Bed Bug (Heteroptera: Cimicidae) Attraction to Pitfall Traps Baited With Carbon Dioxide, Heat, and Chemical Lure

Department of Entomology, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ 08901, USA.
Journal of Economic Entomology (Impact Factor: 1.51). 08/2009; 102(4):1580-5. DOI: 10.1603/029.102.0423
Source: PubMed


Carbon dioxide (CO2), heat, and chemical lure (1-octen-3-ol and L-lactic acid) were tested as attractants for bed bugs, Cimex lectularius L. (Heteroptera: Cimicidae), by using pitfall traps. Both CO2 and heat were attractive to bed bugs. CO2 was significantly more attractive to bed bugs than heat. Traps baited with chemical lure attracted more bed bugs but at a statistically nonsignificant level. In small arena studies (56 by 44 cm), pitfall traps baited with CO2 or heat trapped 79.8 +/- 6.7 and 51.6 +/- 0.9% (mean +/- SEM) of the bed bugs after 6 h, respectively. Traps baited with CO2 + heat, CO, + chemical lure, or CO2 + heat + chemical lure captured > or = 86.7% of the bed bugs after 6 h, indicating baited pitfall traps were highly effective in attracting and capturing bed bugs from a short distance. In 3.1- by 1.8-m environmental chambers, a pitfall trap baited with CO, + heat + chemical lure trapped 57.3 +/- 6.4% of the bed bugs overnight. The pitfall trap was further tested in four bed bug-infested apartments to determine its efficacy in detecting light bed bug infestations. Visual inspections found an average of 12.0 +/- 5.4 bed bugs per apartment. The bed bugs that were found by visual inspections were hand-removed during inspections. A pitfall trap baited with CO2 and chemical lure was subsequently placed in each apartment with an average of 15.0 +/- 6.4 bed bugs collected per trap by the next morning. We conclude that baited pitfall traps are potentially effective tools for evaluating bed bug control programs and detecting early bed bug infestations.

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    • "Because females took a disproportionately larger bloodmeal than males, the added weight from a larger bloodmeal was likely the cause of the reduced female climbing ability. All of the recent commercially available bed bug pitfall traps and traps used in research experiments have been made of plastic (Wang et al. 2009b, Anderson et al. 2009, Singh et al. 2013) whereas historically glass was a preferred surface for traps. Glass was observed to be superior to plastic in preventing the escape of epigaeic beetles from pitfall traps (Luff 1975) and catching more stored product beetles (Obeng-Ofori 1993). "
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    ABSTRACT: Little is known about what factors influence the climbing ability of bed bugs, Cimex lectularius L. (Hemiptera: Cimicidae), in relation to the various surfaces they encounter. We examined how sex, time since last fed, and what surfaces the bed bugs were in contact with affected their climbing performance. The effects of sex and time since fed were tested by counting the number of bed bugs able to climb a 45° slope. The pulling force was recorded using an analytical balance technique that captured the sequential vertical pulling force output of bed bugs attached to various surfaces. Recently fed female bed bugs were found to have the most difficulty in climbing smooth surfaces in comparison with males. This difference can be explained by the larger weight gained from bloodmeals by female bed bugs. A variety of vertical pulling forces were observed on surfaces ranging from sandpaper to talc powder-covered glass. For surfaces not treated with talc powder, bed bugs generated the least amount of vertical pulling force from synthetically created 0.6-µm plastron surfaces. This vast range in the ability of bed bugs to grip onto various surfaces may have implications on limiting bed bugs dispersal and hitchhiking behaviors. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email:
    Full-text · Article · May 2015 · Journal of Medical Entomology
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    • "Bed bug remediation requires an integrated pest management (IPM) approach that uses chemical (liquid, dust, and aerosol) insecticide applications combined with nonchemical methods (Kells 2006, Romero 2011). Nonchemical bed bug treatment strategies may include heat, freezing, vacuuming, and the installation of mattress encasements and passive monitoring devices (Wang et al. 2009, Doggett et al. 2011). An integrated approach to bed bug management is essential to effectively eradicate bed bug infestations (Wang and Cooper 2011). "
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    ABSTRACT: In 2012, a proactive bed bug (Cimex lectularius L.) suppression program was implemented in a 121-unit low-income housing facility in Harrisonburg, VA. The program consisted of common minimally toxic and inexpensive integrated bed bug management methods including a novel strategy for applying a perimeter barrier of diatomaceous earth in apartment units. The program was evaluated over the course of 1 yr, after which, mean treatment time, amount of product used, and application cost were calculated for each unit. In 2013, both the number of initial infestations and the costs associated with bed bug treatments were reduced. The apartment residents' perceptions of the bed bug suppression program were assessed using face-to-face surveys, in which many expressed relief that proactive bed bug management measures had been put in place.
    Preview · Article · Sep 2014
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    • "These experimental set-ups are valuable tools for identifying basic behavioural elements, although a low spatiotemporal scale may make field application of the results more difficult. Larger-scale arena trials, which more closely mimic a natural indoor bed bug pest situation, provide information about the attraction potential of CO 2 and chemical lures (Anderson et al., 2009; Wang et al., 2009, 2013; Singh et al., 2012, 2013). "
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    ABSTRACT: A large-arena bioassay is used to examine sex differences in spatiotemporal patterns of bed bug Cimex lectularius L. behavioural responses to either a human host or CO2 gas. After release in the centre of the arena, 90% of newly-fed bed bugs move to hiding places in the corners within 24 h. They require 3 days to settle down completely in the arena, with generally low activity levels and the absence of responses to human stimuli for 5 days. After 8–9 days, persistent responses can be recorded. Sex differences are observed, in which females are more active during establishment, respond faster after feeding, expose themselves more than males during the daytime, and respond more strongly to the host signal. The number of bed bugs that rest in harbourages is found to vary significantly according to light setting and sex. Both sexes stay inside harbourages more in daylight compared with night, and males hide more than females during the daytime but not during the night. The spatial distribution of the bed bugs is also found to change with the presence of CO2, and peak aggregation around the odour source is observed after 24 min. Both male and female bed bugs move from hiding places or the border of the arena toward the centre where CO2 is released. Peak responses are always highest during the night. Bed bug behaviour and behaviour-regulating features are discussed in the context of control methods.
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