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Table 4.5 – Rules applied for converting information information pertaining to variations
in substratum or parent material indicated as phases or variants codes
Qualifier Code Comments
- ***(z) Meaning little humus, hence excluding e.g.
Sep(z) of being Phaeozem, Umbrisols or
Plaggic
Abruptic wS**, wZ**,
w-S**, w-Z u-
Z/S/P/L/A/G
Bathyabruptic (w)*** ; (u)***
Bathyruptic (w)** (l)***
(s)***
Histic, Mollic **p3; ***2;
***(v) except when taken as Plaggic/Terric, of
Phaeozem
Novic
***(s)(z) i.e. new material is covering the actual profile
Nudiargic **a1
Relocatic ***(o)
Ruptic w-P/L/A/G**
s-P/L/A/G**,
Z/S**pc;
Z/S**pd;
Z/S**mc;
Z/S**md;
Z/S**mx
Also always with Planosols
Skeletic **ge
Terric/Plaggic **g3
Thaptohistic v**, (v)**
Western parts of the Flemish region
Terric Anthrosols **m BS > 50%
Terric Anthrosols (Spodi-
relocatic) **h BS > 50%
Terric Cambisols **P Terric properties (but not thick enough for "**m"
and without post-podzols)
Terric Cambisols (Thapto-
spodic) **P(s) Terric properties (but not thick enough for "**m"
and without post-podzols)
Terric Cambisols (Spodi-
relocatic) **G Terric properties (but not thick enough for "**m"
and with post-podzols)
Provinces of Antwerpen, Limburg, Vlaams-Brabant
Terric/Plaggic Cambisol **f(p)
General rules for sandy soils
Brunic Arenosols Z*x
Brunic/Stagnic/… Regosols *Z*x
Cambisols *P*x
Cambisols *G*x
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For the soil district Krijtland the following additional rules were applied
Code Description (Dutch) Qualifier
G..1 substraat diep 80-120 cm; cf. (x)... Bathyruptic
G..2 substraat ondiep 40-80 cm Ruptic
G..3 fase heel stenig > 50% Skeletic
G..4 substraat < 40 cm Ruptic
G..5 stenig, niet dieper dan 20-40 cm Skeletic, Ruptic
G..6* heel ondiep, stenen aan de oppervlakte Leptosols
nuG.. Abruptic
uG.. Abruptic
*does not occur within the Flemish region
Qualifiers pertaining to base saturation
The qualifiers Dystric, Eutric and Calcaric convey some basic information on the soil
fertility status. Dystric implies that the base saturation (by 1 M NH4OAc) of the soil in the
major part between 20-100 cm is less than 50%; while Eutric implies that it is more than
50%. A soil is Calcaric when it has free CaCO3 (>2%) throughout between 20 and 100
cm depth. However, as base saturation has only been determined for a very limited
number of the legacy soil profiles, the soil pH-H20 was taken as a proxy. Based on the
correlation which had been found between the pH value and base saturation (Dondeyne et
al., 2012), the following rules were used:
Dystric, when average soil pH-H2O, per soil type and per soil district is smaller
than 5.2
Either Dystric or Eutric when soil pH-H2O is in the range 5.2-5.5; but a particular
choice was made based on the general trend per soil district and the neighbouring
soil types; in general Dystric in the Campine region in eastern parts of the Flemish
region, particularly the soil districts of “Depressie van de Netes”, “Heuvelland van
Lummen”, and “Maasterrassen” are considered to be predominantly Dystric.
Eutric, when soil pH-H2O is in the range 5.5 - 8.0
Calcaric, when soil pH-H2O is above 8.0 and/or when in the explanatory booklets
the presence of CaCO3 is mentioned to be typical for that soil type.
For “border cases”, preference was given to indicate the soil type as Eutric, on the
consideration that due to the practise of manuring and fertiliser over the last decades most
soils will have been subject to eutrification. Properties of neighbouring soil types were
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also taken into account – e.g. soils with profile development ..m in landscape setting with
Podzols (mapped as ..g) were taken to be Plaggic Anthrosols.
Table 4.6 illustrates how soil types with soil texture class S.. and soil profile development
..f were evaluated to be either Dystric or Eutric per soil district. Generalisation is further
done, taking soil texture into account and the modal values per district; in the example
below "S.f" are considered to be Dystric in the soil district “Maasterrassen”, while those of
the soil district “West-Vlaamse cuestaland” are Eutric.
Table 4.6 – Ilustration of classification of “S.f” soil types for two physiographic regi
ons,
in Dystric or Eutric based on their soil pH-H2O status and derived from the
AARDEWERK-93 database through geomatching process
Soil district Soil type Average pH-H2O Evaluation
Maasterrassen t-Scf1 4.27 Dystric
t-Sbf1 4.53 Dystric
Scf1t 4.57 Dystric
t-Scf 4.82 Dystric
Sbft 4.86 Dystric
Sbf 5.03 Dystric
Scft 5.19 Dystric
t-Sbf3 5.25 Dystric
Scfz 5.44 Eutric
t-Sbf 5.92 Eutric
West-Vlaams cuestaland
SdF2z 5.52 Eutric
SdF2 5.78 Eutric
SdF 6.04 Eutric
w-SdF2 7.59 Eutric
Qualifiers pertaining to soil texture
The qualifiers Arenic, Loamic, Siltic, and Clayic regroup broad soil textural classes,
referring to the soil textural classes as defined by FAO. The definitions of these qualifiers
and their correspondence with the Belgian soil textural classes are shown in Fig. 4.2.
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Figure 4.2 – (a) Definition of Belgian textural classes, compared to (b) the qualifier classes Clayic, Siltic,
Loamic and Arenic as defined in the 3rd Edition of WRB; note the English names for the Belgian classes
are propsed as “best proxys”; the original names are given in Fig 2.2.
As the correspondence between Belgian textural classes, and the FAO classes is not a one-
to-one relationship, the general rules presented in Table 4.7 were applied. Where Belgian
textural classes, or the symbol used for complexes may correspond to different qualifier
classes, this was indicated with a "/"; e.g. G.. can be Loamic or Siltic; the complex to E-A
will be Loamic or Siltic, respectively; both cases are indicated as Loamic/Siltic.
Table 4.7 – Conversion of soil texture class symbol, or specific landscape symbol, to
textural qualifiers
Soil texture class, or
landscape symbol Qualifier
$ $
A Siltic
A-L Siltic/Loamic
A-S Siltic/Loamic
A-U Siltic/Clayic
A-U-S Siltic/Clayic/Loamic
A-Z Siltic/Arenic
B* Siltic/Loamic or Siltic/Clayic; depending on neighbouring soil
textures, per soil district
E Loamic
E-A Loamic/Siltic
E-L-Z Loamic/Arenic
E-Z Loamic/Arenic
G Loamic/Siltic
G-Z Loamic/Arenic
L Loamic
L-P Loamic
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Table 4.7 – Conversion of soil texture class symbol, or specific landscape symbol, to
textural qualifiers
Soil texture class, or
landscape symbol Qualifier
L-P-Z Loamic/Arenic
M* completed based on neighbouring soil textures
N* Loamic (as described in booklet, 106e, p. 41)
P Loamic
P-Z Loamic/Arenic
S Loamic
S-P-E Loamic
S-Z Loamic/Arenic
U Clayic
U-A-L Siltic/Clayic/Loamic
U-A-M Siltic/Clayic
U-A-S Siltic/Clayic/Loamic
U-L Loamic/Clayic
U-L-S Loamic/Clayic
U-S Loamic/Clayic
V* $
V-E Loamic
X* Arenic
Z Arenic
note: symbol $ is used for “no value/no class”; e.g. in the case of the urban areas (“Technosols /
unsurveyed areas”);
* specific landscape symbols, e.g. “B” for water springs
4.4 Convertion of the mapping units of the coastal polders and dunes
To convert the mapping units of the coastal plain (including the polders and dunes), the
unpublished correlation key elaborated by Chris Vynckier and Carole Ampe in 2010 was
used as a base (Annex 2). The 166 mapping units of that table were first converted to
Reference Soil Groups, with the corresponding prefix and suffix qualifiers as defined in
WRB 2007 and which was in the first instance based on the classification of 201 legacy
soil profile descriptions according to WRB-2007 (Annex 4). In the final classification of
the mapping units, the equivalent for each mapping unit was converted following the 3rd
edition of WRB. When available at least three to four profiles were classified for each
mapping unit (Table 4.8). For the mapping units with no matching soil profiles, i.e.
neither class nor geo-matching, the classification was taken of mapping units with similar
soil properties, and for which the correlation table of Vynckier & Ampe was taken as a
reference, together with the corresponding definitions of the mapping unit as described by
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Van Ranst & Sys (2000). For the few mapping units of the coastal areas which were not
included in the “Vynckier &Ampe list”, the explanatory booklet of the original map sheets
were consulted to capture the soil properties of the mapping units. Mapping units lacking
corresponding soil profiles were less frequent classes, covering restricted areas.
Table 4.8. - Example of selected soil profiles which were classified according to WRB-
2007; wherever possible 3 to 4 profiles per mapping unit were classified
Profile Mapping unit1 Original soil type2 AW93 type3
037W69 m.P1 Type P1 (oud symbool LG2) P1
022E40 m.P1 Type P4 (ZG1) P4
022W68 m.P2 Type (O)P2 (LG1) P2
024W10 m.P3 Type P3 (ZG2) P3
024W12 m.P3 Type P3 (ZG2) P3
051E35 m.P3 Type P3 (oud symbool PG2) P3
065E31 m.P3 Type P3 (oud symbool PG2) P3
051E54 m.P3 Type T3 (oud symbool ZGYY) T3
051E34 m.P4 Type P4 (oud symbool PG1) P4
066W25 m.P4 Type (O)P4 (PG1) P4
066W67 m.P4 Type (O)P4 (PG1) P4
036E50 m.P5 Type (M)P5 (P2B) P5
037W48 m.P5 Type P5 (P2B) P5
037W68 m.P5 Type P5 (P2B) P5
065E39 m.P5 Type P5 (P2) P5
022E55 m.Pb2 Type Pb2 (6Vp) Pb2
022W55 OG1 D3E type Zgp0
036W42 OG1 G2 type G2
036W43 OG1 Type O2Z G2Z
1 Mapping unit as coded in the digital soil map
2 Soil type as mentioned on the original soil profile description
3 Soil type as coded in the database Aardewerk-93
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5. Conversion to WRB units
5.1 Classification of soil profiles
The 540 legacy soil profiles classified according to WRB-2007 were used as a guiding
reference when applying the conversion principles. The classification of these profiles is
presented in Annex 3. Qualifiers which are not foreseen as a standard in the WRB
classification for the given Reference Soil Group, are indicated with an asteric “*”.
Examples are the use of the qualifier *Loamic, which is not explicitly foreseen as a
qualifier for the soil texture, but also for example *Humic, which is not foreseen for
Albeluvisols, or *Plaggic which is not foreseen for Arenosols, nor for Podzols. When
constructing the legend according to WRB-2014 however, the use of “not-foreseen”
qualifiers was not necessary anymore.
The correspondence between “soil types” from the legacy soil profile descriptions and
WRB can not be used directly for converting the “soil types” of the mapping units. First,
the original classification of the legacy soil profiles has been done in different phases over
time, during which the classification systems have been modified. The classification of
four profiles, given in Table 5.1 illustrates the type of difficulties which were encountered:
Profile 103E27, has been coded as a soil type “Aba1” in AARDEWERK-93; this
corresponds neatly with the classification in WRB of a Cutanic Luvisol (Nudiargic,
Siltic); the soil type given in the soil profile description refers to an older classification
(A1a), and does not allow any direct conversion; the soil type indicated by the
mapping unit is of a different kind as it : soil type Abp(c) is understood to be a soil
with an argic horizon (within one meter) buried under colluvial material, hence a
Cutanic Luvisol (*Colluvic, Siltic); so Colluvic rather Nudiargic.
However, whereas in this first example the soil type indicated in AARDEWERK-93
corresponds better with the WRB classification than the one of the mapping unit, for
the soil profiles 103W06 and 050W34, none do really correspond nicely to what could
be expected; according to the soil profile description 103W06 has no argic horizon –
so an “Aba” was not an appropriate classification. It is actually a highly eroded
Luvisol, were the remains of the former lower part of the argic horizon is now just
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below the plough layer. This horizon meets the requirements of the Cambisols, but so
this soil has no colluvial material as one would expect from the mapping unit
Abp(c)”. The author10 of the soil profile description even classified the profile as a
Regosol, Brown forest soil”.
The fourth example (067E12), just as the previous one (050W34), illustrates that
profile development “..c” does not necesseraly implies the presence of an argic
horizon. The mapping unit wPbc of profile 067E12 at least conveyes the information
of the presence of a lithologic discontinuity; and is in this case therefore closer to the
WRB classification of a Haplic Cambisol (Ruptic).
Table 5.1 – Ilustration of discrepancies between the different classifications of the Belgian soil
types for four soil profiles and WRB-2007 classification; AW-93 standing for the coding in the
AARDEWERK-93 database
Soil type
Profile AW-93 Profile
description Mapping
unit WRB-2007 classification
103E27 Aba1 A1a Abp(c) Cutanic Luvisol (Hypereutric, Nudiargic, Siltic)
103W06 (s)Aba1 (s)Aba1 Abp(c) Haplic Cambisol (Calcaric, Bathyruptic, Siltic,
Bathyarenic)
050W34 Ldc1 type (O)Ca6 Ldc Endogleyic Regosol (Hypereutric, Siltic, *Drainic,
*Ruptic)
067E12 Pbc0 Pbc0 wPbc Haplic Cambisol (Ruptic, Eutric, Bathyarenic,
*Loamic)
5.2 File attribute table of the conversion
The conversion of the legend of the soil map of Belgium has been applied on an overlay of
the digital version of the soil map of the Flemish region (version 2001) intersected with a
layer of “physiograhic systems” map prepared by Honnay (1994) to identify the “soil
districts”. The structure of the attribute table of this layer is presented in Table 5.2. The
conversion of the 200 most common soil types to WRB-2014 units is given in Annex 5.
