ArticlePDF Available

USE OF SHATAVARI (ASPARAGUS RACEMOSUS) AS A GALACTOPOIETIC AND THERAPEUTIC HERB-A REVIEW

Authors:
  • ICAR-National Dairy Research Institute

Abstract and Figures

Asparagus racemosus (Shatavari) is recommended in the Ayurveda for the prevention and treatment of reproductive disorders of women such as sexual debility, ammenorrhea, dysmenorrhea, dysfunctional uterine bleeding, endometriosis, gonorrhea, prolapse of uterus etc. It is also recommended as a galactogogue in case of lactational inadequacy. Asparagus racemosus has been successfully used by some medical practitioners as an anti-inflammatory, anti-microbial and immunomodulator for many infectious diseases. Asparagus racemosus can also improve the milk production and reproduction capacity of dairy animals. The use of Asparagus racemosus can also boost the immune system and consequently prevent the infection of the udder and reproductive organs of cows. It can also be effectively used to reduce the stress of dairy animals and improve their productivity thus producing clean and healthy milk from them. The ancient history of India is very rich in herbal medicine and one of the oldest surviving system of health care in the world and known as Ayurveda derived from its ancient Sanskrit roots 'ayur' (life) and 'ved' (knowledge). It offers a rich, comprehensive outlook to a healthy life. Originated from India around 5000 years ago it has now spreaded its essence across the globe and has occupied a prime position in health care systems. The Ayurveda is a natural remedy and totally based on herbs. These herbs are being used from Pre-Vedic times because, they are safe to use, cheap and easily available, have no side effect and no residual effect in milk (Krishna et al. 2005). As the demand of clean milk production increases, there is a need to exploit the use of these herbs, which not only improve milk yield but also has beneficial effect on the health of consumers.
Content may be subject to copyright.
USE OF SHATAVARI (ASPARAGUS RACEMOSUS) AS A
GALACTOPOIETIC AND THERAPEUTIC HERB- A REVIEW
Santosh Kumar, R. K. Mehla and A.K. Dang*
Dairy Cattle Breeding Division, * Dairy Cattle Physiology Division
National Dairy Research Institute, Karnal, Haryana- 132001, India.
ABSTRACT
Asparagus racemosus (Shatavari) is recommended in the Ayurveda for the prevention and
treatment of reproductive disorders of women such as sexual debility, ammenorrhea, dysmenorrhea,
dysfunctional uterine bleeding, endometriosis, gonorrhea, prolapse of uterus etc. It is also
recommended as a galactogogue in case of lactational inadequacy. Asparagus racemosus has been
successfully used by some medical practitioners as an anti-inflammatory, anti-microbial and
immunomodulator for many infectious diseases. Asparagus racemosus can also improve the milk
production and reproduction capacity of dairy animals. The use of Asparagus racemosus can also
boost the immune system and consequently prevent the infection of the udder and reproductive
organs of cows. It can also be effectively used to reduce the stress of dairy animals and improve their
productivity thus producing clean and healthy milk from them.
The ancient history of India is very rich
in herbal medicine and one of the oldest
surviving system of health care in the world
and known as Ayurveda derived from its
ancient Sanskrit roots ‘ayur’ (life) and ‘ved’
(knowledge). It offers a rich, comprehensive
outlook to a healthy life.
Originated from India around 5000 years ago
it has now spreaded its essence across the
globe and has occupied a prime position in
health care systems. The Ayurveda is a natural
remedy and totally based on herbs. These herbs
are being used from Pre-Vedic times because,
they are safe to use, cheap and easily available,
have no side effect and no residual effect in
milk (Krishna et al. 2005). As the demand of
clean milk production increases, there is a need
to exploit the use of these herbs, which not only
improve milk yield but also has beneficial effect
on the health of consumers.
Apart from animals several important
benefits in human being especially in women
haw been reposed. Hawever, Very few attempt
have been made to explore the importance of
this herb in the dairy animal to improve the
productive and reproductive performance as it
has been reported in women. This review
describes various pharmacological properties
of the root extract of Asparagus racemosus
evaluated/reported so far in dairy animals.
Characteristics of Asparagus racemosus:
Asparagus racemosus is a woody
climber growing to 1-2 m in height. The leaves
are like pine needles, small and uniform and
the flowers are white and have small spikes.
This plant belongs to the genus Asparagus
which has recently moved from the subfamily
Asparagae in the family Liliaceae to a newly
created family Asparagaceae. Its habitat is
common at low altitudes in shade and in
tropical climates throughout India, Asia,
Australia and Africa. Out of several species of
Asparagus’ grown in India, Asparagus
racemosus is most commonly used in
indigenous medicine. Locally this plant is called
shatawar in Hindi; in Central Himalayan region
this plant is called Satmuli (shata means
hundred and muli means roots). In Sanskrit this
plant is called shatavari which means ‘able to
have one hundred husbands’ and in Ayurveda
this amazing herb is known as the “queen of
herbs” because it promotes love, special affinity
to women health and devotion and as it
increases the capacity for lovemaking (Simon,
1997). Shatavari is mentioned under six
important Rasayana in Ayurveda and
Agric. Rev., 29 (2) : 132 - 138, 2008
133
Vol. 29, No. 2, 2008
Rasayana are those plant drugs which promote
general well being of an individual by increasing
cellular vitality or resistance. (Goel and Sairam,
2002) and this herb is very important herb for
women’s overall health and vitality and as an
aphrodisiac.
