Article

The Determinant of Potyvirus Ability to Overcome the RTM Resistance of Arabidopsis thaliana Maps to the N-Terminal Region of the Coat Protein

UMR GDPP, INRA Université Bordeaux II, IBVM, Centre INRA de Bordeaux, BP 81, 33883 Villenave d'Ornon Cedex
Molecular Plant-Microbe Interactions (Impact Factor: 3.94). 11/2009; 22(10):1302-11. DOI: 10.1094/MPMI-22-10-1302
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT

In Arabidopsis thaliana Columbia (Col-0) plants, the restriction of Tobacco etch virus (TEV) long-distance movement involves at least three dominant RTM (restricted TEV movement) genes named RTM1, RTM2, and RTM3. Previous work has established that, while the RTM-mediated resistance is also effective against other potyviruses, such as Plum pox virus (PPV) and Lettuce mosaic virus (LMV), some isolates of these viruses are able to overcome the RTM mechanism. In order to identify the viral determinant of this RTM-resistance breaking, the biological properties of recombinants between PPV-R, which systemically infects Col-0, and PPV-PSes, restricted by the RTM resistance, were evaluated. Recombinants that contain the PPV-R coat protein (CP) sequence in an RTM-restricted background are able to systemically infect Col-0. The use of recombinants carrying chimeric CP genes indicated that one or more PPV resistance-breaking determinants map to the 5' half of the CP gene. In the case of LMV, sequencing of independent RTM-breaking variants recovered after serial passages of the LMV AF199 isolate on Col-0 plants revealed, in each case, amino acid changes in the CP N-terminal region, close to the DAG motif. Taken together, these findings demonstrate that the potyvirus CP N-terminal region determines the outcome of the interaction with the RTM-mediated resistance.

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    • "Self-interaction of RTM3 and an interaction between RTM1 and RTM3 were confi rmed (Cosson et al. 2010 ), but the interaction of RTM3 and the potyviral coat protein (CP) could not be shown (Cosson et al. 2010 ). This is interesting as the CP was the determinant to overcome RTM-mediated resistance (Decroocq et al. 2009 ). In A. thaliana , loss of resistance was attributed to non-functionality of one or more alleles associated with amino acid changes in the RTM protein but not changes in RTM gene expression (Cosson et al. 2012 ). "

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    • "tyvirus and do not encode NB - LRR proteins . In particular , some PPV - EA and PPV - M but not PPV - D isolates show a restricted LDM ( Decroocq et al . , 2006 , 2009 ) . Infection analysis using recombinant PPV genomes indicate in the first 146 N - terminal amino acid of CP the virus determinant involved in overcoming RTM - mediated resistance ( Decroocq et al . , 2009 ) . RTM1 encode a jacalin - type lectin , RTM2 a small heat shock protein while RTM3 a MATHd protein ."
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    DESCRIPTION: Plum pox virus (PPV) is the etiological agent of sharka, the most devastating and economically important viral disease affecting Prunus species. It is widespread in most stone fruits producing countries even though eradication and quarantine programs are in place. The development of resistant cultivars and rootstocks remains the most ecologically and economically suitable approach to achieve long-term control of sharka disease. However, the few PPV resistance genetic resources found in Prunus germplasm along with some intrinsic biological features of stone fruit trees pose limits for efficient and fast breeding programs. This review focuses on an array of biotechnological strategies and tools, which have been used, or may be exploited to confer PPV resistance. A considerable number of scientific studies clearly indicate that robust and predictable resistance can be achieved by transforming plant species with constructs encoding intron-spliced hairpin RNAs homologous to conserved regions of the PPV genome. In addition, we discuss how recent advances in our understanding of PPV biology can be profitably exploited to develop viral interference strategies. In particular, genetic manipulation of host genes by which PPV accomplishes its infection cycle already permits the creation of intragenic resistant plants. Finally, we review the emerging genome editing technologies based on ZFN, TALEN and CRISPR/Cas9 engineered nucleases and how the knockout of host susceptibility genes will open up next generation of PPV resistant plants.
    Full-text · Research · Jun 2015
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    • "tyvirus and do not encode NB - LRR proteins . In particular , some PPV - EA and PPV - M but not PPV - D isolates show a restricted LDM ( Decroocq et al . , 2006 , 2009 ) . Infection analysis using recombinant PPV genomes indicate in the first 146 N - terminal amino acid of CP the virus determinant involved in overcoming RTM - mediated resistance ( Decroocq et al . , 2009 ) . RTM1 encode a jacalin - type lectin , RTM2 a small heat shock protein while RTM3 a MATHd protein ."
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Plum pox virus (PPV) is the etiological agent of sharka, the most devastating and economically important viral disease affecting Prunus species. It is widespread in most stone fruits producing countries even though eradication and quarantine programs are in place. The development of resistant cultivars and rootstocks remains the most ecologically and economically suitable approach to achieve long-term control of sharka disease. However, the few PPV resistance genetic resources found in Prunus germplasm along with some intrinsic biological features of stone fruit trees pose limits for efficient and fast breeding programmes. This review focuses on an array of biotechnological strategies and tools, which have been used, or may be exploited to confer PPV resistance. A considerable number of scientific studies clearly indicate that robust and predictable resistance can be achieved by transforming plant species with constructs encoding intron-spliced hairpin RNAs homologous to conserved regions of the PPV genome. In addition, we discuss how recent advances in our understanding of PPV biology can be profitably exploited to develop viral interference strategies. In particular, genetic manipulation of host genes by which PPV accomplishes its infection cycle already permits the creation of intragenic resistant plants. Finally, we review the emerging genome editing technologies based on ZFN, TALEN and CRISPR/Cas9 engineered nucleases and how the knockout of host susceptibility genes will open up next generation of PPV resistant plants.
    Full-text · Article · May 2015 · Frontiers in Plant Science
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