10 The author of this profile is the late Prof. Denis Lamberts
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Table 5.2 – Structure of the file attribute table of the converted version of the soil map of
Flemish region converted to WRB-2014
Nr Field names Description Source
1 CODEID ID of the soil type digital soil map of the
Flemish region
(2001edition)
2 STYPE soil type (orginally labelled "CODE")
3 SBTR Code of substratum (e.g. v, w, u) Derived from digital soil
map
4 TEXT Code of texture
5 DRAIN Code of the drainage status
6 PDEV Code of the profile development
7 FASE Code for the phase
8 VAR Code for the variant "”
9 C_S_FYS Code of the unique combination of CODEID
and SDISTRICT New code, introduced in
this study
10 SDISTRICT Soil district Map by Honnay (1994)
11 RSG2014 Reference Soil Group This study
12 PQ1 1st Principal Qualifier
13 PQ2 2nd Principal Qualifier
14 PQ3 3rd Principal Qualifier
15 SQ_DRAIN Supplementary qualifier for drainage status
16 SQ_TEXT Supplementary qualifier for texture
17 SQ_FERT Supplementary qualifier for fertility
18 SQ_MORPH Supplementary qualifier for morphology
19 RSG_CODE Standard code for the RSG
20 RSG_PQ1 Standard code for RSG with 1st PQ
21 RSG_PQ Standard code for RSG with all PQs
22 PQ1_CODE Standard code for 1st PQs
23 PQ2_CODE Standard code for 2nd PQs
24 PQ3_CODE Standard code for 3rd PQs
25 PQ_CODE Standard code for all PQs combined
26 SOILUNIT Standard WRB name for the mapping unit,
combining three Principal Qualifiers, Reference
Soil Groups and supplementary qualifiers
referring to soil texture and morphologic
features
27 OBS Observations or remarks in relation to the
conversion; or correction of code
The WRB Reference Soil Groups are stored in a separate field (RSG2014) and so are the
the first three Principal Qualifiers (PQ1, PQ2, PQ3) and Supplementary Qualifiers
(SQ_DRAIN, SQ_TEXT, SQ_FERT, SQ_MORPH).
The sequence of the 1st, 2nd and 3rd Principal Qualifiers are according to the hierarchy of
the WRB-2014 classification. By and large these three qualifiers, taken into account the
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information which can be generalised from the soil map, were sufficient to convert the
mapping unit. For the Principal Qualifiers, qualifiers which would be redundant – as the
classification unit implicitly implies the presence of such a characteristic – are, as a
principle excluded; e.g. a soil type Scm belonging to the soil unit Terric Cambisol is
assumed to be Eutric as part of the definition of Terric, hence it would be redundant to add
this as a second or three Principal Qualifier. However to facility queries in GIS
environment the property Eutric is retained in the field of the Supplementary Qualifier
SQ_FERT. WRB Soil Unit name retained in the field SOILUNIT, follow closely the
standard rules of WRB, but with as Supplementary Qualifiers only the information on only
the information retained in the field SQ_TEXT, followed by the information retained in
the field SQ_MORPH. According to the WRB rules these should have be in alphabetic
order, but for practical reasons this was not done here.
5.3 Map legends and soil classification
Map legends
As detailed maps, the original soil maps can now be used in two ways in conjunction with
WRB. First of all the original mapping units can be presented as in Figure 5.1. Each of
the Reference Soil Groups is shown with a specific colour, and labels on corresponding to
the first three Principal Qualifiers are printed as a label on the map. In this way the most
principal information in WRB terms can be represented, and the map should be legible to
an international audiance.
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Figure 5.1 - WRB Soil Units represented with Reference Soil Groups, as a seperate colour and up to three
Principal Qualifiers as labels (illustration around Alken, province of Limburg)
Another way of presenting the maps is to present the original soil types as labels in
combination with the Reference Soil Groups, as in Fig. 5.2. This representation has the
advantage that map users familiar with the Belgian legend, can immediatly derive the
detailed information the original legend provides (particularly on texture, drainage status,
and the possible occurence of substratum), while the colours give insight into the
pedogenetic similarities in the landscape.
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Figure 5.2 - Soil types of the of the digital soil map of the Flemish region combined with Reference Soil
Groups
In this way the original soil maps can be neatled presented as at a 1 : 40 000 scale, as
illustrated in the additional sample maps.
Soil classification
Map users might be interested to report the soil classification for a particular site based on
the legend. Table 5.3 illustrates how, by applying the rules for soil classification as set-out
in the 3rd edition of WRB (IUSS Working Group WRB, 2014), for each soil type per soil
district the information on Reference Soil Groups and Qualifiers can be used to determine
the name of the Soil Unit by including both Principal and Supplementary Qualifiers.
However, it should be realised that the soil at any particular site may differ from the map
legend; and that some qualifiers, e.g. Humic, have not been retained for constructing the
map legend. The field SOILUNIT in the GIS Attribute Table provides already this
information; if more detailed information is required e.g. in relation to drainage status, the
other supplementary fields can be used to this end. For example Adc in soil district
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Oostelijke Vlaamse laagvlakte, (first case in Table 5.3) belongs to the Soil Unit Eutric
Gleyic Retisols (Siltic), but could also be refered to as Eutric Endogleyic Retisols (Siltic).
Table 5.3 (a) Example of the GIS attribute table with Soil type (STYPE) per soil district
(SDISTRICT) and corresponding Reference Soil Groups and Principal (PQ..) and
supplementary qualifiers (SQ_...)
CODEID
STYPE
SDISTRICT
RSG_2014
PQ1
PQ2
PQ3
SQ_DRAIN
SQ_TEXT
SQ_FERT
SQ_MORPH
279 Adc Oostelijke Vlaamse laagvlakte Retisols Gleyic Eutric - Endogleyic Siltic Eutric -
517 Lbaz Dender-Zenne interfluvium Luvisols Haplic - - - Loamic Eutric Ruptic
630 Lep Maasterrassen Cambisols Gleyic Fluvic Eutric Endogleyic Loamic Eutric Fluvic
951 Pep Vlak van Zonhoven Cambisols Gleyic Fluvic Dystric Endogleyic Loamic Dystric Fluvic
1248 Scgz Oostelijke Boomse cuesta Podzols Albic - - - Loamic Dystric -
1258 Scm Kustvlakte Anthrosols Terric - - - Loamic Eutric -
1374 Sdh Dender-Zenne interfluvium Anthrosols Terric - - Endogleyic Loamic Eutric Spodi-relocatic
3434 uPcc Plateau van Haspengouw Retisols Eutric - - - Loamic Eutric Abruptic
3479 uSdP Kustvlakte Cambisols Terric Gleyic - Endogleyic Loamic Eutric Abruptic
3747 w-Pdp West-Vlaams cuestaland Cambisols Stagnic Eutric - Stagnic Loamic Eutric Ruptic
4266
wSdfc
Brabants plateau
Podzols
Stagnic
-
-
Stagnic
Loamic
Dystric
Abruptic
Table 5.3 (b) Example of Soil Units name determined from the Reference Soil Groups,
Principal Qualifiers and supplementary qualifiers refering to soil texture, and
CODEID
STYPE
SOILUNIT
279 Adc Eutric Gleyic Retisols (Siltic)
517 Lbaz Haplic Luvisols (Loamic, Ruptic)
630 Lep Eutric Fluvic Gleyic Cambisols (Loamic, Fluvic)
951 Pep Dystric Fluvic Gleyic Cambisols (Loamic, Fluvic)
1248 Scgz Albic Podzols (Loamic)
1258 Scm Terric Anthrosols (Loamic)
1374 Sdh Terric Anthrosols (Loamic, Spodi-relocatic)
3434 uPcc Eutric Retisols (Loamic, Abruptic)
3479 uSdP Gleyic Terric Cambisols (Loamic, Abruptic)
3747 w-Pdp Eutric Stagnic Cambisols (Loamic, Ruptic)
4266 wSdfc Stagnic Podzols (Loamic, Abruptic)
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5.4 Supplementary qualifiers
The supplementary qualifiers have been included mainly with the GIS user in mind. They
provide interesting insights into the variation in drainage, texture and fertility status within
the Flemish region as illustrated in Figure 5.3.
Figure 5.3 - Geographic variation in drainage, texture and fertility status as retained in the WRB
Supplementary Qualifiers
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5.5 Generalisation to 1 : 250 000 scale map
A generalised map for the whole Flemish region at a 1 : 250 000 scale (Fig. 5.4), whereby
the WRB legend was used as the basis for generalisation. Whereas, so far, all GIS
operations were done in QGIS (version 2.4), these operations were done in GRASS
(version GRASS GIS 6.4.4) available through the QGIS interface.
First, the detailed digital soil map was converted to a raster image with a resolution of
20 × 20 m, and with the Reference Soil Groups in combination with the first Principal
Qualifiers as data entry. Subsequently, a filter operation was performed to weed out
smaller units. This was done using the "r.neighbors" [method=mode] function and
first with neighborhood size 11
once more with, mode; neighborhood size 5, and
once more with, mode; neighborhood size 3
The resulting raster image was converted back to vector format with the function
"r.to.vect", and then smoothened with the function "v.generalize" [method = snakes
method for line smoothening]
Figure 5.4 – Illustration of the process for creating a generalised map based on Soil Units (Reference Soil
Groups + PQ); the polygons are generalised units, the colour legend are from the original map
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This operation lead to the creation of broader units whereby in most cases one Soil Unit is
dominating (i.e. covers more than 50% of the area) the polygon, but whereby parts of other
Soil Units may be included. The latter are the associated Soil Units and of which the two
most frequent have been retained in the GIS attribute table. Figure 5.5 illustrates the
correspondence between the original Reference Soil Groups and the dominant Soil Units of
the generalized map. Table 5.4 describes the fields of the attribute table. The final map is
presented on a 1 : 250 000 scale.
Figure 5.5 – Detail of the generalised map; the colours corresponding with the original converted
Reference Soil Group; the polygons and the labels indicate the dominant Soil Unit
Table 5.4 Fields of the GIS attribute table of the generalised soil
A_DN ID numer, unique per dominant RSQ + PQ1
RSG_PQ_D Standard WRB code of Referene Soil Group + principal qualifiers
RSG_DOM Standard WRB code of dominant Reference Soil Group
PQ_DOM Standard WRB code of Principal Qualifier of dominant RSG
RSG_2014 Full name of dominant Reference Soil Group
A1_RSG Standard WRB code of 1st associated Reference Soil Group
A1_PQ Standard WRB code of Principal Qualifier of 1st associated RSG
A1_RSG_PQ Standard WRB code of RSG + principal qualifiers of 1st associated Soil Unit
A2_RSG Standard WRB code of 2nd associated Reference Soil Group
A2_PQ Standard WRB code of Principal Qualifier of 2nd associated RSG
A2_RSG_PQ Standard WRB code of RSG + principal qualifiers of 2nd associated Soil Unit
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6. Discussion and conclusions
6.1 General considerations
By converting the original legend of the Soil Map of Belgium to WRB-2014, we correlated
the concept of soil type - as a variant, or a phase of the soil series - with Reference Soil
Groups. The Reference Soil Groups can can further be subdivided into Soil Units, by
combining them with up to Principal Qualifiers; additionally GIS users can access and
query more detailed information using the Supplementary Qualifiers as these are stored in
four thematic database fields. These fields are represent data which could be deduced
from the legacy soil survey data, on drainage status, soil texture, chemical soil fertility
(Dystric, Eutric, Calcaric) and soil morphologic features (Abruptic, Ruptic, Fluvic,
Colluvic, ...).
The Belgian classification system is open, not hierarchical system; WRB has only two
levels: the Reference Soil Groups and the Soil Units, which are defined by the combination
of Reference Soil Group names with Principal Qualifiers, and if desired Supplementary
Qualifiers. With this conversion and correlation, the Belgian soil types of the soil map of
the Flemish region are fitting into WRB on a “third level” of classification. Hence the
outcome of the conversion has not lead to a merely “translation” but really has been a re-
interpretation of the original soil maps.
Though in the Belgian classification systems, soil types are considered to be phases and/or
variants of the soil series - defined by texture, drainage and profile development - in WRB
these “variants” often come out in different Reference Soil Groups or as distinct Soil Units.
For example the soil type Adp0 located on a footslope in the soil district Brabants
plateau is an Endogleyic Cambisol (Colluvic), while soil type Adp(c) also on the
footslopes in the same soil district will be an Endogleyic Luvisol (Colluvic).
The combination of the original legend with the international classification system, should
make the soil map of Belgium better accessible to a wider international audience, and
should also help soil scientist working with the soil map of Belgium to communicate their
results internationally. The knowledge of the spread of Reference Soil Groups which had
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so far had not been well reported in the Flemish region, such as the Phaeozems, Umbrisols,
Planosols, Stagnosols and Terric Anthrosols, shed new light on the soil geography of the
Flemish region. These soils are of particular in interest in relation to soil organic carbon
content and hydrology.
6.2 Observations and encountered difficulties
Soils with profile development "..h"
The soil types with profile development “..h” had been described and defined as “post-
podzols”. Therefore, at first these were considered to be Podzols rather than to be
Anthrosols. These soil types cover wider areas, particularly in the northern part of the
province of Oost-Vlaanderen; e.g. soil type Zch ranks 10th amongst the most common soil
types in terms of area (Table 6.1). Still, the legacy soil profiles included in the database
AARDEWERK do not include any soil profile classified with such a profile development.
Table 6.1 - Twelve most common soil types in the Flemish region
(excluding build-up areas)
Rank Soil type Area (km²)
1 Ldc + Ldcz 617
2 Aba1 615
3 Zdg 360
4 Zcg 231
5 Pcc 193
6 Lca 191
7 X 185
8 Ldp 179
9 Eep 175
10 Zch 174
11 Pdc 168
12 Abp 146
However, in the explanatory booklets, Sanders & Ameryckx (1988, p. 80-81) for example
correlate Sch and Sdh soil types and their variants, to Plaggeptic Haplohumod in Soil
Taxonomy. These authors do clearly recognize the anthropogenic nature of these soils,
though they still include them in Podzols (or Spodosols in Soil Taxonomy). However, as
in the explanatory texts it is often mentioned that the anthropogenic layers are at least 50
cm thick, soil types with profile development ..h have been converted to Terric Anthrosols.
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Errors in the digital soil map
While converting the soil types to WRB units, almost all observed errors were corrected in
the digital soil map; one digitalisation error was however not corrected, as explained
below.
Corrected errors
For example in the soil district Depressie van de Netes (commune Geel), Polygon with
POLY_ID 177279, had been coded as having soil type Zeg(o), which is indeed as it
appears on the printed map. However in the explanatory text of the soil map11, it has been
indicated that this was a printing error and that this unit should have been soil type
Zep(o)
Map sheet 29E
POLY_ID 22678 had been coded as soil type Zbm3; as phase “…3” in general indicates
the occurrence of an organic rich anthropogenic layer of less than 60 cm, this does not
make sense in combination with Zbm, which implies the presence of an anthropogenic
layer of more than 60 cm (Fig. 6.1). As in the explanatory booklet, the soil type Zbm3 is
not mentioned either, the most logic explanation is that during the map production process
the hatching of the neighbouring polygon mapped as l-Sdc3(h) was unintentional extended
to the polygon ment to be Zbm.