Medicinal Uses:
Asparagus racemosus has been widely
used in folk medicine and is today a highly
commercially important target species. It has
been indicated as uterine tonic, thus it cleanses,
nourishes, and strengthens the female
reproductive system and so is traditionally used
for PMS and sexual debility (Frawley, 1989),
A, ammenorrhea, Dysmenorrhea,
Dysfunctional Uterine Bleeding (Swarup and
Umadevi, 1998; Chopra and Simon, 2000),
menopause and pelvic inflammatory disease
like endometriosis (Hemprabha et al. 2001;
Prasad et al. 2002) and gonorrhea (Thomsen,
2002). It also supports deeper tissue and builds
blood and so it helps to remove infertility,
prepare the womb for conception, prevents
miscarriage and acts as a post-partum tonic
where it helps to increase lactation and
normalize the uterus, prolapse of uterus and
the balancing reproductive hormones level
(Tirtha, 1998). The other traditional uses is in
arthritis (Chaudhary and Singh, 1965),
diarrhoea, dysentery (Roy et al. 1971), edema,
rheumatism, chronic and common fevers,
aphrodisiac, cooling tonic, antispasmodic
(Nadkarni, 1976; Singh and Ali. 1994),
dyspepsia, indigestion (Dalvi et al. 1990), thirst,
sunstroke (Kapoor, 1990), rejuvenator,
promoter of strength, breast milk and semen
(Dash, 1991), long-term treatment of diabetes,
cough (Mandal et al. 2000b), and peptic ulcers
(Sairam et al. 2003; Dharmani and Gautam,
2006). Shatavari is also used for enhancing milk
production in the freshly parturient and
lactating woman (Chopra and Simon, 2000).
The general pharmacology of shatavari are
galactagogue and mammogenic, it enhance the
blood prolactin level and stimulates the cellular
division of mammary gland (Jetmalani et al.
1967; Sabins et al. 1968; Pandey et al. 2005),
estrogenic (Mitra et al. 1999; Pandey et al.
2001; Prasad et al. 2002), immunostimulant
and immunomodulator (Dahanukar and Thatte
1997; Rege et al. 1999; Muruganandan et al.
2000), anabolic (Sharma et al. 1986), antistress
(Rege et al. 1989; Kamat et al. 2000),
hypoglycemic (Kar et al. 1999), antibacterial,
anti-amoebic, antifungal (Bhatnagar et al.
1961; Mandal et al. 2000a; Nair and Chanda,
2006), cancer and chemopreventive (Dhar et
al. 1968), antitumor activity (Seena et al. 1993;
Dhuley, 1997), gastroprotective /anti-
ulcerogenic (Sairam et al. 2003), antiviral
(Rajbhandari et al. 2001), antioxidant (Kamat
et al. 2000; Wiboonpun et al. 2004; Visavadiya
et al. 2005).
Chemical constituents:
Shatavari having more than 50
organic chemical compounds of different
groups such as steroidal saponins, glycosides,
alkaloids, polysaccharides, mucilage,
racemosol and isoflavones that possess wide
range of medicinal properties (Thomsen,
2002).
Asparagus racemosus and Dairy Animals:
Attempts have been made to explore
the importance of this herb in the dairy animals
to improve the productive and reproductive
performance as it has been reported in women,
is to be describes in this review.
Asparagus racemosus as galactogogue:
The galactopoietic effect of satawar
has been reported since long back and it has
been reported that the supplementation of fresh
root of shatavari at the rate of ½ kg per day at
the time of milking with concentrate increase
milk yield of buffaloes significantly (p<0.01)
(Patel and Kantikar, 1969). Similar result have
been also reported in case of freshly calved
crossbred cattle that oral supplementation of
134
AGRICUTURAL REVIEWS
root powder of Satawar (Shatavari) @ 100 gms
per animal at alternate day improved milk
production significantly (p< 0.05) (Berhane
and Singh, 2002).
Asparagus racemosus as Feed Supplement:
Asparagus racemosus may constitute
a very important component of as feed
supplement in the animal diets because of their
higher availability of nutrients. Crude protein,
crude fiber, ether extract, nitrogen free extract
and ash content have been analyzed and found
that this herb is very rich in nitrogen free extract
and minerals like Ca, Mg, Fe, Cu, Zinc etc which
is described in the Table1.
Asparagus racemosus and digestive system:
Asparagus racemosus strengthens the
digestive system it prevents from many digestive
system related disorders. Asparagus racemosus
is one of the sitavirya drugs and has been cited
in treatment of peptic ulcer diseases by
Chakradutta, a connotation on Charaka
samhita (Goel et al. 2006) and susrutha samhita
(Muralidhar et al. 1993). The anti-ulcerogenic
activity of methanolic extract of roots of A.
racemosus (100mg/kg BW p.o. 15 days) has
been reported that it significantly reduce the
ulcer index, volume of gastric secretion, free
acidity and total acidity (Bhatanagar et al. 2005;
sairam et al. 2003)
Asparagus racemosus and Digestive system
and digestibility in Dairy Animals:
The powdered dried root of A.
racemosus is used in Ayurveda for dyspepsia,
indigestion and dysentery. In Ayurveda, A.
racemosus has also been mentioned for the
treatment of ulcerative disorders of stomach
and Parinama Sula, a clinical entity akin to the
duodenal ulcer diseases (Goel and Sairam
2002). Oral administration of powdered dried
root of A. racemosus has been found to
promote digestibility and dry matter intake in
healthy as well as in problematic animals
without disturbing rumen parameters with
decreasement in protozoan counts which work
as a predator for beneficial bacteria (Pradhan
1995; Barhane and Singh 2002).
Table 1:-
Plant DM CP EE CF Ash NFE Reference
A. racemosus 91.0 3.85 0.66 8.32 13.15 74.02 Berhane M. (2000)
Plants Macro-minerals g/100g Micro-minerals micro-g/g Reference
A. racemosus Ca Mg K Fe Cu Zn Mn Co Cr Kar & Choudhary, (1994)
0.22 0.4 2.5 0.005 5.29 53.15 19.98 22 1.81
Mineral contents in different part of Asparagus racemosus (Dry plant material figures in g/100gms): are given below in
we Table 2
Tabel 2:-
Element Root Stem Leaves Twigs Flowers Seeds
Ca 0.192 0.115 0.115 0.417 0.424 0.022
Mg 0.100 0.043 1.300 0.430 0.340 0.050
K 2.06 1.63 1.29 3.47 4.79 1.78
Fe 0.004 0.002 0.010 0.004 0.007 0.003
Figures in microgram/gm
Cu 3.28 3.45 3.13 4.33 13.03 4.55
Zn 39.17 30.04 64.95 36.38 117.97 30.39
Mn 9.73 5.50 48.29 21.82 28.14 6.41
Co 12.41 18.40 29.46 17.91 43.46 10.41
(Choudhary and Kar, 1992)
135
Vol. 29, No. 2, 2008
Asparagus racemosus and Reproductive
Health:
Satavari (A. racemosus) is known as
“hundred husbands” in Sanskrit for its
beneficial effects in women and reproductive
function. Asparagus racemosus is well known
for its effects on the female reproductive system
and used in all female related problems such
as PMS and sexual debility (Frawley, 1989), ,
ammenorrhea, dysmenorrhea, dysfunctional
uterine bleeding (Swarup and Umadevi, 1998;
Chopra and Simon, 2000), menopause and
pelvic inflammatory disease like endometriosis
(Hemprabha et al. 2001; Prasad et al. 2002)
and gonorrhea (Thomsen, 2002). It also
supports deeper tissue and builds blood and
so it helps to remove infertility, prepare the
womb for conception, prevents miscarriage and
acts as a post-partum tonic where it helps to
increase lactation and normalize the uterus,
prolapse of Uterus and the balancing
reproductive hormones level (Tirtha, 1998;
Swarup and Umadevi 1998; Mitra et al. 1999;
Hemprabha et al. 2001; Prasad et al. 2002).
Asparagus racemosus also works as stimulant
of Endometrium and Ovarian Tissues,
regulating menstruation and ovulation, balance
hormonal level (TSH, ESTROGEN, FSH, LH)
and improved the Conception rate
(64%vs28%) in women (Kumar et al. 2001).
The alcoholic extract of Asparagus racemosus
did not show any anti fertility effect and all
treated animals delivered normal litter in rat
(Roy et al. 1971).
This amazing herb is not fully explored
scientifically in dairy animal to improve the
reproduction. However, it has been reported
that supplementation of Asparagus racemosus
(100 g at alternate day) led 100% estrus and
75% conception in crossbred cattle within 90
days of calving. (Berhane, 2000)
Asparagus racemosus and Udder Health:
Asparagus racemosus are helped in
division of lobuloalveolar tissue which are
destroyed after every let down of milk. The
effects of intramuscular administration (250mg/
kg) of the crude alcoholic extract of the root
were studied in post partum, estrogen-primed
and non-primed rats. The extract increased the
weight of mammary glands in post partum and
estrogen-primed rats and the uterine weight in
estrogen-primed group. The increase in the
weight of adrenals coupled with the depletion
of ascorbic acid suggested the release of
pituitary ACTH. Estrogen- primed rats receiving
the extract showed well-developed
lobuloalveolar tissue with milk secretion. The
mechanism of action of the extract may be
through a direct action on the mammary gland
or through the pituitary or pituitary adrenal axis
due to the secretion of prolactin and ACTH
(Jetmalani et al. 1967; Sabins et al. 1968). A.
racemosus can also be helped in the mastitis
prevention through its anti-microbial properties.