11 Bayens L. (1975, p. 45). Verklarende tekst bij het kaartblad 30E Kasterlee, Centrum voor Bodemkartering,
IWONL
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Figure 6.1 - The code “…3” as for “Zbm3” does not make any sense; it seems that the “red dots” of l-
Sdc3(h) run-over into the Zbm polygon; therefore the code has been corrected to Zbm
Map sheet Beringen 62W
CODE_ID 2044, had been coded soil type Zde, this was corrected to Zdc, as on the
original printed map
CODE_ID 2045 had been coded soil type Zdey, this was corrected to Zdcy
Map sheet Tervuren 102E
CODE_ID 3099 had been coded soil type sSAAx, this was corrected to sAAx
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Map sheet Erps-Kwerps 89W
CODE_ID 235 had been coded soil type Abc(c) but was corrected to Abp(c) – as on the
paper map
Map sheets Westerlo 60E , Geel 45E
CODE_ID 1464 had been coded soil type Sege, this was corrected to Segx
CODE_ID 1365 had been coded soil type Sdge, this was corrected to Sdgx
Map sheet Kortesem 92E
CODE_ID 3577 had been coded soil type vAca, this has been corrected to wAca
Map sheet 23E and 24W
CODE_ID 2609 had been coded as soil type m.Bc3, this was corrected to z.Bc3
Soil profile development “..d”
A small number of soil types of the Flemish region had been coded to have soil profile
development ..d. Soil profile development ..d defines soils with a "yellow-redish Bt
horizon". These soil types do occur in the southern part of the Walloon region, but do not
occur in the Flemish region. Mapping units which had been coded with soil profile
development ..d were corrected to a more logical soil type taking kind of neighbouring soil
type into account as illustrated in Fig. 6.2.
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Figure 6.2 - Map unit “lZbd” – profile development “..d” is very unlikely here; more likely that this
should have been “lZdb” as neighbouring polygon is mapped as “Zdb”
Map sheet Berlaar 44E
Polygon with CODE_ID 3679, had been coded soil type w-Lcfc; a silt-loam soil (L..)
where all neighbouring soils are sandy, is rather unlikely; more over such a silt-loamy
texture in combination with soil profile development “..fc” would be rather remarkable.
Unfortunately this map sheet has never been published. As in the explanatory text the
mapping unit w-Lcfc is not mentioned, this has been corrected to w-Scfc.
Not corrected error
As illustrated in Fig 6.3, on map sheet 32E Neerpelt, some of the original polygons have
not been digitized. This error has not been corrected as in WRB the missing units just as
the present ones all key out as Endogleyic Podzols.
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Figure 6.3 – Some polygons of the original soil map of sheet 32E Neerpelt, have not been included in the
digital soil map..
6.3 Limitations of the current maps
The current map with a WRB legend presents some limitations depending on the nature of
the legacy soil survey data. Firstly, some characteristics which in WRB are rather
important for classification were given less attention during the soil survey (e.g. Stagnic
properties; Dystric/Eutric properties), and had to be inferred from circumstantial data.
Secondly, as the soil survey has been carried out over almost 40 years and implemented by
hundreds of people, inevitably some inconsistencies in the use of the legends’ symbols and
in the cartographic representation happened. Thirdly, given that the soil surveyors used
19th century cadastral maps to orient themselves in the field, some of the boundaries of the
mapping units are questionable. Fourthly, as some of the maps are based on data and field
observations of sometimes more than 50 years ago, some major land-use changes have
affected the soils. Most drastic are expansion of building area and large infrastructural
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worls; drainage of swamp and peatlands; creation of quarries, waste dumpsites, ponds or
reservoirs. With our current knowledge, new mapping tools and new techniques of data
gathering – ranging proximal sensing, to LiDAR, remote sensing and additional detailed
field observations (e.g. at archeologic excavation sites) – it should now be possible to
update and improve our legacy soil data.
Nature of legacy data
Qualifiers such as Dystric, and Eutric have been attributed based on the AARDEWERK
database – hence legacy data – and often on rather limited set of soil profiles per mapping
unit; these are at present the best data at hand. Locally, the base saturation of a particular
site may differ from the generalisation we made; and overall it would be useful to update
such information. The occurrence of some of the qualifiers is not well known based on the
current survey data. For example the qualifier Humic is applicable to a wide set of soil
types – but no systematic pattern as a combination of soil type and soil district was
recognised. Therefore the qualifier Humic was not retained for elaborating the legend of
the soil map.
Cartographic inconsistency
The example Figure 6.4 shows that soils which on map sheet 50E have been indicated to
have soil texture L.. and profile development ..c, have been mapped as having soil texture
A.. and soil profile development ..p on map sheet 51W.
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Figure 6.4 - Cartographic inconsistencies between maps sheets in the original soil map leads to
inconsistencies in the WRB legend: soil types with profile development “..c” are considered to be Retisols
on map sheet 50E (left), have been mapped as having soil profile development “..p” are considered to be
Cambisols on map sheet 51W (right)
Accuracy of the original maps
At various sites it has been obvious that the original soil maps were not always all that
accurate. A first type of inaccuracy has to do with the location of mapping boundaries; in
Figure 6.5 the white arrow points to a mismatch between soil mapping units and the
topography as can be seen on the shaded terrain image derived from LiDAR data. A
second type is inaccuracy of classification units. The soil profile in the Figure below is
observed in a large mapping unit of soil type Aba0. This soil type should correspond to a
Luvisols not affected by erosion, nor covered by colluvium. In reality the soil had 60 to 80
cm of colluvium; soil type Abp(c) would have been more appropriate in this case.
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Figure 6.5 – Illustration of inaccuracies of the original soil map around Herent (province of Vlaams-
Brabant); the white arrow on the map points to inconsistency in the location of the map unit boundary
taking the topography into account; the horizons Ap and AB consistitute 70 cm of colluvium whereas the
mapping unit Aba0 would imply a soil not affected by erosion nor by colluvium
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Land-use changes
Finally, Fig. 6.6 illustrates that due to land-use changes over the past 50 years, the soil map
of the Flemish region do not always represent actual soil cover, and that there is a need to
get it updated.
Figure 6.6 - Example of the need for updating the current soil map of the Flemish region; reservoir near
Moerbeke (province of Oost-Vlaanderen)
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References
Bah B, P. Engels & G. Colinet (2005). Légende de la Carte Numérique des sols de Wallonie (Belgique),
version révisé par X Legrain, P .Engels (2007), Faculté Universitaire des Sciences agronomiques de
Gembloux -Laboratoire de Géopédologie, en relation avec PCNSW (convention pour le compte de la
Région-Wallonne-DGA), 54 p. + 2 annexes
Baeteman, C. (1985). Development and evolution of sedimentary environments during the Holocene in the
western coastal plain of Belgium. Eiszeitalter und Gegenwart, 35, 23-32.
Baeteman, C. (1999). The Holocene depositional history of the IJzer palaeovalley (Western Belgian coastal
plain) with reference to the factors controlling the formation of intercalated peat beds. Geologica
Belgica, 2(3-4), 39-72.
Baeteman, C., Scott, D. B., & Van Strydonck, M. (2002). Changes in coastal zone processes at a high
sea level stand: a late Holocene example from Belgium. Journal of Quaternary Science, 17(5 6), 547-
559.
Beckers V., P. Jacxsens, P. Van De Vreken, M. Van Meirvenne & J. Van Orshoven (2011).
Kwaliteitscontrole, verbetering en vervollediging van de bodemdatabank AARDEWERK. Report for the
“Vlaamse Overheid, Departement LNE, Afdeling ALBON”, SADL KU Leuven & Orbit, University of
Gent.
Beckers, V., Jacxsens, P., Aertsen, W., Van Orshoven, J. (2012). Afgeleide profielgegevens voor alle
eenheden van de Belgische bodemkaart op Vlaams grondgebied. Eindrapport voor studie MWRK-2011-
03 Synthetische bodemprofielen. Vlaamse Overheid, Databank Ondergrond Vlaanderen, Geosolutions
n.v., 43 pp.
Bouhon A. & S. Dondeyne (2011). Converting the legends of the Belgian and the Grand Ducy of
Luxembourg soil maps into the World Reference Base for soil Resources (WRB), report prepared for the
Service Public de Wallonie, Haute École Charlemagne, Liège.
Dondeyne S., E. Van Ranst, A. Bouhon, J. Chapelle, K. Vancampenhout & Geert Baert (2012). Converting
the legend of the Soil Map of Belgium to World Reference Base for Soil Resources : case studies of the
Flemish region. KU Leuven, Universiteit Gent, Departement Leefmilieu, Natuur en Energie Afdeling
Land en Bodembescherming, Ondergrond, Natuurlijke Rijkdom.
Dondeyne, S., Van Ranst, E., & Deckers, S. (2013). The soil map of the Flemish region converted to a World
Reference Base legend: the inland regions. KU Leuven, Universiteit Gent, Departement Leefmilieu,
Natuur en Energie Afdeling Land en Bodembescherming, Ondergrond, Natuurlijke Rijkdom.
Dudal R., J Deckers, J. Van Orshoven & E. Van Ranst (2001). Soil survey in Belgium and its applications.
In: Jones R.J.A., Houšková B., Bullock P. & Montanarella L., (eds.) Soil resources of Europe. European
Soil Bureau Research Report No.9, 63-71.
FAO (1988). FAO-UNESCO Soil Map of the World. Revised Legend. Soils Bulletin 60, UN Food and
Agriculture Organisation, Rome.
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FAO (2006). Guidelines for soil description, fourth edition, UN Food and Agriculture Organisation, Rome
(available at ftp://ftp.fao.org/agl/agll/docs/guidel_soil_descr.pdf)
FAO-UNESCO (1974). Legend of the Soil Map of the World. UN Food and Agriculture Organisation, Rome
Honnay, O. (1994). Kartering van het fysisch systeem en de ruimtelijke structuren in Vlaanderen op schaal
1:50 000. Stichting Plattelandsbeleid & Vlaamse Landmaatschappij, Brussels.
Ibañez, J. J., De-Albs, S., Bermúdez, F. F., & García-Álvarez, A. (1995). Pedodiversity: concepts and
measures. Catena, 24(3), 215-232.
IUSS Working Group WRB (2007). World Reference Base for Soil Resources 2006, first update 2007.
World Soil Resources Reports No 103. FAO, Rome (available at
www.fao.org/ag/agl/agll/wrb/doc/wrb2007_corr.pdf)
IUSS Working Group WRB (2010). Guidelines for constructing small-scale map legends using the World
Reference Base for Soil Resources. Addendum to the World Reference Base for Soil Resources
(available at http://www.fao.org/nr/land/soils/soil/wrb-documents/en/)
IUSS Working Group WRB (2014). World Reference Base for Soil Resources 2014: international soil
classification system for naming soils and creating legends for soil maps (available at
http://www.fao.org/3/a-i3794e.pdf)
Legrain, X, S. Dondeyne, V. Beckers, A. Bouhon, E. Van Ranst, R. Langohr, J. Chapelle, J. Deckers, J. Van
Orshoven, & L. Bock (2012). Our soil maps as cultural heritage: what of the soil survey of Belgium
should be preserved and what is being lost? Poster presentation at the EuroSoil conference, July 2012,
Bari, Italy.
Maréchal R. & R. Tavernier (1974). Atlas van België, commentaar bij de bladen 11A en 11B. Uittreksels van
de Bodemkaart bodemassociaties. Nationaal Commité voor Geografie, Commissie voor de Nationale
Atlas, Gent.
Sanders J. & J. Ameryckx (1988). Verklarende tekst bij het kaartblad 23E Moerkerke. Centrum voor
Bodemkartering, IWONL
Van de Konijnenburg R., J. Claesen & A. Devroe (2013). Archeologische prospectie met ingreep in de
bodem – Kortenberg, Alfons Dewitstraat. ARCHEBO-rapport 2013/02, available at
http://www.archebo.be/images/rapporten/kode_rapport%20website.pdf
Van Orshoven J., J. Maes, J., H. Vereecken, J. Feyen & R. Dudal (1988). A structured database of Belgian
soil profile data, Pedologie, XXXVIII-2: 191-206
Van Orshoven J., J.A. Deckers, D. Vandenbroucke & J. Feyen, J. (1993). The completeddatabase of Belgian
soil profile data and its applicability in planning and management of rural land, Bull. Rech. Agron.
Gembloux, 28(2-3): 197-222.
Van Ranst E. & C. Sys (2000). Eenduidige legende voor de digitale bodemkaart van Vlaanderen (schaal
1:20000), Universiteit Gent, Laboratorium voor Bodemkunde (available at
http://www.labsoilscience.ugent.be/legendebodemkaart.pdf)
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Annexes
Annex 1 - Definitions of WRB terms12
Definitions of used (or relevant) horizons and diagnostic properties
Abrupt textural
difference An abrupt textural difference (from Latin abruptus, abrupt) is a very sharp
increase in clay content within a limited depth range.
Albic material Albic material (from Latin albus, white) is predominantly light-coloured fine
earth, from which organic matter and/or free iron oxides have been
removed, or in which the oxides have been segregated to the extent that the
colour of the horizon is determined by the colour of the sand and silt
particles rather than by coatings on these particles. It generally has a weakly
expressed soil structure or lacks structural development altogether.
Albeluvic glossae The term albeluvic glossae (from Latin albus, white, and eluere, to wash out,
and Greek glossa, tongue) is connotative of penetrations of clay- and Fe-
depleted material into an argic horizon. Albeluvic glossae occur along soil
aggregate surfaces forming vertically continuous tongues. In horizontal
sections they exhibit a polygonal pattern. They refer to a combination of
stronger coloured parts and lighter coloured parts within the same layer.
They are a special case of retic properties.
Argic horizon The argic horizon (from Latin argilla, white clay) is a subsurface horizon with
distinctly higher clay content than the overlying horizon.
Artefacts Artefacts (from Latin ars, art, and facere, to make) are solid or liquid
substances that are:
1. one or both of the following:
a. created or substantially modified by humans as part of an industrial or
artisanal manufacturing process; or
b. brought to the surface by human activity from a depth, where they were
not influenced by surface processes, and deposited in an environment,
where they do not commonly occur, with properties substantially different
from the environment where they are placed; and
2. have substantially the same chemical and mineralogical properties as
when first manufactured, modified or excavated.
Calcaric material Calcaric material (from Latin calcarius, containing lime) refers to material
that contains 2% calcium carbonate equivalent. The carbonates are
inherited from the parent material.