The main causal organisms of mastitis are
streptococci, Coliform (E. coli), Klebsiella,
Pseudomonas, Proteus sp. etc (Singh 1991)
and alcoholic extract of the root was found to
possess in vitro antibacterial activity against
mentioned mastitis causing bacteria such as
streptococci, Coliform (E. coli), Klebsiella,
Pseudomonas (Bhatnagar et al. 1961; Ahmed
et al. 1998).
Asparagus racemosus and immune system:
Asparagus racemosus is a strong
immunomodulator and it stimulates the
macrophages and neutrophils (Thatte and
Dahanukar 1989). The effect of the
pretreatment of the decoction of the root 100
mg /kg/day for 15 days orally was evaluated
against E. coli induced peritonitis in mice and
results indicated 50 % mortality at 16hrs as
compared to 100 % in the control animals, thus
suggesting an immunomodulating property
(Thatte et al. 1987).
The immunotherapeutic modulation
of intraperitoneal adhesions induced by caecal
rubbing by the plant 200 mg/kg as total extract
136
AGRICUTURAL REVIEWS
administered orally for l5days in experimental
rats was studied. The peritoneal macrophages
obtained from normal rats exhibited 32 ± 1.77
% phagocytosis while those receiving the plant
extract showed a significant increase in
phagocytic activity 53 ± 5.78 % of
macrophages (Rege et al. 1989).
Immunoadjuvant potential of Asparagus
racemosus aqueous root extract was evaluated
in experimental animals immunized with
diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis (DTP) vaccine.
Oral administration of test material at 100 mg/
kg per day dose for 15 days resulted significant
increase (P = 0.0052) in antibody titers to
Bordtella pertussis as compared to untreated
(control) animals (Ray Sahelian, 2004; Gautam
et al. 2004)
Asparagus racemosus as an Antioxidant:
Antioxidants are intimately involved in
the prevention of cellular damage - the
common pathway for cancer, aging, and a
variety of diseases. Asparagus racemosus
possess antioxidant properties. Methanolic
extract (100mg/kg BW p. o.) given to orally for
15 days and it increase the antioxidant defense,
that is, enzymes superoxidase dimutase,
catalase and ascorbic acid, increase significantly
whereas a significantly decrease in lipid
peroxidation (Bhatanagar et al. 2005). The anti
oxidant properties was found due to presence
of Isoflavons specially racemofuran,
asparagamine A and racemosol (Wiboonpun
et al. 2004).
Asparagus racemosus as Adaptogen:
Adoptability is probably the most
distinct characteristics of the life in animal
kingdom. Dr. Hans Seyle define stress as a the
sum of all non specific response of the body to
any external stimuli acting up on it. Perhaps
adoptability is the single most important
property of animals and it found naturally in
all the animals more or less. (Azmathulal et al.
2006). The dairy animals are directly more
exposed to the environment and suffer severely
to environmental stress. Some time it increase
beyond the limit and consequently reduction
in productivity and reproductivity in terms of
quality and quantity both. There are few places
in the world and none in India where the natural
climate continuously remain optimum for dairy
animals. Therefore, it is a dire need that some
herbal supplementary measure should be
adopted with stress remover managemental
practices to overcome the stress effect
effectively. Asparagus racemosus one of the
best adoptogenic herb, which can be easily
used in dairy animal. As it proved that
supplementation of standardize extract of
Asparagus racemosus along with some other
herbs (EuMil 100mg/kg BW p.o. 14 days)
normalized the perturbed regional nor-
adrenaline, dopamine, and 5-
hydroxytryptamine concentration, induced by
chronic stress (Bhattacharya et al. 2002;
Muruganandan et al. 2002; Azmathulal et al.
2006).
Asparagus racemosus and Anabolic Action:
The decoction of the Asparagus
racemosus root in a dose of 100 mg/kg BW for
a varying period of 4 week to 8 months showed
growth promoting effects in rats. The decoction
treated animals also showed a better weight
gain 81.19 % as compared to the control
animals 67.9 % in rat. It however, had no
adverse effect on the progeny of treated
animals. The growth promoting effect was
indicative of its anabolic effect and ascribed to
its adaptogenic substances (Sharma et al.
1986).
Conclusion:
Ayurveda has been practiced for
thousand of years in India with great success.
Uses of Asparagus racemosus for human being
is already well documented and support its
therapeutic use as a multi-purpose medicinal
agent. But, only a few studies have been done
on dairy animals of this herb which are of
pharmacological and chemical type. But,
137
Vol. 29, No. 2, 2008
growing human awareness and demand of
chemical residues free and clean milk, there is
a need to carry bio-chemical work and more
detailed studies on dairy animals (K. Santosh,
2007). Utilization of this herb will not only
improve the reproductive efficiency and health
of our animals but also support the farmer’s income
through production of more milk per animal.
REFERENCES
Ahmad N. et al. (1998). J. Ethnopharmacol 62: 183-19.
Azmathulal S. et al. (2006). Indian Exp Biol. 44: 574-579.
Berhane M. and Singh V.P. (2002). Indian J. Anim. Sc. 72(7): 609-611.
Berhane, M. (2000) M.Sc. Thesis. JNKVV, Jabalpur (MP).