Cambic horizon The cambic horizon (from Late Latin cambiare, to change) is a subsurface
horizon showing evidence of pedogenetic alteration that ranges from weak
to relatively strong. The cambic horizon has lost, at least in half of the
volume of the fine earth fraction, its original rock structure. If the underlying
layer has the same parent material, the cambic horizon usually shows
higher oxide and/or clay contents than this underlying layer and/or evidence
of removal of carbonates and/or gypsum. The pedogenetic alteration of a
cambic horizon can also be established by contrast with one of the overlying
mineral horizons that are generally richer in organic matter and therefore
have a darker and/or less intense colour. In this case, some soil structure
development is needed to prove pedogenetic alteration.
Colluvic material Colluvic material (from Latin colluvio, mixture) is a heterogeneous mixture of
material that, by gravitational action, has moved down a slope. It has been
transported as a result of erosional wash or soil creep, and the transport
may have been accelerated by landuse practices (e.g. deforestation,
12 Adapted from IUSS Working Group WRB (2014).
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ploughing, downhill tillage, structure degradation). It has been formed in
relatively recent times (mostly Holocene). It normally accumulates in slope
positions, in depressions or above a barrier on a low-grade slope (natural or
human-made, e.g. hedge walls).
Cryic horizon The cryic horizon (from Greek kryos, cold, ice) is a perennially frozen soil
horizon in mineral or organic materials.
Fluvic material Fluvic material (from Latin fluvius, river) refers to fluviatile, marine and
lacustrine sediments that receive fresh material or have received it in the
past and still show stratification.
Fragic horizon The fragic horizon (from Latin frangere, to break) is a natural non-cemented
subsurface horizon with a structure and a porosity pattern such that roots
and percolating water penetrate the soil only along interped faces and
streaks. The natural character excludes plough pans and surface traffic
pans.
Gleyic properties Soil materials develop gleyic properties (from Russian gley, mucky soil
mass) if they are saturated with groundwater (or were saturated in the past,
if now drained) for a period that allows reducing conditions to occur (this
may range from a few days in the tropics to a few weeks in other areas).
However, there may be gleyic properties in a clayic layer over a sandy layer,
even without the influence of groundwater. In some soils with gleyic
properties, the reducing conditions are caused by upmoving gases such as
methane or carbon dioxide.
Histic horizon The histic horizon (from Greek histos, tissue) is a surface horizon, or a
subsurface horizon occurring at a shallow depth, that consists of poorly
aerated organic material.
Hortic horizon A hortic horizon (from Latin hortus, garden) is a mineral surface horizon
created by the human activities of deep cultivation, intensive fertilization
and/or long-continued application of human and animal wastes and other
organic residues (e.g. manures, kitchen refuse, compost and night soil).
Lithic discontinuity
Lithic discontinuities (from Greek lithos, stone, and Latin continuare, to
continue) are significant differences in particle-size distribution or
mineralogy that represent differences in parent material within a soil. A lithic
discontinuity can also denote an age difference. The different strata may
have the same or a different mineralogy.
Mollic horizon The mollic horizon (from Latin mollis, soft) is a thick, dark-coloured surface
horizon with a high base saturation and a moderate to high content of
organic matter.
Natric horizon The natric horizon (from Arabic natroon, salt) is a dense subsurface horizon
with a distinctly higher clay content than in the overlying horizon(s). It has a
high content of exchangeable Na and in some cases, a relatively high
content of exchangeable Mg.
Organic material Organic material (from Greek organon, tool) consists of a large amount of
organic debris that accumulates under either wet or dry conditions and in
which the mineral component does not significantly influence the soil
properties.
Plaggic horizon A plaggic horizon (from Low German plag, sod) is a black or brown mineral
surface horizon that results from human activity. Mostly in nutrient-poor soils
in the north- western part of Central Europe from Medieval times until the
introduction of mineral fertilizers at the beginning of the 20th century, sod
and other topsoil materials were commonly used for bedding livestock. The
sods consist of grassy, herbal or dwarfshrub vegetation, its root mats and
soil material sticking to them. The mixture of sods and excrements was later
spread on fields. The material brought in eventually produced an
appreciably thickened horizon (in places > 100 cm thick) that is rich in soil
organic carbon. Base saturation is typically low.
Pretic horizon A pretic horizon (from Portuguese preto, black) is a mineral surface horizon
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that results from human activities including the addition of charcoal. It is
characterized by its dark colour, the presence of artefacts (ceramic
fragments, lithic instruments, bone or shell tools etc.) and high contents of
organic carbon, phosphorus, calcium, magnesium and micronutrients
(mainly zinc and manganese), usually contrasting with natural soils in the
surrounding area. It typically contains visible remnants of charcoal.
Reducing
conditions Reducing conditions (from Latin reducere, to draw back) show one or more
of the following:
1. a negative logarithm of the hydrogen partial pressure (rH, calculated as
Eh·29-1 + 2·pH) of < 20; or
2. the presence of free Fe2+, as shown on a freshly broken and smoothed
surface of a field-wet soil by the appearance of a strong red colour after
wetting it with a 0.2percent α,α-dipyridyl solution in 10percent acetic acid; or
3. the presence of iron sulfide; or
4. the presence of methane.
Retic properties Retic properties (from Latin rete, net) describe the interfingering of coarser-
textured albic material into a finer-textured argic or natric horizon. The
interfingering coarsertextured albic material is characterized by a partial
removal of clay and free iron oxides. There may be also coarser-textured
albic material falling from the overlying horizon into cracks in the argic or
natric horizon. The interfingering coarser-textured albic material is found as
vertical and horizontal whitish intercalations on the faces and edges of soil
aggregates.
Soil organic carbon
Soil organic carbon is organic carbon that does not meet the diagnostic
criteria of artefacts.
Salic horizon The salic horizon (from Latin sal, salt) is a surface horizon or a subsurface
horizon at a shallow depth that contains high amounts of readily soluble
salts, i.e. salts more soluble than gypsum (CaSO4·2H2O; log Ks = -4.85 at
25 °C).
Spodic horizon The spodic horizon (from Greek spodos, wood ash) is a subsurface horizon
that contains illuvial substances composed of organic matter and Al, or of
illuvial Fe. The illuvial materials are characterized by a high pH-dependent
charge, a relatively large surface area and high water retention.
Stagnic properties Soil materials develop stagnic properties (from Latin stagnare, to stagnate) if
they are, at least temporarily, saturated with surface water (or were
saturated in the past, if now drained) for a period long enough that allows
reducing conditions to occur (this may range from a few days in the tropics
to a few weeks in other areas). In some soils with stagnic properties, the
reducing conditions are caused by the intrusion of other liquids such as
gasoline.
Terric horizon A terric horizon (from Latin terra, earth) is a mineral surface horizon that
develops through addition of, for example, earthy manures, compost, beach
sands, loess or mud. It may contain stones, randomly sorted and distributed.
In most cases it is built up gradually over a long period of time.
Occasionally, terric horizons are created by single additions of material.
Normally the added material is mixed with the original topsoil.
Umbric horizon The umbric horizon (from Latin umbra, shade) is a thick, dark-coloured
surface horizon with a low base saturation and a moderate to high content
of organic matter.
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Definitions of used (or relevant) qualifiers
Abruptic (ap) having an abrupt textural difference within 100 cm of the mineral
soil surface.
Used for soil type where substratum has a marked finer texture than the
texture of the suface soil e.g. wS.. uL.., are pronounced
Albic (ab) having a layer of albic material 1 cm thick, and starting 100 cm from
the mineral soil surface, that does not consist of tephric material, does not
contain carbonates, and does not contain gypsum; and that directly overlies
a diagnostic horizon or forms part of a layer with stagnic properties.
Alic (al) having an argic horizon starting 100 cm from the soil surface and having
a CEC of 24 cmolc kg-1 clay throughout or to a depth of 50 cm of its
upper limit, whichever is thinner; and having a base saturation of < 50% in
the major part between 50 and 100 cm from the mineral soil surface or in
the lower half of the mineral soil above continuous rock, technic hard
material or a cemented or indurated layer starting 100 cm from the
mineral soil surface.
Arenic (ar) having a texture class of sand or loamy sand in a layer 30 cm thick, within
100 cm of the mineral soil surface or between the mineral soil surface and
continuous rock, technic hard material or a cemented or indurated layer,
whichever is shallower.
Brunic (br) having a layer 15 cm thick, and starting 50 cm from the soil surface, that
meets diagnostic criteria 2–4 of the cambic horizon but fails diagnostic
criterion 1, and does not consist of albic material.
Calcaric (ca) having calcaric material throughout between 20 and 100 cm from the
soil surface, or between 20 cm and continuous rock, technic hard material
or a
cemented or indurated layer, whichever is shallower.
Cambic (cm) having a cambic horizon not consisting of albic material and starting
50 cm from the soil surface.
Carbic (cb) having a spodic horizon that does not turn redder on ignition throughout
(in Podzols only).
Clayic (ce) having a texture class of clay, sandy clay or silty clay, in a layer ≥30 cm
thick, within 100 cm of the mineral soil surface or between the mineral soil
surface and continuous rock, technic hard material or a cemented or
indurated layer, whichever is shallower.
Colluvic (co) having colluvic material, ≥20 cm thick.
Dystric (dy) having:
• in Histosols, a pHwater < 5.5 in the major part with organic material, within
100 cm of the soil surface,
• in other soils, a base saturation of < 50% in the major part between 20
and 100 cm from the mineral soil surface or between 20 cm and continuous
rock, technic hard material or a cemented or indurated layer, whichever is
shallower, or in a layer 5 cm thick, directly above continuous rock, technic
hard material or a cemented or indurated layer, if the continuous rock, the
technic hard material or the cemented or indurated layer starts 25 cm
from the mineral soil surface.
Entic (et) having a loose spodic horizon and not having a layer with albic material (in
Podzols only).
Escalic (ec) occurring in human-made terraces.
Eutric (eu) having:
• in Histosols, a pHwater 5.5 in the major part with organic material within
100 cm of the soil surface,
• in other soils, a base saturation, 50% in the major part between 20 and
100 cm from the mineral soil surface or between 20 cm and continuous
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rock, technic hard material or a cemented or indurated layer, whichever is
shallower, or in a layer ≥5 cm thick, directly above continuous rock, technic
hard material or a cemented or indurated layer, if the continuous rock, the
technic hard material or the cemented or indurated layer starts 25 cm
from the mineral soil surface.
Fluvic (fv) having fluvic material 25 cm thick, and starting 75 cm from the
mineral soil surface.
Used for soil types in alluvial valleys and soils of the polders
Fragic (fc) having a fragic horizon starting 100 cm from the soil surface.
Used for soil types “.A.c.
Gleyic (gl) having a layer 25 cm thick, and starting 75 cm from the mineral soil
surface, that has gleyic properties throughout and reducing conditions in in
some parts of every sublayer.
Glossic (gs) having albeluvic glossae starting 100 cm from the soil surface.
Haplic (ha) having a typical expression of certain features (typical in the sense that
there is no further or meaningful characterization) and only used if none of
the preceding qualifiers applies.
Histic (hi) having a histic horizon starting at the soil surface.
Hypereutric (je) having:
• in Histosols, a pHwater ≥5.5 throughout in the organic material within 100
cm of the soil surface and ≥6.5 in some layer with organic material within
100 cm of the soil surface,
• in other soils, a base saturation, of 50% throughout between 20 and 100
cm from the mineral soil surface and
80% in some layer between 20 and 100 cm from the mineral soil surface.
Leptic (le) having continuous rock or technic hard material starting 100 cm from
the soil surface.
Loamic (lo) having a texture class of loam, sandy loam, sandy clay loam, clay loam
or silty clay loam in a layer 30 cm thick, within 100 cm of the mineral soil
surface or between the mineral soil surface and continuous rock, technic
hard material or a cemented or indurated layer, whichever is shallower.
Luvic (lv) having an argic horizon starting 100 cm from the soil surface and having
a CEC of 24 cmolc kg-1 clay throughout or to a depth of 50 cm of its
upper limit, whichever is thinner; and having a base saturation, of 50% in
the major part between 50 and 100 cm from the mineral soil surface or in
the lower half of the mineral soil above continuous rock, technic hard
material or a cemented or indurated layer starting 100 cm from the
mineral soil surface.
Mollic (mo) having a mollic horizon.
Neocambic (nc) having a cambic horizon, not consisting of albic material,
starting 50 cm from the soil surface and overlying:
albic material that overlies an argic, a natric or a spodic horizon, or
• a layer with retic properties.
Novic (nv) having a layer, 5 cm and < 50 cm thick, overlying a buried soil that is
classified with preference according to the ‘Rules for classifying soils’
Nudiargic (ng) having an argic horizon starting at the mineral soil surface.
Ortsteinic (os) having a spodic horizon that has a subhorizon, 2.5 cm thick, that is
cemented (ortstein) in 50% of its horizontal extension (in Podzols only).
Oxygleyic (oy) not having, within 100 cm of the mineral soil surface, a layer that
meets diagnostic criterion 1 of the gleyic properties (in Gleysols only).
Plaggic (pa) having a plaggic horizon.
Protic (pr) showing no soil horizon development, with the exception of a cryic
horizon, which may be present.
Reductigleyic (ry) not having, 40 cm from the mineral soil surface, a layer that
meets diagnostic criterion 2 of the gleyic properties (in Gleysols only).
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Relocatic (rc) being in situ remodelled by human activity to a depth of 100 cm (e.g. by
deep ploughing, refilling soil pits or levelling land) and no horizon
development after remodelling at least between 20 cm and 100 cm from the
soil surface, throughout (in Technosols, Relocatic is redundant, except in
combination with the Ekranic or Linic qualifier); a destroyed diagnostic
subsurface horizon may be added with a hyphen, e.g. Spodi-Relocatic
Used as a morphologic supplementary qualifier for soils with variant ...(o)
Retic (rt) having retic properties starting 100 cm from the soil surface, but not
having albeluvic glossae.
Rheic (rh) having a histic horizon saturated predominantly with groundwater or
flowing surface water (in Histosols only).
Ruptic (rp) having a lithic discontinuity at some depth 100 cm from the soil
surface.
Rustic (rs) having a spodic horizon in which the ratio of the percentage of Feox to the
percentage of soil organic carbon is 6 throughout (in Podzols only).
Salic (sz) having a salic horizon starting 100 cm from the soil surface
Used for soil types r.Pn, rEn
Sapric (sa) having, after rubbing, less than one-sixth (by volume) of the organic
material consisting of recognizable plant tissue within 100 cm of the soil
surface
(in Histosols only).
Siltic (sl) having a texture class of silt or silt loam in a layer ≥ 30 cm thick, within
100 cm of the mineral soil surface or between the mineral soil surface and
continuous rock, technic hard material or a cemented or indurated layer,
whichever is shallower.
Skeletic (sk) having 40% (by volume) coarse fragments averaged over a depth
of 100 cm from the soil surface or to continuous rock, technic hard material
or a cemented or indurated layer, whichever is shallower.
Spodic (sd) having a spodic horizon starting 200 cm from the mineral soil surface.
Stagnic (st) having a layer 25 cm thick, and starting 75 cm from the mineral soil
surface, that does not form part of a hydragric horizon and that has: •
stagnic properties in which the area of reductimorphic colours plus the area
of oximorphic colours is 25% of the total area, and
reducing conditions for some time during the year in the major part of the
soil volume that has the reductimorphic colours.
Technic (te) having 10% (by volume, weighted average) artefacts in the upper
100 cm from the soil surface or to continuous rock or a cemented or
indurated layer, whichever is shallower; or having a layer 10 cm thick, and
starting 90 cm from the soil surface, with 50% (by volume, weighted
average) artefacts.
Terric (tr) having a terric horizon, and
• in Anthrosols, not having a hortic, irragric, plaggic or pretic horizon with a
thickness of ≥50 cm, and
• in other soils, not having a hortic, irragric, plaggic or pretic horizon.
Used for soil types with thick anthropogenic surface layers, of base
saturation 50%, or pH-H2O 5.5
Tidalic (td) being flooded by tidewater at mean high tide but not covered by water
at mean low tide.
Used for soil type OS of the “Zwin” area.
Transportic (tn) having at the soil surface a layer 20 cm thick, or with a thickness of 50%
of the entire soil if continuous rock, technic hard material or a cemented or
indurated layer is starting 40 cm from the soil surface, with soil material
that does not meet the criteria of artefacts; and that has been moved from a
source area outside the immediate vicinity of the soil by intentional human
activity, usually with the aid of machinery, and without substantial reworking
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or displacement by natural forces.
Umbric (um) having an umbric horizon.
Depth specifiers
Amphigleyic the horizon or layer starts < 50 cm of the (mineral) soil surface and
has its lower limit > 50 cm of the (mineral) soil surface
This has been used .for soils with drainage class “.f..”
Bathy- The Bathy- specifier can be used if the criteria relating to a particular qualifier
are fulfilled in a layer that:
• extends to a greater depth than specified for the qualifier, and
• takes into account layers at a depth of > 100 cm from the (mineral) soil
surface, and
• does not comprise buried layers (see ‘2.5 Buried soils’, below).
This has been used for soil types with substratum as Bathyruptic,
Bathyabruptic, where the symbol was between brackets e.g. (w)Ldp; [except
for (v)… see below]
Endo- The horizon or layer starts between > 50 and 100 cm of the (mineral)
soil surface.
This has been used only as Endogleyic and for soils with drainage classes “.d.”
or “.e.”
Thapto- If a diagnostic horizon or a layer with a diagnostic property belongs to a buried
soil that does not meet the requirements of the related RSG, the Thapto-
specifier can be used
This has been used for
Thaptohistic for all soil types indicated having a “histic” substratum v…, v-
…, (v)…
Thaptospodic
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Annex 2. Correlation table of the mapping units of coastal plain with the
standardlegend of the soil map of Belgium
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Soil map of the Flemish region converted to 3rd edition of WRB
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Soil map of the Flemish region converted to 3rd edition of WRB
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Soil map of the Flemish region converted to 3rd edition of WRB
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Soil map of the Flemish region converted to 3rd edition of WRB
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Annex 3 - Classification of 540 legacy soil profiles according to WRB-2007;
Key tot the content of the database fields
ID_PROF Number of the soil profile as used in the original booklets and in the
AARDEWERK databases
AW-93 Soil type as recorded in AARDEWERK-93
SERIE_txt Soil type as reported in the original booklet
BSC_Map Soil type as indicated on the digital soil map
RSG-WRB Reference Soil Group, following the 2nd edition of WRB (IUSS
Working Group WRB, 2007)
PreQual Prefix qualifiers, following the 2nd edition of WRB (IUSS Working
Group WRB, 2007)
SufQual Suffix qualifiers, following the 2nd edition of WRB (IUSS Working
Group WRB, 2007)
Nr ID_PROF AW-93 SERIE_txt BSC_Map RSG-2007 PreQual SufQual
1
103E01 Aba1 A1b SAF Luvisol Cutanic Hypereutric, Nudiargic, Siltic
2
103E02 Aca1 Aflb Aba1 Luvisol Cutanic Hypereutric, Nudiargic, Siltic
3
103E03 Aba(b)1 Aflb Abp(c) Luvisol Cutanic Hypereutric, Siltic
4
103E04 Aca1 Aflb Aba1 Luvisol Cutanic Hypereutric, Siltic
5
103E05 sLbp2 LLZ sLbc Regosol Haplic Eutric, Endoarenic, Siltic, *Ruptic
6
103E06 Aba1 A1b Aba(b)1 Luvisol Cutanic Hypereutric, Nudiargic, Siltic
7
103E07 Lba1 LLL2b NC Luvisol Cutanic Hypereutric, Nudiargic, *Bathyarenic*,
Siltic
8
103E08 Lca1 LLL2b Lbp0_1 Luvisol Cutanic Endoruptic, Hypereutric, Nudiargic, Siltic
9
103E09 Aba1 A1a Abp(c) Luvisol Cutanic Hypereutric, Nudiargic, Siltic
10
103E10 Aba1 A1b Adp0_1 Luvisol Cutanic Hypereutric, Nudiargic, Siltic
11
103E11 Aba1 A1b Aba1 Luvisol Cutanic Hypereutric, Nudiargic, Siltic
12
103E12 SbfcC CT1 sLbc Regosol Haplic Dystric/Eutric?, Arenic
13
103E13 Edp0 T2 AbB Regosol Stagnic Eutric, Ruptic
14
103E14 Zbg T1p Aba0(b) Podzol Placic *Arenic
15
103E15 Sbgz T1p sLbc Regosol Haplic Brunic, Humic, Endoarenic, *Ruptic
16
103E16 Zbx T1 sLbc2_3 Arenosol Haplic Eutric
17
103E17 Zbg T1 Aba1 Podzol Entic *Arenic
18
103E18 Zbg T1p Lbp0_1 Podzol Albic *Arenic
19
103E19 Zbg T1 Abp0_1 Podzol Albic *Arenic
20
103E20 Zbx T1 Abp0_1 Arenosol Brunic Lamellic Eutric
21
103E21 Zbf T1p SAF Regosol Haplic Brunic, Dystric, Arenic
22
103E22 Aba(b)1 Afo Aba(b)1 Luvisol Cutanic Hypereutric, Siltic
23
103E23 (s)Aba(b)1
Bfoa ADc0 Luvisol Cutanic Fragic Humic, Ruptic, Dystric, Episiltic
24
103E24 sAca(b)2 Afoas sLbc Luvisol Cutanic Humic, Ruptic, Epidystric, Siltic
25
103E25 Lcc0 Bfoa Lbc0 Albeluvisol Cutanic Fragic Bathyruptic, Dystric, Siltic
26
103E26 Aba(b)1 Afla Lbp0_1 Luvisol Cutanic Hypereutric, Nudiargic, Siltic
27
103E27 Aba1 A1a Abp(c) Luvisol Cutanic Hypereutric, Nudiargic, Siltic
28
103E28 Aca(b)1 Afla Aba1 Luvisol Cutanic Hypereutric, Nudiargic, Siltic
29
103E29 Aba1 A1b Aba1 Luvisol Cutanic Hypereutric, Nudiargic, Siltic,
*Bathycalcaric*
30
103E30 Aba1 A1b Aba(b)0 Luvisol Cutanic Hypereutric, Nudiargic, Siltic,
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Nr ID_PROF AW-93 SERIE_txt BSC_Map RSG-2007 PreQual SufQual
*Bathycalcaric*
31
103E31 Lbpy0 C1 Abp0_1 Cambisol Haplic Humic, Hypereutric, Siltic
32
103E32 Abp0 C21 Abp(c) Luvisol Haplic Hypereutric, Siltic, *Colluvic
33
103E33 Lbp0 C31 EDx Luvisol Haplic Hypereutric, Siltic
34
103E34 Lbp0 C1 Lbp0_1 Cambisol Haplic Hypereutric, Siltic
35
103E35 AbB1 A2 Abp0_1 Luvisol Haplic/Cutanic Hypereutric, Nudiargic, Siltic
36
103E36 Aep0 AL AIp(1) Fluvisol Mollic Endogleyic Humic, Hypereutric, Siltic, *Ruptic
37
103E37 Lfp0 AL EFp(1) Fluvisol Mollic Endogleyic Humic, Hypereutric, Siltic, *Epiruptic
38
103E38 Abp0 C1 Abp0_1 Cambisol Haplic Colluvic, Hypereutric, Siltic
39
103E39 Lba1 B1 NC Luvisol Haplic Hypereutric, Nudiargic, Siltic, *Bathyruptic
40
103E40 sLcc2 Boa Abc0 Albeluvisol Cutanic Bathyruptic, Dystric, *Loamic
41
103E41 Lcc0 Boa ADc0 Albeluvisol Cutanic Humic, Epidystric, Siltic
42
103E42 sLdc2 LLZ Lbp0_1 Luvisol Endogleyic Ruptic, Hypereutric, Nudiargic, Siltic
43
103E43 Lba1 LLL 1b OB Luvisol Cutanic Bathyruptic, Siltic
44
103E44 sLcc2 LLZ OB Albeluvisol Cutanic Fragic Bathyruptic, Dystric, *Loamic, *Humic
45
103E46 Abp(c) C31 Aba1 Luvisol Cutanic Hypereutric, Siltic, *Colluvic
46
102E49 Aba0 A1b Aba1 Luvisol Cutanic Hypereutric, Siltic
47
103E51 Zbg T1 ZAF Podzol Placic *Arenic
48
103E58 Eep0 AI AIp(1) Fluvisol Endogleyic Mollic Eutric, Siltic
49
103E61 Ahc1 Ag2 Adp0_1 Cambisol Haplic Colluvic, Hypereutric, Siltic
50
103E68 Zbf T1 SAF Arenosol Brunic Dystric
51
103E76 Zbg T1p SAF Podzol Albic Ortsteinic *Arenic
52
103E77 Zbg T1p SAF Podzol Placic *Arenic
53
103W01 Aba(b)1 Aba(b)0 Abp(c) Luvisol Cutanic Hypereutric, Manganiferric, Siltic
54
103W02 Abp0 Abp Abp Regosol Colluvic Eutric, Siltic, *Bathyruptic*
55
103W03 Aba1 Aba1 Abp Luvisol Cutanic Hypereutric, Nudiargic, Siltic
56
103W04 Aba1 Aba0 Aba1(b) Luvisol Cutanic Hypereutric,Siltic
57
103W05 Aba(b)1 Aba(b)0 Aba1 Luvisol Cutanic Siltic
58
103W06 (s)Aba1 (s)Aba1 Abp(c) Cambisol Haplic Calcaric, Bathyruptic, Siltic, Bathyarenic
59
103W07 Aba1 Aba1 sAba Luvisol Cutanic Hypereutric, Nudiargic, Siltic
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Nr ID_PROF AW-93 SERIE_txt BSC_Map RSG-2007 PreQual SufQual
60
103W08 Abp0 Abp Aba1(b) Regosol Colluvic Eutric, Siltic
61
103W09 Aba0 Aba0 Aba1 Luvisol Cutanic Hypereutric, Siltic
62
103W10 (s)AbB3 (s)AbB3 S-Z Luvisol Cutanic Bathyruptic, Hypereutric, Nudiargic, Siltic,
Bathyarenic
63
103W11 Zbfc Zbfd S-Z Arenosol Brunic Lamellic Eutric
64
103W12 Aba1 Aba1 Aba Luvisol Cutanic Hypereutric, Nudiargic,Siltic
65
103W13 Abp0 Abp Abp Regosol Colluvic Hypereutric, Siltic
66
103W14 AbB3 AbB3 S-Z Cambisol Haplic Bathycalcaric, Hypereutric, Siltic
67
103W15 sPbc2 sPbc2 Aba Cambisol Haplic Eutric, Ruptic, Densic, Endoarenic
68
103W16 wLda2 wLda2 Aba1 Luvisol Stagnic Cutanic Ruptic, Hypereutric, Siltic
69
103W17 Sbfc Sbfd S-Z Arenosol Brunic Lamellic Dystric
70
103W18 Zbgc Zbgd S-Z Podzol Aric-Albic Dystric, Arenic, *Humic*
71
103W19 sLba2 sLba2 A-L Alisol Cutanic Ruptic, Humic, Hyperdystric, Endoarenic,
Siltic
72
103W20 Aba1 Aba0 Aba1(b) Luvisol Cutanic Siltic
73