Bhatnagar M. et al. (2005). Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1056:261-78.
Bhatnagar S.S. et al. (1961). Indian J. Med. Res. 49: 799-813.
Bhattacharya A. et al. (2002). Indian J of Exp Biol. 40:1161-1163.
Chaudhary G.N. and Singh R.H. (1965). Indian J. Med. Res. 53(1): 71-80.
Choudhary, B.K. and Kar, A. (1992). Indian Drugs 29: 623.
Chopra D. and Simon D. (2000) The Chopra Center. Herbal Handbook. New York, NY: Three Rivers Press: 73-75, 219.
Dahanukar S.A. and Thatte U.M. (1997). Phytomedicine 4: 359 -68.
Dalvi S.S. et al. (1990). J. Postgrad Med. 36: 91-94.
Dash V.B. (1991) Materia Medica of Ayurveda. New Delhi, India: B. Jain Publishers Pvt. Ltd; 61.
Dhar M.L. et al. (1968). Indian J Exp Biol 6: 232-247.
Dharmani P. and Gautam P. (2006). Indian J. Pharmacol. 38: 95-99.
Dhuley J.N. (1997). J. Ethnopharmacol. 58: 15 -20.
Frawley D. (1989) Ayurvedic Healing: A Comprehensive Guide. Salt Lake City, UT:Passage Press :200-211.
Goel R.K. and Sairam K. (2002). Indian J. Pharmacol. 34(2): 110.
Goel R.K. et al. (2006). Indian J Exp Biol 44:570-573.
Hemprabha et al. (2001). Indian J Clinical Practice 12(2): 31-34.
Jetmalani M. et al. (1967). J. Res. Ind. Med. 2(1): 1- 9.
Kamat J.P. et al. (2000). J. Ethnopharmacol. 71: 425-435.
Kapoor L.D. (1990) Handbook of Ayurvedic Medicinal Plants. CRC.Press; Boca Raton, FL: 56.
Kar A. et al. (1999). J. Ethnopharutacol. 64: 179-184.
Kar A. and Choudhary B.K. (1994). Indian Drugs 31: 127-130.
Krishna L. et al. (2005). Indian J. Anim. Sc. 75(12): 1481-1491.
K. Santosh (2007) Synopsis submitted to NDRI Deemed University, Karnal, Haryana- 132001.
Kumar A. et al. (2001). Advance in Obstetrics & Gynecology. 1(3): 283-285.
Mandal S.C. et al. (2000b). Fitoterapia 7(6): 686-689.
Mandal S.C. et al. (2000a). Phytother Res. 14(2): 118-119.
Mitra S.K. et al. (1999). Indian J. Pharmacol. 31(3): 200-203.
Muralidhar T.S. et al. (1993). J. Biol. Chem. Res. 12:151-6.
Muruganandan A. V. et al. (2002). Indian J Exp Biol. 40: 1151-1160
Muruganandan A.V. et al. (2000). National Seminar on the Frontiers of Research and Development in Medicinal Plants,
September 16-18, 2000, CIMAP, Lucknow, (Abstr.No.O-20)
Nadkarni A.K. (1976) Indian Materia Medica. Vol. 1. Bombay, India: Popular Prakashan Pvt.Ltd: 153-155.
Nair R. and Chanda S. (2006). Indian J. Pharmacol. 38(2): 142-144.
Pandey S.K. and Sahay A. (2001). Indian Drugs. 38:132-136
Pandey S.K. et al. (2005). Phytother Res. 19(8): 721-724.
Patel A.B. and Kanitkar U.K. (1969). Indian Vet. J. 46(8): 718-721.
Pradhan N.R. (1995). Indian Vet. J. 72(2): 195-197.
Prasad N. (2002). Obstetrics & Gynaecology Communication. 3(3): 51-53.
Rajbhandari M. et al. (2001). J. Ethnopharmacol. 74: 251-55.
Rege N.N. et al. (1989). J. Postgrad. Med. 35: 199-203.
Rege N.N. et al. (1999). Phytother Res. 13: 275-291.
Ray Sahelian M.D. (2004). J. Ethnopharmacol. 91(2-3): 251-255.
Roy R.N. et al. (1971). J. Res. Ind. Med. 6 (2): 132-138.
Sabnis P.B. et al. (1968). Indian Journal of Experimental Biology. 6: 55-58.
138
AGRICUTURAL REVIEWS
Sairam K. et al. (2003). J. Ethnopharmacol. 86: 1-10.
Seena K. et al. (1993). Arnala Res. Bull. 13: 41-45.
Sharma S., Dahanukar S. and Karandikar S.M. (1986). Indian Drugs. 23: 133-139.
Simon D. (1997) The Wisdom of Healing. New York, NY: Harmony Books: 148.
Singh P.J. (1991) Studies on mastitis in cattle at machine milk farms in Panjab. MVSc thesis submitted to Panjab
Agriculture University, Ludhiana.
Singh V.K. and Ali Z.A. (1994). Fitoterapia. 65: 68-74.
Swarup A. and Umadevi K. (1998). Obs. & Gynae. Today (III) 6: 369-672.