103W21 (w)Lba2 wLba2 S-Z Luvisol Cutanic Ruptic, Hypereutric
74
103W22 Lbp0 Lbp Lbp Regosol Colluvic Eutric, Siltic
75
103W23 Abp0 Abp Lbp Regosol Colluvic Hypereutric, Siltic
76
103W24 sLba2 (s)Lba0 Abp Cambisol Haplic Ruptic, Dystric, Siltic
77
103W25 Abp0 Abp Abp Regosol Colluvic Hypereutric, Siltic
78
103W26 AbB2 AbB2 Aba(o) Cambisol Haplic Eutric, Siltic
79
103W27 wAba2 wAba2 Aba(o) Luvisol Cutanic Ruptic, Nudiargic, Hypereutric,
Bathyarenic, Siltic
80
103W28 Lba1 Lba0 Aba1(b) Luvisol Cutanic Hypereutric, Siltic
81
103W29 Ada0 Ada0 Aba(b)1 Luvisol Stagnic Bathygleyic
Cutanic Hypereutric, Siltic
82
103W30 (x)Lbc0 (s)Lbc0 Aba1 Cambisol Haplic Humic, Dystric, Ruptic, Bathyarenic, Siltic
83
103W31 Sbgc Sbgd sLba2_3 Podzol Ortsteinic Ruptic, *Arenic
84
103W32 Zbgc Zbgd Lbp0_1 Podzol Albic *Arenic
85
103W33 Aba(b)0 Aba(b)0 Aba Luvisol Cutanic Hypereutric, Siltic
86
103W34 Aib(1) Aib(1) ADp(1) Cambisol Gleyic Fluvic Humic, Eutric, Siltic
Soil map of the Flemish region converted to 3
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Nr ID_PROF AW-93 SERIE_txt BSC_Map RSG-2007 PreQual SufQual
87
103W35 Lhp0 Lhp(1) ADp Fluvisol Gleyic Eutric, Siltic
88
103W36 Efp0 Efp AIp Cambisol Endogleyic Fluvic Humic, Eutric, Siltic, *Abruptic, *Ruptic
89
103W37 Lhp0 Lhp(1) AIp Fluvisol Endogleyic Humic, Eutric, Siltic
90
103W38 wSbfc2 wSbfd Aba1(b) Planosol Endogleyic Albic, Endoeutric, Arenic, *Humic
91
103W39 Aep1 Aep ADp Fluvisol Endogleyic
Thaptohistic Humic, Hypereutric, Siltic
92
103W40 Ada1 Ada1 Aba1 Luvisol Stagnic Cutanic Hypereutric, Nudiargic, Siltic
93
103W41 Aba1 Aba1 Aba1 Luvisol Cutanic Hypereutric, Nudiargic, Siltic
94
103W42 Abp0 Abp Abp Regosol Colluvic Hypereutric, Siltic
95
103W43 wLba2 wLba2 sLba Luvisol Cutanic Ruptic,Siltic
96
103W44 Aba0 Aba0 Aba(b)1 Luvisol Cutanic Hypereutric, Siltic
97
103W45 AbB3 AbB3 AbB Regosol Haplic Calcaric, Siltic
98
103W46 Abp0 Abp S-Z Regosol Colluvic Calcaric, Siltic
99
103W47 sLbp2 sLbp2 Abp0_1 Regosol Haplic Eutric, Endoarenic, *Ruptic
100
103W48 Aba0 Aba0 Lbp(c) Luvisol Cutanic Hypereutric, Siltic
101
103W49 Zbbc Zbbd sAAx Regosol Haplic Brunic, Calcaric, Arenic, *Ruptic*
102
103W50 (s)Lda1 (s)Lda0 Abp Alisol Stagnic Cutanic Ruptic, Humic, Hyperdystric, Siltic,
Bathyarenic
103
103W51 (s)Pbc1 PbC Abp Alisol Cutanic Ruptic, Humic, Hyperdystric, Bathyarenic
104
90E68 (w)Lhp1 Mn Ldp(c) Phaeozem Stagnic Bathyruptic
105
017E12 Zcg Zcg ZAg Podzol Albic *Arenic
106
017E13 Zcg Zcg Zdg Podzol Albic *Arenic
107
017E05 Zdg Zdg Zdg Podzol Endogleyic Albic
Carbic *Arenic
108
017E14 lZdg(o)2 lZdg Zdg Podzol Endogleyic Anthric, Ruptic, *Aric-albic, *Arenic
109
017E08 uZdg2 uZdg w-Zeg Podzol Endogleyic Ruptic, *Abruptic, *Aric-albic, *Arenic
110
017E02 Zegc Zeg Zdg Podzol Endogleyic Carbic Anthric, Aric-albic, *Arenic
111
017E07 (w)Zeg(v)c
(w)Zeg Zdg Podzol Gleyic Carbic Anthric, Bathyruptic, *Bathyabruptic,
*Arenic*
112
017E10 Seg Segz Zdg Arenosol Bathygleyic Brunic Eutric, *Humic, *Aric-spodic
113
017E06 wPdg(v)2 wPdg Peg Podzol Stagnic Bathygleyic Anthric, Ruptic, *Bathyabruptic, *Aric-albic,
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Nr ID_PROF AW-93 SERIE_txt BSC_Map RSG-2007 PreQual SufQual
*Endoarenic
114
017E11 Sec Sec Sdgy Regosol Endogleyic Aric-
Spodic Humic, Epidystric, Endoarenic, *Novic*
115
017E01 Zdm Zdm Zdm Anthrosol Endogleyic Plaggic Eutric, Hyperarenic, *Albic, *Aric-spodic
116
017E03 Zdm Zdm Zcm Anthrosol Spodic Endogleyic
Plaggic Dystric, Hyperarenic, *Aric-albic
117
017E04 Sdmc Sdm Sdmz Anthrosol Endogleyic Plaggic Hypereutric, Arenic, *Albic, *Endoruptic
118
017E15 Sdm Sdm(m) Scm Anthrosol Stagnic Endogleyic
Plaggic Eutric, Endoarenic, Bathyruptic
119
017E09 vZfp2 vZfp v-Sep3 Fluvisol Epigleyic
Thaptohistic Humic, Eutric, Hyperarenic
120
018W07 Zag Zag Zbg Podzol Albic Placic Bathylamellic, *Arenic
121
018W12 Zbg(o) Zbg ZAg Podzol Albic Bathyruptic, *Arenic
122
018W02 Zcg Zcg Zcg Podzol Placic Ruptic, *Aric-albic, *Arenic
123
018W15 Zcg Zcg Zdg Podzol Carbic Bathylamellic, *Aric-Albic, *Arenic
124
018W10 Zdg Zdg Zcg Podzol Carbic Endogleyic *Aric-albic, *Arenic
125
018W05 Zdg Zdg Zdg Podzol Endogleyic *Aric-albic, *Arenic
126
018W06 Zdg Zdg Zdg Podzol Endogleyic Albic *Arenic
127
018W13 Zdg(v) Zdg Zdg Arenosol Bathygleyic Anthric, *Arenic
128
018W09 Zeg Zeg Zdg Podzol Endogleyic Carbic *Aric-albic, *Arenic
129
018W01 Zfg(o) Zfg Zcm Podzol Endogleyic Plaggic, *Aric-albic, *Arenic
130
018W04 Zfg Zfg Zeg Podzol Endogleyic Plaggic, *Arenic*
131
018W08 wZfg(o)c2 wZfg Zcg Gleysol Spodic Thaptofluvic Epiabruptic, Humic, Dystric, Arenic,
*Endoruptic
132
018W03 Zdg Zdgt Zcg Podzol Endogleyic Albic
Carbic *Abruptic, *Humic, *Arenic
133
018W11 Zbm Zbm Zbm Anthrosol Plaggic Dystric, Arenic, *Humic
134
018W14 Zbb Zbb3 Zbm Anthrosol Plaggic Dystric, Arenic, *Humic
135
035E03 type D3E d.A0 Arenosol Endogleyic Brunic Calcaric
136
036W59 - P type d.A0 Arenosol Endogleyic Brunic Hypercalcaric, Humic
137
035E01 type D2E d.B1 Arenosol Bathygleyic Brunic Calcaric
138
035E30 - type D1E d.C1 Arenosol Brunic Hypereutric
Soil map of the Flemish region converted to 3
rd
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Nr ID_PROF AW-93 SERIE_txt BSC_Map RSG-2007 PreQual SufQual
139
050W10 W2 Type (O)W2 d.C2 Regosol Endogleyic Brunic, Hypercalcaric, Endoarenic, Drainic,
*Abruptic, *Ruptic
140
035E18 sLdp3 type S2K d.Da Cambisol Endogleyic Hypercalcaric, Ruptic, Abruptic, Epiarenic,
Endoclayic
141
022W34 Zep0 Type S2L d.Da Arenosol Endogleyic Protic Endocalcaric, *Fluvic
142
022W36 Zep0 Type S2Z d.Da Arenosol Endogleyic Protic Endocalcaric, *Fluvic
143
021W01 uSdp2 Type S2K d.Da Planosol Endogleyic Hypercalcaric, Ruptic, *Fluvic, *Loamic
144
011E13 Zdp0 S3M d.Da Arenosol Endostagnic Endocalcaric, *Fluvic
145
011E14 Zdp0 S2M d.Da Arenosol Endostagnic Endocalcaric, *Fluvic
146
011E10 wZdp2 Type M3M d.Db Arenosol Endostagnic Endocalcaric, Bathyabruptic
147
011E12 uZdp2 M3zK type d.Db Planosol Haplic Albic, Endocalcaric, Ruptic, Arenic, *Fluvic
148
011W14 Scpz1 Type Db
(oudsymbool M3Z) d.Db Cambisol Endostagnic Fluvic Endocalcaric, Endoruptic, Endoarenic,
*Fluvic
149
036W37 M2Z M2Z d.Db Arenosol Endostagnic Fluvic Hypercalcaric, Bathyruptic, *Fluvic
150
036W67 M2K M2K d.Db Planosol Haplic Albic, Epicalcaric, Ruptic, Arenic, *Fluvic
151
050E28 Sdpz0 4 ZZ-type m.A2 Cambisol Fluvic Calcaric, Endoarenic
152
050E52 vLgp2 U2 type (nieuw
OU1) m.A2 Gleysol Thaptohistic Fluvic Calcaric, Humic, Ruptic, *Loamic
153
050W01 A1 Type (0)A1 m.A2 Fluvisol Haplic Hypercalcaric, Endoarenic, Drainic,
*Ruptic
154
050E12 sEdp2 4 Kz-type m.A4 Cambisol Fluvic Hypercalcaric, Humic, Bathyarenic,
*Abruptic, *Ruptic
155
050E13 sEdp3 4 Kzz-type (A3) m.A4 Phaeozem Fluvic Calcaric, Humic, *Thapto-Arenic, *Ruptic
156
050E15 Lcp0 4 K-type (A4) m.A4 Cambisol Endogleyic Fluvic Calcaric, Bathyarenic
157
050E20 sEhp2 4 KK-type m.A4 Phaeozem Endogleyic *Fluvic Calcaric, Endoarenic
158
050E02 Ehp(v)0 6 H-type m.A5 Cambisol Stagnic Fluvic Humic, Eutric, *Bathyruptic, *Bathy-
Thaptohistic
159
050E06 uEdpy3 4 KK-type (A5) m.A5 Cambisol Endogleyic Fluvic Calcaric, Humic
160
050E26 uEhpz3 P1B-type m.A5 Cambisol Bathygleyic Fluvic Humic, Dystric, Abruptic, Ruptic,
*Epiloamic, *Endosiltic, *Bathyarenic
161
010E22 A5 Subtype 2/A5 (oud
symbool 21/Z) m.A5 Cambisol Endogleyic Fluvic Calcaric, Endoruptic, *Endoarenic
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Nr ID_PROF AW-93 SERIE_txt BSC_Map RSG-2007 PreQual SufQual
162
010E24 A6 Type A6 (oud
symbool 1) m.A5 Cambisol Endogleyic Fluvic Calcaric, Endoruptic, Endoclayic,
*Bathyarenic
163
010E25 A5 Type A5 (oud
symbool 4 KKz) m.A5 Cambisol Endogleyic Fluvic Calcaric, Endoruptic, *Loamic, Endoarenic
164
011W31 A5 Type A5 (oud
symbool 4 KK) m.A5 Cambisol Endogleyic Fluvic Calcaric, Endoruptic, *Loamic, Bathyarenic
165
022E02 A4 Type A4 (oud
symbool 4K) m.A5 Cambisol Endogleyic Fluvic Hypercalcaric, Endoruptic, *Loamic,
*Endoarenic
166
022E04 A5 Type A5 (oud
symbool 4 KK) m.A5 Cambisol Endogleyic Fluvic Endocalcaric, Humic, Endoruptic, *Loamic
167
050E38 A5 Type 4 KKV m.A5 Cambisol Endogleyic Fluvic Humic, Hypereutric, $Clayic, Endosiltic
168
050E42 A4 Type 4K m.A5 Cambisol Endogleyic Fluvic Hypercalcaric, Endoruptic, *Loamic
169
051W04 A5 Type 4 KK m.A5 Cambisol Endogleyic Fluvic Hypercalcaric, Endoruptic, *Epiloamic,
*Endosiltic, *Bathyloamic
170
050E45 Ldc1 L2 type (nieuw C3) Ldc Cambisol Endogleyic Hypereutric, *Loamic
171
051W05 A5 Type P1 m.A5 Cambisol Endogleyic Fluvic Calcaric, Endoruptic, *Loamic
172
022W45 C1 Type (O)C1 [l] m.A5 Cambisol Endogleyic Fluvic Hypercalcaric, Clayic, Bathyloamic,
Bathyruptic, *Drainic
173
035E09 wUdpz type 6 m.A6 Cambisol Endogleyic Fluvic Hypercalcaric, Humic, Abruptic, Ruptic,
Endoclayic
174
035E21 Scpz1 6H type m.A6 Cambisol Endogleyic Fluvic Hypercalcaric, Abruptic, Ruptic,
*Epiloamic, *Endosiltic, *Bathyarenic
175
050E56 Ldp0 Lcp Cambisol Haplic Colluvic, Hypereutric
176
050E64 sPhpy2 ZZL3 (nieuw AC2) Pcm Anthrosol Endogleyic Terric Hypereutric
177
050E36 Uhp(v)0 6-type m.B1 Umbrisol Endostagnic Fluvic Endoeutric, Humic, Siltic, Drainic, *Ruptic
178
011E60 B1 Type (O)B1 (oud
symbool 6) m.B1 Cambisol Endogleyic Fluvic Epicalcaric, Humic, Clayic, *Drainic
179
035E04 Eep0 6V m.B2 Cambisol Endogleyic Fluvic Calcaric, Humic, Siltic
180
050E39 vUep 5 KV-type m.B2 Phaeozem Endogleyic *Fluvic Calcaric, Epiclayic, Endosiltic, *Abruptic,
*Ruptic, *Humic
181
022E/65 M5 Type M5 (oud
symbool OU3) m.B2 Cambisol Endogleyic Fluvic Humic, Ruptic, Clayic, *Thaptohistic,
Bathyarenic
182
011E65 B1 Type (O)B1 (oud m.B2 Cambisol Endogleyic Fluvic Humic, Eutric, Siltic, *Drainic
Soil map of the Flemish region converted to 3
rd
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symbool 6)