Thatte U.M. and Dahanukar S.A. (1989). Phytother Res. 3: 43-9.
Thatte U.M. et al. (1987). J. Postgrad. Med. 33:185-188.
Thomson M. (2002) Herbal Monograph – Asparagus racemosus, Phytomedicine, NSW, Australia.
Tirtha S.S. (1998) The Ayurvedic Encyclopedia.Bayville, NY: Ayurvedic Holistic Center Press: 102-103
Visavadiya N.P. and Narasimhacharya A.V.R.L. (2005). Indian J. Pharmacol. 37: 376-380.
Wiboonpun, N. et al. (2004). Phytother. Res. 18: 771-773.
... cordifolia) [35] , Liquorice (G. glabra L.) [36] , Harsingar (Nyctanthes arbortristis L.) [37] , Satavar (A. racemosus Willd) [38] , Cinnamon (C. zeylanicum Blume) [39] , Aloe (A. barbadensis Mill), Almond (P. ...
Article
Full-text available
The whole world is standing on the verse of COVID-19 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic scenario, which revealed the endurance of our current health care system. Moreover, to overcome the global menace and dwindle the infection; there is an exigency for social distancing and quarantines. Health is the greatest wealth for human mankind. So, there has been a great requirement in ways to boost our immune system and to build a strong defence mechanism against the deadly virus and diseases. Since ancient times, the use of medicinal plants, herbs and spices has been well known for their medicinal and healing properties. Therefore, the use of medicinal plants and herbs will play a critical role in boosting our immunity during the COVID-19 pandemic, despite any side effects. It is also very important to consume supplements in the form of immune nutrients such as vitamin A, C, D, E, B-complex, Zinc and Copper that will support your body to fight against pathogens. We have been using different types of herbs which are traditionally being used by tribal and rural people of India as well as China and other developing countries in the form of ayurvedic formulations. This paper presents an analysis of popular immune-boosting medicinal plants and herbs and their effectiveness in the treatment of various ailments.
... Asparagus racemosus is used traditionally as carminative, antispasmodic, antidiarrheal and in dyspepsia and rheumatism [9]. There is a need to prove its biological activities pharmacologically. ...
Article
Full-text available
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity of the aqueous methanolic extract of the root of Asparagus racemosus in Albino mice model. Oedema models were induced by injection of carrageenan and fresh egg albumin into right hind paw. Acetic acid and formalin were used to induce pain models. The aqueous methanolic extract showed significant reduction in both paw oedema models. In pain models, the extract also significantly inhibited the acetic acid-induced writhing and formalin-induced paw lickings. Our findings showed that aqueous methanolic extract of Asparagus racemosus's root reduced inflammation and pain in experimental models. The results proposed a potential use of Asparagus racemosus's roots in treating conditions associated with inflammation and pain. Rezumat Scopul studiului a fost de a evalua activitatea antiinflamatorie și analgezică a extractului hidroalcoolic din rădăcina de Aspraragus racemosus într-un model experimental murin. Edemul a fost indus prin injectarea de carragenan și albumină proaspătă din ou în laba dreaptă din spate. S-au folosit acid acetic și formalină pentru a induce modele de durere. Extractul hidroalcoolic a demonstrat o reducere semnificativă a ambelor modele de edem de labă. În modelele de durere, extractul inhibă, de asemenea, în mod semnificativ simptomatologia specifică fiecărui test. Constatările noastre au arătat că extractul hidroalcoolic din rădăcina de Aspraragus racemosus a redus inflamația și durerea în modelele experimentale testate. Rezultatele au sugerat o posibilă utilizare a rădăcinilor Aspraragus racemosus în tratarea afecțiunilor asociate cu inflamația și durerea.
... Growth hormone (GH) is known to have a strong galactopoietic effect on lactation performance in ruminants since the exogenous administration of bovine somatotropin stimulates milk yield [39]. GH levels reported to increase in response to fenugreek feeding [40]. These seeds posses, an estrogen like substance which is also supposed to accomplish its galactagogue role [41][42][43] observed that the herbs increased in milk production by stimulating the endogenous hormonal secretion in mammals. They have also proved their worth as component of herbal preparation to improve the lactation performance and health of dairy buffalo [29] found an improvement in milk yield (0.67 kg/day) through supplementation of grounded FS (50 g/kg in concentrate) in Anatolian water buffaloes ( Table 2). ...