183
011E66 B2 Type (O)B2 (oud
symbool 6V) m.B2 Cambisol Endogleyic Fluvic Eutric, Siltic, *Drainic
184
066W68 Bk1 Type (O)Bk1 (oud
symbool 7) m.Bk1 Gleysol Fluvic Eutric, Humic, *Drainic
185
066W20 Bk3 Type (O)Bk3 (oud
symbool 7V) m.Bk3 Gleysol Fluvic Thaptohistic Eutric, Humic, *Drainic
186
066W63 Bk3 Type (O)Bk3 (oud
symbool 7V) m.Bk3 Gleysol Fluvic Thaptohistic Eutric, Humic, *Drainic
187
022W53 C1 Type (O)C1 [l] m.C1 Cambisol Endogleyic Fluvic Endocalcaric, Humic, Clayic, Bathyloamic,
Bathyruptic, *Drainic
188
022E26 C2 Type C2 (oud
symbool 2) m.C1 Cambisol Endogleyic Fluvic Hypercalcaric, Humic, Clayic, *Drainic
189
022E33 C2 Type C2 (oud
symbool 2) m.C1 Cambisol Endogleyic Fluvic Calcaric, Humic, Clayic, *Drainic
190
022E34 C2 Type C2 (oud
symbool 1) m.C1 Cambisol Endogleyic Fluvic Hypercalcaric, Humic, Clayic, *Drainic
191
010E07 C1 Type C1 (oud
symbool 1) m.C2 Cambisol Endogleyic Fluvic Endocalcaric, Humic, Clayic, *Drainic
192
010E06 C2 Type C2 (oud
symbool 2) m.C2 Cambisol Endogleyic Fluvic Calcaric, Humic, Clayic, *Drainic
193
010E16 C3 Type C3 (oud
symbool H6) m.C2 Cambisol Endogleyic Fluvic Calcaric, Humic, Clayic, *Drainic
194
010E17 C3 Type C3 (oud
symbool 6) m.C2 Cambisol Endogleyic Fluvic Calcaric, Clayic, *Drainic
195
022W18 C3 Type (O)C3 [6D] m.C2 Cambisol Endogleyic Fluvic Endocalcaric, Humic, Clayic, Bathyruptic,
*Drainic
196
022W26 C3 Type (O)C3 [6] m.C2 Cambisol Endogleyic Fluvic Endocalcaric, Humic, Clayic, *Drainic
197
022W06 C1 Type (M)C1 (oud
symbool S44 Z) m.D4 Cambisol Endogleyic Fluvic Hypercalcaric, Clayic, Endoarenic, Ruptic,
*Drainic
198
011E37 D5 Type (M)D5 (A2) m.D5 Cambisol Gleyic Fluvic Hypercalcaric, Clayic, *Loamic, Arenic,
*Polyruptic
199
011E38 D5 Type (M)D5 (A2) m.D5 Cambisol Gleyic Fluvic Hypercalcaric, Clayic, *Loamic, Arenic,
*Polyruptic
Soil map of the Flemish region converted to 3
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Nr ID_PROF AW-93 SERIE_txt BSC_Map RSG-2007 PreQual SufQual
200
050W34 Ldc1 type (O)Ca6 Ldc Regosol Endogleyic Hypereutric, Siltic, *Drainic, *Ruptic
201
058W45 Pdc0 2 S0 SS bgr Efp Albeluvisol Endogleyic Dystric, *Humic, *Loamic
202
052W01 Pdc0 Type Ch2 (oud
S2Sz) Sdp Cambisol Endogleyic Eutric, *Loamic
203
044E05 wSdc wSdc(h) Podzol Entic Endogleyic *Humic, *Abruptic
204
059W13 wSdc wSdc(h) Sdm Arenosol Albic Endogleyic Dystric, *Humic
205
045W04 Sec Secy Podzol Endogleyic Albic *Abruptic, *Humic
206
067E12 Pbc0 Pbc0 wPbc Cambisol Haplic Ruptic, Eutric, Bathyarenic, *Loamic
207
067E10 Pbc0 Pbc0 Pcc Albeluvisol Haplic Ruptic, Eutric, *Loamic
208
37W01 Shcz CS3 (oud CS2Z) SdF Alisol Endogleyic Ruptic, Humic, Bathyarenic
209
033W12 sVepc2 sVep V Histosol Sapric Rheic Dystric, *Endofluvic, *Endoarenic
210
007W41 sVgp3 sV V Histosol Sapric Rheic Dystric, *Endoarenic
211
043E07 Scc Scc(h)z Sccz Anthrosol Aric-Spodic
Endogleyic Terric Eutric, Arenic
212
069E11 Scc Scco Ldc Anthrosol Endogleyic Terric Eutric, Bathyarenic, *Loamic
213
082E48 Scc ScC Pbc(h) Anthrosol Endogleyic Terric Eutric, Arenic
214
108E01 - Adco Albeluvisol Umbric Manganiferric, Dystric, Siltic, *Humic
215
108E03 - Icat Gba3x Regosol Endoleptic Humic, Eutric, Siltic
216
061E07 (w)Zcx (w)Zcx w-Zcfc Regosol Endostagnic *Abruptic, Humic, Dystric, Epiarenic,
Endosiltic
217
061E10 wZdx2 wZdx w-Scfc Planosol Haplic Ruptic, Hyperdystric, Epiarenic,
*Endoloamic, *Humic
218
061E12 - Zdm Zdfc Anthrosol Plaggic Hyperdystric, Hyperarenic
219
061E02 wZdg(o)2 wZdg(o) w-Zdg Podzol Umbric Endostagnic
Bathygleyic Albic Anthric, Arenic, Endo/Bathyloamic,
*Abruptic
220
061E03 Sfp(v)0 Sfpy Pfpm Cambisol Endogleyic Fluvic Humic, Dystric, *Loamic
221
061W14 Zaf Zaf Zbf Arenosol Brunic Hypereutric
222
061W44 gSbfc2 (g)Sbfe ZAfe Podzol Orsteinic Humic, Dystric, *Abruptic, *Loamic
223
061W50 (u)SbfcC Sbfc Sbfc Cambisol Haplic Hyperdystric, Ruptic, *Loamic
224
014E21 sLepy2 BS8 Eep Cambisol Endogleyic Fluvic Calcaric, Humic, Ruptic, *Loamic, Endo-
Bathyarenic, *Drainic
225
014E22 wEdp2 A3 Eep Cambisol Endogleyic Fluvic Calcaric, Humic, Ruptic, Episiltic,
Soil map of the Flemish region converted to 3
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Endoloamic, *Loamic, *Bathyarenic,
*Drainic
226
014E30 sEdp2 A3 sEep Cambisol Endogleyic Fluvic Calcaric, Humic, Ruptic, *Loamic, *Drainic
227
015W39 (w)Zcp GO1 (oud OG 1) Arenosol Brunic Eutric, Bathyabruptic
228
024E13 sEhp2 sEhp s-Edp Stagnosol Endogleyic *Fluvic Albic, Ruptic, Bathycalcaric, Hypereutric,
Epiloamic, Endoarenic, Drainic, *Humic
229
049E03 Sbxc Sbxy Sbb Cambisol Haplic Epidystric, Endoeutric, *Loamic
230
090E59 Aba0 Aax Aba0 Luvisol Cutanic Siltic
231
091W31 Aba0 Aa Aba0 Luvisol Cutanic Hypereutric, Siltic
232
091W36 Ahp(c) A1 Ahp(c) Luvisol Stagnic Endogleyic
Cutanic Humic, Hypereutric, Siltic
233
091W35 Aba0 Aa Aba0 Luvisol Cutanic Humic, Hypereutric, Siltic
234
060W16 wZchc2 wZch2 Sdm(g) Regosol Endogleyic Brunic, Humic, Eutric, Arenic,
*Endoloamic, *Abruptic, *Ruptic
235
060W19 Zdh(o)cC Zdh(m) Sdc Podzol Endogleyic *Humic, *Eutric, *Arenic
236
084W28 Zcp2 Zcm Zch Anthrosol Terric Eutric, Arenic
237
105E01 Aba1 Aba1 Aba1 Luvisol Cutanic Hypereutric, Nudiargic, Siltic
238
105E02 Aba1 Aba1 Aba1 Luvisol Cutanic Hypereutric, Nudiargic, Siltic
239
101W08 Abp0 Ca1 Abp(c) Cambisol Haplic Colluvic, Hypereutric, Siltic
240
101W09 Aba1 Aa1 Aba1 Luvisol Cutanic Hypereutric, Nudiargic, Siltic
241
101W15 Aba1 Aa1 Aba1 Luvisol Cutanic Hypereutric, Nudiargic, Siltic
242
101W16 Ahp0 Cq1 uAfp Cambisol Stagnic Endogleyic Colluvic, Humic, Hypereutric, Siltic
243
085E06 Aca1 Acb Aca1 Luvisol Haplic Hypereutric, Nudiargic, Siltic, *Calcaric
244
085E08 Aba1 Aba1 Aba1 Luvisol Cutanic Hypereutric, Siltic
245
085E09 Aba1 Abb Aba1 Luvisol Haplic Hypereutric, Nudiargic, Siltic
246
085E15 Ada1 Ada1 Ada1 Luvisol Endogleyic Hypereutric, Nudiargic, Siltic
247
055E07 Zbp0 Ag1 Zbp Arenosol Brunic Dystric
248
055E10 Zbp0 Ag2 Zcp Arenosol Brunic Dystric
249
070E06 Zdp0 Zdp - Zdf Zcp Arenosol Endogleyic Brunic Dystric
250
0
Zap1 zWa1 (oudsymbool
DMf) w-Sdg Regosol Haplic Brunic, Dystric, Arenic) over Albic Podzol
(Loamic)
Soil map of the Flemish region converted to 3
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Nr ID_PROF AW-93 SERIE_txt BSC_Map RSG-2007 PreQual SufQual
251
070E03 Pbc0 Pbc wLhc Cambisol Haplic Dystric, *Loamic
252
070E04 Lcx Lcc (w)Ldc Albeluvisol Cutanic Fragic Dystric, *Loamic
253
070E09 (w)Lba0 (w)Lba Lbc Luvisol Cutanic Hypereutric, *Loamic
254
089W11 Abb Abb Aba1 Luvisol Cutanic Siltic, *Colluvic
255
089W12 Aba(b)1 Aba(b)0 Aba(b) Albeluvisol Cutanic Dystric, Siltic
256
072E21 Abb A3 (oud symbool
DE) AbB Luvisol Cutanic Hypereutric, Nudiargic, Siltic
257
072E28 AbB2 A4 (oud symbool E)
AbB Regosol Haplic Calcaric, Siltic
258
089E35 Abb Abb1 AbB Cambisol Haplic Bathycalcaric, Hypereutric, Siltic
259
102E47 AbB3 Ae5 AbB Regosol Haplic Calcaric, Siltic
260
119E18 AbB2 Ae2 AbB2 Luvisol Cutanic Hypereutric, Nudiargic, Siltic
261
119E19 AbB3 Ae3 AbB3 Cambisol Haplic Bathycalcaric, Hypereutric, Siltic
262
002E02 Zdg Zdg Zdg Podzol Endogleyic Albic *Humic, *Dystric, *Arenic
263
032E09 Zdg(o) Zdg(o) t-Zdg Podzol Endogleyic Albic *Humic, *Dystric, *Arenic
264
032E15 Zdg(o) Zdg(o) t-Sdg Podzol Endogleyic Albic *Humic, *Dystric, *Arenic
265
002E01 Zag Zag ZAgb Podzol Albic *Hypolamellic, *Arenic
266
001E11 Zag Za1 (oud symbool
H1) ZAg Podzol Albic *Arenic
267
038E37 Zag(o) Zagd (oud symbool
T.Ba1) Zagdz Podzol Aric-Albic *Arenic
268
041W49 Zag(o) Zag (oud symbool
Ba1) Zag(o)(z) Podzol Aric-Albic *Arenic
269
059E32 Zag(o) Zag ZaF Podzol Albic *Hypolamellic, *Arenic
270
007W18 Zgp(v)0 Zfp(v) (oud
symbool: SR11) vSfp Gleysol Mollic Fluvic Humic, Eutric, Arenic
271
036E01 D4 Type (M)D4 (A3ZZ)
m.D5 Cambisol Gleyic Fluvic Hypercalcaric, Clayic, *Loamic, Arenic,
*Polyruptic
272
026W18 Zgp0 Dd2 (oud symbool:
c2) sPep Anthrosol Epigleyic Terric Arenic, *Calcaric
273
061E13 Zgp0 Zgp Pfpz Gleysol Fluvic Humic, Dystric, Arenic
274
001E15 Lgp(v) Lu1 (oud symbool
Ms) w-Pfg Gleysol Fluvic Humic, Dystric, Siltic
Soil map of the Flemish region converted to 3
rd
edition of WRB
Bestek nr. BOD/STUD/2013/01
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Nr ID_PROF AW-93 SERIE_txt BSC_Map RSG-2007 PreQual SufQual
275
028E07 Agp0 Lfp w-Leb Gleysol Fluvic Calcaric, Humic, Siltic
276
029E/02 Zbc Zbc w-Sep Arenosol Brunic Rubic
Hypoluvic Dystric
277
029E/12 Zec Zec Zeg Anthrosol Endogleyic Terric Eutric, Arenic, *Albic, *Hypoluvic
278
029W/16 Zac Zaf X Arenosol Brunic Albic
Hypoluvic Dystric
279
061W/09 (w)Zcc (w)ZcG (oud
symbool: wScG) Sbfc Podzol Albic Ruptic, *Arenic
280
075W/28 Zhc Zhc Sdg Arenosol Stagnic Endogleyic Dystric, *Humic
281
053E15 Ldc0 Ldc0 Lcc Cambisol Endogleyic Hypereutric, Bathyruptic, Siltic
282
053W14 Ldc0 Ldc0 Ldc Cambisol Endogleyic Eutric, Bathyruptic, *Loamic
283
065E29 Ldcz1 LS2 (oud symbool
L3) Lca Cambisol Endogleyic Hypereutric, Bathyruptic, *Loamic
284
065E33 Ldc1 LS2 (oud symbool
L3) Lca Cambisol Endogleyic Hypereutric, Bathyruptic, Siltic
285
066W56 Ldc0 Ca2 (oud symbool
L3ZZ) Ldp Cambisol Endogleyic Hypereutric, Bathyruptic, *Loamic
286
043E04 Ldc(o)cC0
Ldc0 Pdc Albeluvisol Endogleyic Cutanic Eutric, *Loamic, *Humic
287
036E02 D5 Type (M)D5 (oud
symbool A2) m.D5 Cambisol Gleyic Fluvic Hypercalcaric, Clayic, *Loamic, Arenic,
*Polyruptic
288
036E05 D4 Type (M) D4 (A3) m.D5 Cambisol Gleyic Fluvic Hypercalcaric, Clayic, *Loamic, Arenic,
*Polyruptic
289
071W04 Ldc0 Ldc Luvisol Endogleyic Cutanic Siltic
290
074W06 Ldcc1 Ldc0 Aeb Luvisol Endogleyic Cutanic Siltic
291
076W02 Ldc0 wLdc Albeluvisol Endogleyic Cutanic Dystric, *Loamic
292
090E05 Ldc0 xAg U-L-S Luvisol Endogleyic Cutanic Siltic
293
090W17 Ldc0 Ldc0 Lda0 Albeluvisol Endogleyic Cutanic Bathyabruptic, Dystric, Siltic