Chapter
Full-text available
Buffaloes have a strong population of rumen microorganisms that can utilize different feeds. Other features that make this animal unique are its compatibility with nature, its ability to withstand difficulties, and the nutrient richness of animal products. Today, the emergence of residues such as animal origin diseases, pesticides and antibiotics in animal food products has led organic products to be preferred more by consumers. Due to the increase in consumption demand of natural products, the share of buffalo products in the world market is gradually increasing. Focusing on the use of natural additives in buffalo feeding is important for the diversity of healthy products. Examples of natural additives are cumin and fenugreek seeds. In addition to being natural products, these seeds are reported to have versatile functions in the animal body. The purpose of this chapter is to show how to use aromatic seeds as feed additives in the feeding of Anatolian water buffaloes. The chapter also includes various articles on the use of aromatic seeds in buffalo rations in international fields. This review focuses on the current research relating to the use of aromatic seeds as feed additives to improve the production of Anatolian water buffaloes. Based on the scientific results presented in this chapter, authors drew the following main conclusions: (1) The use of aromatic seeds as feed additives of Anatolian water buffaloes feeding enabled in enhancing milk production, without changing the taste and chemical composition of the milk. (2) Milk production can be improved up to 0.67 kg and 0.85 kg day-1 by adding 50 g Fenugreek seeds and 30 g Cumin seeds to the ration of buffaloes in the early lactation period. (3) The use of aromatic seeds in the feeding of water buffaloes has been proven therefore, their use in the buffalo sector should be encouraged.
... Supplementation of the fresh root of Shatavari at the rate of 0.5 kg per day has been reported to increase the milk yield of buffaloes significantly (p<0.01) (Kumar et al., 2008). Milk thistle (Silbanum marianum) has been indicated as a galactagogue (Sehgal and Sood, 2013). ...
Article
Herbal medicines have always been a form of therapy for livestock among resource-poor smallholder farmers. This article is a review of present literature data of Fenugreek and Giloy as potential nutraceuticals and galactagogue in animal husbandry. Both these herbs are known to have pharmacological effects which include hypoglycemic, hypo-lipidemic, antidiabetic, hepato-protective, anti-carcinogenic, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antifungal and galactagogue activity. The commercially available drugs pose health threats and prove detrimental to both human and animal health. The traditional use of herbal preparations suggests that they are safe and effective, however, scientific validation is still required for many of them especially for animal use. The phyto-pharmacological research on these two natural products show a ray of hope for the discovery of new active compounds with a novel structure that has potential to serve as a natural lead compound for the development of new nutraceuticals and galactagogue for animal health.
Chapter
One of the most common endocrine disorder in females during reproductive age which leads to infertility, metabolic derangements, and also psychological impairments is polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). This syndrome has been known to increases the risk of type 2 diabetes, obesity, hypertension, cardiovascular diseases, lipid disorders, and also autoimmune thyroiditis. Impending complication list includes malignancies like breast and endometrial cancer. The actual cause of this syndrome is unknown, and perhaps, it could be due to a combination of various unmodifiable genetic factors and modifiable environmental factors. Several research studies have been carried out on management of PCOS, and many medicinal plants have been used as an alternative therapy for oligo/amenorrhoea, hyperandrogenism, and PCOS in women. The chapter gives an insight on PCOS, its management, and elucidates the effects of medicinal plants on PCOS.
Article
Full-text available
Foliar feeding is a technique of feeding plants by applying liquid fertilizers directly to their leaves. Plants are able to absorb materials that are essential through their leaves. The absorption takes place through their epidermis. The application of fertilizers to foliage of crop as spray solution is known as foliar spray. This method is suitable for application of small quantities of fertilizers, especially micro nutrients. Foliar application is not a substitute for soil application but only a supplement to it.
Article
Full-text available
Asparagus racemosus a well-known female tonic species, a well-known home grown herb in India, that belong to the Asparagus genus of the Asparagaceae family. The Asparagus racemosus roots, stems, flowers and leaves are employed in herbal therapy, and also used as a food and nutraceutical supplement. Pharmacological and therapeutic research, phytochemistry of the Asparagus racemosus and its active components are presented in this overview. KEYWORDS- Asparagus racemosus, Asparagaceae, Pharmacology, Marketed formulations, Phytochemistry
Article
Full-text available
Ethnopharmacological relevance Plants are used for health and medical functions since ancient times. Plants and their extracts are also well-known phytobiotics or phytogenics that are widely used in animal traditional and alternative medicine. In recent years the use of herbal/plant medicine is increased in livestock production due to the side effects of modern drugs, the high input costs, toxic residues in food, microbial resistance and due to the development of organic livestock production systems. Plants are used as health promoters and also for the treatment of diseases. Aim of the study This review aims to provide information on various plants used in animal health care, production and reproduction in various forms. Methods We carefully searched the scientific literature for data related to traditional scientific use of herbal products in animal production. This review summarized published literature collected from library, the online databases, and various scientific search engines including PubMed, Elsevier, Google Scholar, Science Direct, Scopus, and Research gate. The Plant List (www.theplantlist.org) databases were used to provide the scientific names, subspecies of plants. Results Various herbs play important role in production and reproduction of animal. Herbs acts as feed additives, growth promoters, immune boosters, improves reproduction in animals and also helps in reduction of methane and ammonia emission. Secondary metabolites like Tanins, saponin, flavonoids and essential oils are the most used for rumen manipulation and have great potential in poultry and pig nutrition. Conclusion The traditional knowledge may play important role, hence documentation and preservation is a must before it is lost forever. Medicinal herbs are a potential source as therapeutics and nutritive aids and have a significant role in health system all over the world for both humans and animals.
Chapter
One of the most common endocrine disorder in females during reproductive age which leads to infertility, metabolic derangements, and also psychological impairments is polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). This syndrome has been known to increases the risk of type 2 diabetes, obesity, hypertension, cardiovascular diseases, lipid disorders, and also autoimmune thyroiditis. Impending complication list includes malignancies like breast and endometrial cancer. The actual cause of this syndrome is unknown, and perhaps, it could be due to a combination of various unmodifiable genetic factors and modifiable environmental factors. Several research studies have been carried out on management of PCOS, and many medicinal plants have been used as an alternative therapy for oligo/amenorrhoea, hyperandrogenism, and PCOS in women. The chapter gives an insight on PCOS, its management, and elucidates the effects of medicinal plants on PCOS.
Article
Full-text available
Objectives: To evaluate the oestrogenic effect of U-3107, a herbal uterine tonic using in vivo and in vitro experimental models. Methods: Oestrogenic effect of U-3107 (1 gm/kg p.o.) was studied in normal and ovariectomized rats. U-3107 was administered as an aqueous suspension for a period of 21 days. The parameters studied in both in vivo models included uterine weight (wet and dry weight), oestrogen and progesterone levels. The effect of U-3107 (1 gm/kg p.o. x 21 days) was also studied in normal rats on regular oestrus cycle. In vitro studies with U-3107 (50-400 μg/ml of aqueous extract) on isolated uterus in non-gravid, non-oestronised rats were carried out to find out whether the formulation possesses any oxytocin like activity. Results: Administration of U-3107 in normal rats significantly increased the wet and dry uterine weight. It also resulted in marked increase of oestrogen levels with no change in progesterone levels as compared to control. U-3107 treatment in ovariectomized rats did not show any increase in uterine weight. The rats from both control and treated group showed normal oestrus cycle. Aqueous extract of U-3107 failed to produce contractile response on the uterus when exposed in vitro and decreased spasmogen-induced contraction. Conclusion: U-3107 possess oestrogenic activity only in the presence of functional ovary and is devoid of any progestational activity.
Book
This handbook is filled with over 50 illustrations and descriptions of approximately 250 plants which are used for herbal medicine. It includes the most current information available today on medicinal plants ranging from Abies spectabilis to Zizyphus vulgaris. The purpose of this handbook is to make available a reference for easy, accurate identification of these herbs. Derived from India, “Ayurveda” is the foundation stone of their ancient medical science. Approximately 80 percent of the population of India and other countries in the East continue to utilize this system of medicinal treatment. It is believed that the key to successful medication is the use of the correct herb. This is an indispensable resource for all physicians, pharmacists, drug collectors, and those interested in the healing art.
Article
CS-807, a new cephalosporin antibiotic, was used in thirteen cases of obstetric and the gynecological infections, and following results were obtained. 1) CS-807 was administered orally at a daily dose of 200 or 400mg for 5-14 days. Clinical response was excellent in 2 cases, good in 10 and poor in 1. The overall efficacy rate was 92.3%. 2) No side-effects-except for one case of slight stomach discomfort-or abnormal laboratory findings were observed. These findings suggest that CS-807 is a useful antibiotic in obstetric and gynecological infections.
Article
Different concentrations (50, 100, 150 µg/mL) of the methanol extract of the roots of Asparagus racemosus Willd. showed considerable in vitro antibacterial efficacy against Escherichia coli, Shigella dysenteriae, Shigella sonnei, Shigella flexneri, Vibrio cholerae, Salmonella typhi, Salmonella typhimurium, Pseudomonas putida, Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus. The effects produced by the methanol extract were compared with chloramphenicol. Copyright
Article
Incluye bibliografía e índice
Article
Asparagus racemosus (Shatavari) is used in Ayurveda for dyspepsia (amlapitta) and as a galactogogue. It was hence compared with a modern drug, metoclopramide, which is used in dyspepsia to reduce gastric emptying time. Gastric emptying half- time (GE t1/2) was studied in 8 healthy male volunteers using a cross-over design. The basal GE t1/2 in volunteers was 159.9 +/- 45.9 min (mean +/- SD) which was reduced to 101 +/- 40.8 min by Shatavari (p less than 0.001) and to 85.3 +/- 21.9 by metoclopramide (p less than 0.001). Metoclopramide and Shatavari did not differ significantly in their effects.
Article
The hypothesis that macrophages appear to play a pivotal role in the development of intraperitoneal adhesions and that modulation of macrophage activity, therefore, is likely to provide a tool for prevention of adhesions, was tested in the present study. Effect of Asparagus racemosus, an indigenous agent with immunostimulant properties, was evaluated in an animal model of intraperitoneal adhesions induced by caecal rubbing. Animals were sacrificed 15 days following surgery. The peritoneal macrophages were collected to assess their activity. At the same time, peritoneal cavity was examined for the presence of adhesions, which were graded. A significant decrease was observed in the adhesion scores attained by animals receiving Asparagus racemosus. This was associated with significant increase in the activity of macrophages (70.1 +/- 2.52), compared to that in surgical controls (53.77 +/- 10.8). These findings support our hypothesis and provide a novel approach for the prevention and management of post-operative adhesions.