294
091E16 Ldc0 Ld0 Lccz Luvisol Endogleyic Cutanic *Loamic
295
097E17 Ldc0 Pcc Lda Luvisol Endogleyic Cutanic Siltic
296
023E16 Zbg(o) Type Aj1 (oud
symbool B4) Zdg Podzol Aric-Albic Anthric, *Dystric, *Arenic
297
023E17 Zcg(o) Type Aj2 (oud Zcg Podzol Aric-Albic Anthric, *Dystric, *Arenic
Soil map of the Flemish region converted to 3
rd
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Nr ID_PROF AW-93 SERIE_txt BSC_Map RSG-2007 PreQual SufQual
symbool B3)
298
041E17 Zcg Zeg (oud symbool
Bo2) ZbP Podzol Albic *Dystric, *Arenic
299
055E68 Zbg Type Ag2 (II a H) Zch Podzol Albic *Dystric, *Arenic
300
056W05 Zbg Type Ia Zap(z) Podzol Albic *Dystric, *Arenic
301
056W09 Zcg Type 2m Zdb Podzol Albic *Dystric, *Arenic
302
090W07 Aia0 Aia Lic Stagnosol Umbric Luvic Albic, Bathyruptic, Siltic, *Humic
303
016E10 Zcm Zçm w-Zcm Anthrosol Endostagnic Plaggic Dystric, Arenic, *Bathyabruptic
304
053E11 Pcc0 Pce0 Pcc Luvisol Endogleyic Albic Humic, *Loamic
305
053E12 Pcc0 Poc0 Pbc Luvisol Endogleyic Albic *Loamic
306
067E15 Pcc0 Pcc0 (oud symbool:
Pcc) Pcc Cambisol Stagnic Endogleyic Hypereutric, *Loamic
307
067E17 Pcc0 Pcc0 (oud symbool:
Pcc) Pcc Luvisol Endogleyic Albic *Loamic
308
055W02 Pcc(o)0 E2 (oud symbool
SS3) Pbc Cambisol Stagnic Endogleyic Dystric, *Loamic
309
083W45 Pccz1 Pce (oud symbool
L3kk) Pcc Cambisol Stagnic Endogleyic Dystric, *Loamic
310
096E06 Pcc0 Cg2 (oud symbool:
S3k) Lca Luvisol Endogleyic Albic
Cutanic Hypereutric, *Loamic
311
096E17 Pcc0 Cg2 (oud symbool:
S3k) Pca Luvisol Endogleyic *Loamic
312
096W15 Pcc1 Cg2 (oud symbool:
S3k) Pba Luvisol Endogleyic *Loamic
313
097W04 Pcc0 lPcc (oudsymbool:
lPs) Lca Luvisol Endogleyic Hypereutric, *Loamic
314
097W09 Pcc0 lPcc (oudsymbool:
lPs) Pcc Cambisol Endogleyic Hypereutric, *Loamic
315
097W12 Pcc0 Pce (oud symbool
Ps) Pcc Cambisol Endogleyic Hypereutric, *Loamic
316
057E42 PcccC0 Cg1 (oud symbool
II SOSS br) Pdc Cambisol Endogleyic Hypereutric, *Loamic
317
090E09 Ahc0 Agx Lhc Albeluvisol Stagnic Cutanic Eutric, Siltic
Soil map of the Flemish region converted to 3
rd
edition of WRB
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Nr ID_PROF AW-93 SERIE_txt BSC_Map RSG-2007 PreQual SufQual
318
090E14 Ahc0 Ah Lhc Albeluvisol Stagnic Cutanic Eutric, Siltic
319
090E15 Ahc0 Lh Lhc Albeluvisol Stagnic Cutanic Eutric, Siltic, *Humic
320
044W10 LhccC1 Lhc1 Lhc Albeluvisol Stagnic Cutanic Eutric, Siltic, *Terric
321
052W32 Lhc0 Type L3 (oud
symbool L2Lz) Ldc Albeluvisol Stagnic Cutanic Bathyruptic, Hypereutric, Loamic, *Terric,
322
065E45 Lhc0 LS3 (oud symbool
L2) Ldc Albeluvisol Stagnic Cutanic Bathyabruptic, Hypereutric, Siltic, *Terric,
323
066E06 Lhc0 Type L2z Ldc Albeluvisol Stagnic Cutanic Bathyruptic, Hypereutric, Loamic, *Terric,
324
037W15 Sdbz Am3 (oud symbool
Z2Cz) SdP Cambisol Endogleyic Eutric, Endoarenic, *Loamic,
*Bathyabruptic
325
037W33 Sdbz Am3 (oud symbool
Z2) ZdG Cambisol Endogleyic Eutric, Endoarenic, *Loamic,
*Bathyabruptic
326
041W08 Sdbz Zdc (oud symbool
Cd1) Sdb(k) Cambisol Endogleyic Eutric, *Loamic
327
041W13 Sdb Sdc (oud symbool
Cd3) Zdb Cambisol Endogleyic Eutric, *Loamic
328
089E05 SDg wSDg2 wLcc Podzol Endogleyic Albic *Loamic
329
089E16 sPbf2 sPbf2 SAg Podzol Endogleyic Albic *Loamic
330
089E17 sLbc2 sLbc0 sPbC Podzol Endogleyic Albic *Loamic
331
041W06 Zdb(o) Zdf (oud symbool
Bd1) Zdh Arenosol Endogleyic Brunic Eutric, *Terric
332
041W07 Zdb Zdc (oud symbool
Cd1) Sdb(k) Podzol Endogleyic Aric-Albic
Eutric, *Terric
333
037W62 Zdb type Am2 (oud
symbool Z3M) ZcG Arenosol Endogleyic Brunic Endoeutric
334
037W64 Zdb type Am3 (oud
symbool Z2) ZcF Arenosol Endogleyic Brunic Hypereutric
335
011W06 E1 E1 (oude symbolen
M - A1) m.E1 Cambisol Endogleyic Fluvic Hypercalcaric, *Loamic
336
007W26 Zbf
Zbpb(h)
(Oudsymbool
Wfa2) Zbm Arenosol Brunic Dystric, *Plaggic
337
016W31 Zbf Zhb1 (Oudsymbool w-Zdg Arenosol Brunic Dystric, *Aric-Spodic
Soil map of the Flemish region converted to 3
rd
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Nr ID_PROF AW-93 SERIE_txt BSC_Map RSG-2007 PreQual SufQual
B1)
338
076E07 Zhp(v)0 Zhp Lfpz Fluvisol Stagnic Dystric, Arenic
339
077E06 Zdpy0 Zdp1y Sdm(b) Arenosol Endogleyic Brunic Eutric, *Humic
340
014E03 Udpz0 Type A2 Uep Phaeozem Endogleyic Endocalcaric, Clayic, *Fluvic, *Ruptic,
*Drainic
341
014E06 Udp0 Type NA1 Udp Phaeozem Endogleyic Calcaric, Clayic, *Fluvic, *Drainic
342
014E40 Udpz0 Type A2 sUep Phaeozem Endogleyic Calcaric, Epiclayic, *Fluvic, *Ruptic,
*Drainic
343
014E42 Udp0 Type NA1 Udp Phaeozem Endogleyic Calcaric, Clayic, *Fluvic, *Drainic
344
014E53 Edpz0 Type NA3 Edp Phaeozem Endogleyic Calcaric, *Loamic, *Fluvic, *Drainic
345
014E55 Edp0 Type B Pep Phaeozem Endogleyic Calcaric, *Loamic, *Fluvic, *Drainic
346
014W01 Edp0 Type A3 Udp Phaeozem Endogleyic Calcaric, *Loamic, *Fluvic, *Drainic
347
027E71 Edpy0 Type Bk Pep Phaeozem Endogleyic Calcaric, *Loamic, *Fluvic, *Drainic
348
014W07 Ldp0 Type A3 Eep Phaeozem Endogleyic Calcaric, *Loamic, *Fluvic, *Drainic,
*Bathyruptic
349
015W18 uLdp2 Type Ck Eep Phaeozem Stagnic Endogleyic Calcaric, *Loamic, *Fluvic, *Drainic,
*Bathyruptic
350
015W19 wLdp2 Type CK uPep Phaeozem Stagnic Endogleyic Calcaric, *Loamic, *Fluvic, *Drainic,
*Bathyruptic
351
038E60 Sdpy1 lSdg (oud symbool
Bh1) Sdh Cambisol Endogleyic Dystric, *Loamic
352
023E22 Sepz0 Type CAg6 (oud
symbool C1) Sfpz(k) Phaeozem Gleyic Endoarenic, *Loamic
353
027W72 Pdc0 Type Fk1 Sdb Cambisol Endogleyic Terric Eutric, *Loamic
354
057E18 PdccC0 Type Dc4 (oud
symbool Dx) Pdg Phaeozem Endogleyic *Loamic
355
058W21 Pdc0 (Oud symbool
2SSbgr) Pcc Stagnosol Mollic Endogleyic Eutric, *Loamic
356
057E43 Pdc(o)0
Type Cg1 (oud
symbool Ii SOSS
br) Pdc Phaeozem Luvic Endogleyic *Loamic
357
069E06 Pdc0 Pdco Pcc Cambisol Endogleyic Eutric, *Loamic
Soil map of the Flemish region converted to 3
rd
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358
017W07 Pdcy0 Pdc(m) Sdcy Phaeozem Luvic Stagnic
Endogleyic *Loamic
359
006W20 lSdf2 uSd2 (oud symbool
M1K1) w-Seg Umbrisol Cambic Anthric, Humic, Hyperdystric, *Loamic,
*Ruptic
360
007E24 Sdf Sdf(m) Pdm Phaeozem Endogleyic *Loamic
361
007E27 uSdf2 uSdf w-Sdh3(h) Phaeozem Stagnic Endogleyic Abruptic, *Loamic
362
066E34 Lhcz0 Type L3z Ldpz Albeluvisol Stagnic Cutanic Bathyruptic, Hypereutric, Loamic
363
066E47 Lhcz0 Type L3 Lcaz Albeluvisol Stagnic Cutanic Hypereutric, Loamic
364
023E65 Sepz0 Type T2 (III TSD) Sfpz(k) Phaeozem Gleyic Endoarenic, *Loamic
365
055e66 Sepz0 Type T1 (TZ) Sep Umbrisol Cambic Endogleyic Endoeutric, *Ruptic, *Loamic
366
056W33 Sep0 Type 2mSS Sdp Umbrisol Cambic Endogleyic Endoeutric, *Loamic
367
029W09 SepcC0 Sepmz s-Efp3 Fluvisol Endogleyic Dystric, Arenic
368
013W02 ? Sepz Pep Fluvisol Gleyic Calcaric, *Loamic
369
076W08 Lic0 Lie Lhc Albeluvisol Stagnic Endogleyic
Albic Eutric, Siltic, *Humic
370
091W45 Lic0 Lw uLhc Albeluvisol Stagnic Endogleyic
Albic Bathyabruptic, Dystric, Siltic
371
104W48 Lip0 D1 U-L-S Cambisol Stagnic Eutric, Siltic, Bathyruptic
372
080E07 Lca0 Lcao Lcaz Luvisol Endogleyic Hypereutric, Siltic
373
081E06 Lca0 Oudsymbool L3 Pcc Cambisol Endogleyic Hypereutric, Loamic
374
081E07 Lcay1 Oudsymbool L3 Lcaz Luvisol Endogleyic Hypereutric, Loamic
375
081W05 Lca0 Oudsymbool (Lba) Lca Cambisol Endogleyic Hypereutric, Loamic
376
058W06 Pcc0 Oud symbool:
2SSbgr Sdc(h) Umbrisol Cambic Anthric, Humic, *Loamic
377
058W46 Pcc0 Oud symbool: 2bgr Lhp Cambisol Haplic Eutric, *Loamic
378
055W15 Sepz0 CS1 (oud symbool:
C1) Lep Phaeozem Cambic Endogleyic Endoarenic, *Loamic
379
055W21 wUepz2 B1 (oud symbool
kk) Ufp Phaeozem Cambic Endogleyic Endoruptic, *Loamic
380
055W31 Sepz0 B4 (oud symbool - )
Lep Cambisol Endogleyic Fluvic Endoarenic, *Loamic
381
055W36 sLep(o)2 CS2 (oud symbool:
K) Lep Cambisol Endogleyic Fluvic Calcaric, Humic, Endoarenic, *Loamic
Soil map of the Flemish region converted to 3
rd
edition of WRB
Bestek nr. BOD/STUD/2013/01
115
Nr ID_PROF AW-93 SERIE_txt BSC_Map RSG-2007 PreQual SufQual
382
069E03 Zcg(o) Zcg(0) Zcc(h) Arenosol Hypoluvic Dystric, *Humic
383
042E77 Eep(v)0 Type D3 (oud
symbool: Bk) vEep Phaeozem Endogleyic *Fluvic Calcaric, *Loamic
384
057E33 uEepcC3 VB1b (oud
symbook: KK) Efp Cambisol Endogleyic Fluvic Eutric, Endoclayic, *Loamic
385
050E58 wLda2 L2Z type (nieuw
Ca7) Lca Cambisol Haplic Hypereutric, Endoruptic, Siltic, Endo- to
Bathy-arenic
386
054E11 wLda2 Lda (oud symbool:
IIScLL) Ldc Albeluvisol Stagnic Endogleyic Eutric, *Loamic
387
073W52 wLdacC2 Type L3 (oud
symbool Bhz) Ldcz Albeluvisol Stagnic Endogleyic Eutric, *Loamic
388
077W11 wLdac2 wLdao Lhcz Planosol Endogleyic Ruptic, Hypereutric, *Loamic
389
084W19 wLda2 wLba wLdc Planosol Endogleyic Ruptic, Hypereutric, *Loamic
390
082E42 wLda2 uLda u-Ldc Planosol Endogleyic Ruptic, Eutric, *Loamic
391
054W03 wLha2 wLha1 w-Ldc Planosol Endogleyic Ruptic, Hypereutric, *Loamic
392
076W20 Aep0 Aea Ldp(c) Fluvisol Endogleyic Humic, Hypereutric, Siltic
393
090W13 Afp0 Afp Agp Fluvisol Gleyic Histic Hypereutric, Siltic
394
021E07 A1/A2 Type A1/A2 m.E1 Cambisol Endogleyic Fluvic Calcaric, Endoruptic, Siltic/$Clayic
395
021E09 A2 Type A2 m.E1 Cambisol Endogleyic Fluvic Calcaric, Humic, Endoruptic, $Clayic
396
021E10 A1 Type A1 m.E1 Cambisol Endogleyic Fluvic Calcaric, Humic, $Clayic
397
011E59 A6 Type (O) A6 (oud
symbool l) m.F1 Cambisol Gleyic Fluvic Endocalcaric, *Loamic, Bathyarenic
398
021E11 AD1 Type AD1 m.F1 Cambisol Gleyic Fluvic Endocalcaric, Endoclayic, Humic,
*Polyruptic
399
036E06 F1 Type (M) F1 (A1D) m.F1 Cambisol Gleyic Fluvic Endocalcaric, Clayic, Humic
400
036E20 F1 Type (M) F1 (A1D) m.F1 Cambisol Gleyic Fluvic Endocalcaric, Clayic, Humic
401
036E21 F1 Type (M) F1 (A1D) m.F1 Cambisol Gleyic Fluvic Endocalcari